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Full text of "The Gazetteer of Scotland"

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THE 



GAZETTEER OF 



SCOTLAN 



BY 



Rev, John Wilson 



«2£5b*5&> 




EDINBURGH 

W. & A. K. JOHNSTON 

1882 



PREFACE. 



The Publishers have been induced to produce the present Work, from 
the conviction that it would supply a long -felt want : namely, a 
Gazetteer of Scotland, extensive enough to embrace every Town and 
Village in the Country, of any importance, as existing at the present 
day, and yet portable in form and moderate in price. 

To add to the value of the Work, the Census of 1881 was ex- 
tracted from the Official Returns expressly for it, as the lists to be 
published would not be available for the earlier portion of the Work, 
already in the hands of the printer. 

Besides the usual information, as to Towns and Places contained 
in Gazetteers, it gives the Statistics of Real Property, Notices of Public 
Works, Public Buildings, Churches, Schools, etc. ; whilst the Natural 
History and Historical Incidents, connected with particular localities, 
have not been omitted. 

From the great experience of the Author, who has already com- 
piled several extensive Gazetteers and Topographical works, the Pub- 
lishers trust that this Work will meet the approbation of the numerous 
class to which it is addressed. 

November, 1882. 



THE 



GAZETTEER OF SCOTLAND. 



AAN 



ABB 



AAN, affluent of the Feugh, in Strachan 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

ABBETHUNE, seat in St. Vigeans parish, 
Forfarshire. 

ABBEY.parish, containingparts of Paisley 
and Barrhead, all Johnstone, and several 
villages in Renfrewshire. Its length is 
nearly 9 miles, its greatest breadth about 
5£ miles, its area 15,924 acres. Real pro- 
perty of landward part in 1880-81, £79,886. 
Poj>., quoad civilia, 34,393; quoad sacra, 
13,637. The surface is partly fiat, partly 
a variety of valley, undulation, and low 
hill-ridge, and partly the Gleniffer portion 
of the Fereneze Hills. Coal, ironstone, 
limestone, and aluminous slate abound, and 
are largely worked. Factories and other 
industrial establishments are numerous. 
There are many fine modern residences, 
several old mansions, and the ruined castles 
of Crookston and Stanley. The parochial 
church is part of the Abbey, to be noticed 
in our account of Paisley ; and other 
churches are in Paisley, Barrhead, John- 
stone, and Elderslie. 10 schools, for 
2338 scholars, are in the parts outside of 
Paisley burgh, and 2 of them and en- 
largements for 1098 are new. 

ABBEY, quoad sacra parish in the north- 
eastern outskirts of Edinburgh. Pop. 2821. 
The church was built in 1876, at a cost 
of about £8000, and contains about 855 
sittings. 

ABBEY, quoad sacra parish, containing 
Arbroath Abbey and part of Arbroath 
town, Forfarshire. Pop. 5119. The church 
contains 1281 sittings. 

ABBEY, hamlet on the Tyne, 1 mile east 
of Haddington. A Cistercian convent was 
founded here in 1178, but is now extinct ; 
and a Parliament sat here in 1548. 

ABBEY, village on the Forth, adjacent 
to Cambuskenneth Abbey, 1 mile east of 
Stirling. 

ABBEY, burn running past Dundrennan 
Abbeyto Burnf oot harbour, Kirkcudbright- 
shire. 

ABBEY-CRAIG, precipitous hiU, 362 feet 
high, li miles east-north-east of Stirling. 



It forms a striking feature and a com- 
manding view-point in a magnificent 
landscape. It was held by the army of 
Sir William Wallace on the eve of the 
battle of Stirling ; and it is surmounted by 
Wallace's Monument, 220 feet high, erected 
in 1861-69 at a cost of fully £16,000. 

ABBEY-GREEN, town, better known as 
Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire. See Lesma- 

HAGOW. 

ABBEY-HEAD, small headland near 
mouth of Abbey-burn, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ABBEYHILL, suburb north-eastward 
from foot of Canongate, Edinburgh. It was 
once aristocratic, is now chiefly modern 
and squalid ; includes a railway viaduct 
and a railway station, and contains a public 
school, built in 1880-81 at a cost of £9704, 
with accommodation for 824 scholars. . 

ABBEY ST. BATHANS, parish, with 
hamlet on Whitadder water, 4 miles west- 
south-west of Grant's House railway 
station, Berwickshire. Post town, Grant's 
House. Acres, 4797. Real property in 
1880-81, £2630. Pop. 250. The higher 
land rises to heights of from 300 to 400 
feet above the level of the plains, and the 
entire surface consists of haughs, slopes, 
and tabular hills. A priory was founded 
here by a daughter of William the Lion, 
and became rich, but has entirely dis- 
appeared. The church adjoins the priory's 
site, and is part of an ancient structure. 
The public school has about 80 scholars. 

ABBOTSFORD, mansion erected by Sir 
Walter Scott, adjacent to the Tweed, 2 
miles west of Melrose, Roxburghshire. It 
cost upwards of £20,000, exhibits multi- 
plicity of features in many architectural 
styles, includes parts and objects taken 
from many famous ancient edifices, has 
been aptly described as ' a romance in stone 
and lime,' contains numerous interesting 
souvenirs of Sir Walter, and is engirt 
by an estate which he transmuted from 
moorishness to much beauty. 

ABBOTSFORD, quoad sacra parish in 
south side of Glasgow. It was constituted 
in 1877. Pop. 8891. 

A 



ABB 



ABE 



ABBOTSFORD FERRY, station on Sel- 
kirk Railway, opposite Abbotsf ord, 2f miles 
south of Galashiels. 

ABBOTSHALL, parish, containing Link- 
town suburb of Kirkcaldy, Fife. Acres, 
4135. Real property in 1880-81, £10,341. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 6435; quoad sacra, 5316. 
The land for about \ mile from the shore 
is flat, and extends thence about 2\ miles 
in pleasant swells and diversities. Raith 
House, lake, and grounds are delightful 
features ; and Balwearie Tower is 
an interesting antiquity. The parochial 
church, a Free church, and a United 
Presbyterian church are in Linktown ; 
and the public schools are under Kirk- 
caldy board. 

ABBOTSHAUGH, extinct ancient abbey 
in Falkirk parish, Stirlingshire. 

ABBOT'S ISLE, verdant islet in Stone- 
field Bay, Loch Etive, Argyleshire. 

ABBOTSRULE, old parish divided be- 
tween Southdearj and Hobkirk, Roxburgh- 
shire. 

ABB'S-HEAD (ST.), bold promontory 4 
miles north-west of Eyemouth, Berwick- 
shire. It consists of trap rock with mural 
front, but adjoins contorted cavernous 
stratified rocks. It had anciently a nun- 
nery, said to have been founded by a 
Northumbrian princess ; and it has now 
a lighthouse, erected in 1861, with flash- 
ing light visible at the distance of 20 
nautical miles. 

ABDEN, seat, near Kinghorn, Fife. 

ABDIE, parish, containing Mount 
Pleasant suburb of Newburgh, Fife. 
Acres, 6371. Real property in 1880-81, 
£10,439. Pop., quoad civilia, 983; 
quoad sacra, 862. The land includes 
a rich alluvial tract on the Tay, but is 
mostly a fine diversity of hill and dale. 
Chief features are Clatchard Crag, 
Norman's Law, Inchrye House, Lindores 
House, loch, and village, and vestiges of 
a castle said to have belonged to Macduff. 
The church contains about 500 sittings, 
and the public school has places for 159 
scholars. 

ABERARDER, glen, with vista view to 
Benaven, off left side of the Dee, between 
Balmoral and Castleton, Aberdeenshire. 

ABERARDER, place in Daviot parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a post office under 
Inverness. 

ABERARGIE, village, \\ miles west of 
Abernethy, Perthshire. It has a post 
office under Bridge of Earn. 

ABERCAIRNEY, railway station, and 
seat, 3j miles east-north-east of Crieff, 
Perthshire. 

ABERCHALDER, seat, at foot of Loch 
Oich, Great Glen, Inverness-shire. Prince 
Charles Edward concentrated his forces 
here at the commencement of the rebellion 
in 1745. 

ABERCHIRDER, town, 9 miles south-by- 
west of Banff. It has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Banff ; a banking office ; Established, 



Free, United Presbyterian, Baptist, Epis- 
copalian, and Roman Catholic churches, 
and 2 public schools. Its Free church 
originated in the Marnoch contest, one of 
the sharpest which led to the Disruption, 
and is large and handsome. Pop. of the 
town, 1358. 

ABERCORN, parish, extending from 
Firth of Forth to vicinity of Winchburgh 
railway station, Linlithgowshire. Post 
town, South Queensferry. Acres, 4500. 
Real property in 1880-81, £10,173. Pop. 
856. The surface is finely diversified, 
and both contains and commands delight- 
ful views, yet rises nowhere higher than 
350 feet above sea-level. Chief fea- 
tures are Hopetoun House and Binns 
House, seats of the Earl of Hopetoun and 
Sir Robert Dalyell, Bart. Interesting 
spots are sites of a Culdee establishment 
and a famous ancient castle ; and a notable 
estate is one which passed from the Hamil- 
tons, but continues to give their descen- 
dant the titles of Earl, Marquis, and Duke 
of Abercorn. The churches are Estab- 
lished and Free ; and there are 2 public 
schools with about 111 scholars. 

ABERCROMBIE, parish, containing St. 
Monance town, on south-east coast of 
Fife. Acres, 1203. Real property in 
1880-81, £6073. Pop. 2054. The beach 
is low and rocky, the land thence rises 
very abruptly, and the interior has un- 
dulations, but is mainly flat. The churches 
are Established and Free. The public 
school is partly new, and has about 211 
scholars, and it and 3 others have jointly 
accommodation for 398. 

ABERDALGIE, parish, from \\ to_ 4 J 
miles west of Bridge of Earn, Perthshire. 
It has a post office under Perth. Acres, 
4165. Real property in 1880-81, £4657. 
Pop. 297. The surface rises from the 
Earn to the northern boundary, presents 
a luxuriant appearance, and commands 
picturesque views. The chief feature is 
Dupplin Castle, the seat of the . Earl of 
Kinnoul. The public school has about 
38 scholars. 

ABERDEEN, city on the south-east verge 
of Aberdeenshire, at mouth of river Dee, 
90 miles north-east-by-north of Perth. It 
ranks as a royal and parliamentary burgh, 
a place of sheriff and justiciary courts, a 
university town, a seat of manufacture, 
and a head port. It appears first on 
record in 1179 ; it was enthralled by the 
English from 1296 till 1308, but expelled 
them under the war-cry, ' Bon-accord ' ; 
it was destroyed by them in 1336, but was 
soon rebuilt, and then called New Aber- 
deen. It figured much in subsequent 
national events,both political and military, 
and it gives the title of earl to a branch of 
the family of Gordon. Its site includes 
rising ground and dell, giving diversity to 
the street alignments ; and its building 
material is granite, occasioning it to be 
called the Granite City. Its thorough- 
fares, till near the end of last century, 



ABE 



ai;k 



were narrow, dense, and ill-built; but they 
have from time to time, down to 1881, 
been so improved and extended as to 
make it one of the finest cities in Great 
Britain. Castle Street, in its centre, is a 
large, grandly-edificed rectangle. Union 
Street, extending thence about -J mile to 
the west-south-west, is both remarkably 
well-edificed in itself, and commands 
striking views of other parts of the city. 
King Street, extending northward from 
Castle Street, is little inferior to Union 
Street ; and a number of other thorough- 
fares are straight, spacious, and pleasing. 
The Municipal and County Buildings, 
in Castle Street, were erected in 1865-69, 
at a cost of about £60,000. The post 
office, at foot of Market Street, was 
erected in 1872-76, at a cost of about 
£16,000. Ihe North of Scotland Bank, at 
south-west corner of Queen Street, was 
erected in 1839, at a cost of £14,000. The 
Music Hall buildings, in Union Street, 
were completed about 1855, at a cost of 
£16,500. The theatre, in Guild Street, 
was erected in 1872, at a cost of nearly 
£8000. The Market Cross.in Castle Street, 
a singularly complex ornamental struc- 
ture, was erected in 1686, and reconstructed 
in 1842. A bridge, spanning a ravine in 
the line of Union Street, was erected at a 
cost of £13,342. Victoria Bridge, across 
the Dee, in line of Market Street, was 
completed in 1881, at a cost of fully 
£20,000. The Prince Consort's Monu- 
ment, at south end of Union Terrace, was 
inaugurated in 1863. The Duke of Gor- 
don's Monument, in Castle Street, is a 
colossal granite statue. Sir "William 
Wallace's Monument, in front of Union 
Terrace, was projected in February 1880. 
St. Nicholas Established church, off Union 
Street, was originally a cathedral-like, 
cruciform edifice, suffered partial destruc- 
tion by fire in 1874, and was restored at a 
cost of about £15,000, before the end of 
1878. The North Established church, in 
Queen Street, was erected in 1826, at a cost 
of £10,500. The East and West Free 
churches, in Belmont Street, form one 
imposing cruciform edifice. Other Pres- 
byterian churches. Established, Free, and 
United Presbyterian, are modern and 
good. The Congregational chapel, in 
Shiprow, was erected in 1867, at a cost of 
more than £5500. St. Andrew's Episco- 
palian church, in King Street, was erected 
in 1817, at a cost of £8000, and acquired a 
new chancel in 1880. St. Mary's Episco- 
palian church, in Carden Place, was 
erected about 1864. The Roman Catholic 
church, in Huntly Street, was erected in 
1860, and contains 1200 sittings. Maris- 
chal College, in Broad Street, was erected 
in 1837-41 ; occupies the site of previous 
buildings dating from old times ; and in 
1S60 was constituted one university with 
King's College in Old Aberdeen. The 
Old Academy, long famous for producing 
distinguished scholars, was voted in May 



1880 to be converted into a museum of 
science and art. A public school in Com- 
merce Street, one of 5 new schools 
provided by the burgh school board, was 
built in 1876, at a cost of about £4500. 
The Infirmary, at "Woolmanhill, was 
erected in 1840, at a cost of about £17,000. 
The Lunatic Asylum, in the north-western 
outskirts, was completed in 1819, at a cost 
of about £20,000. A public park at Allen- 
vale was begun to be formed in August 
1881, and comprises about 47 acres. 

The city has a head post office with all 
departments ; 6 sub-offices, with each a 
money order department ; railway com- 
munication northward, north-westward, 
westward, and southward ; 2 head 
banking offices, 6 branch banking offices, 
and. numerous hotels ; contains 12 Estab- 
lished churches, 19 Free churches, 6 
United Presbyterian, 5 Congregational, 
2 Evangelical Union, 3 Baptist, 5 Episco- 
palian, and 6 of other denominations ; 
had formerly 90 schools for 12,708 
scholars, and now has 86 schools for 
14,677 ; publishes 3 daily newspapers 
and 5 weekly ; carries on large manu- 
factures of linens, woollens, and cottons, 
and much business in iron works, 
breweries, distilleries, granite polishing 
works, shipbuilding yards, and other 
establishments ; and conducts extensive 
export of its own produce, and of 
grain and fish. Its harbour lies within 
the Dee's mouth, comprehends an 
elaborate series of artificial works, 
cost long ago about £500,000, and was 
designed in 1876, and recommended 
again near the end of 1S80, to undergo 
further extension. The vessels belonging 
to the port at end of 1879 were 178 
sailing vessels, of 98,763 tons, and 45 
steam vessels, of 20,421 tons ; and the 
arrivals in that year were 2030 British 
vessels, of 486,581 tons, and 143 foreign 
vessels, of 34,566 tons ; the departures, 
1985 British vessels, of 479,218 tons, 
and 137 foreign vessels, of 33,175 tons. 
The parliamentary burgh sends 1 
member to Parliament, and the university 
unites with Glasgow University in sending 
another. Real property of the burgh in 
1SS0-81, £429,267. Pop. in 1881, 105,003. 

ABERDEEN (OLD), suburb, adjacent to 
the river Don, about a mile north of 
Aberdeen. It became the seat of a 
bishopric in 1154, acquired a university 
in 1494, and was long a rival to Aberdeen, 
but is now small, quiet, and semi-rural, 
and has a post office, with money order 
department, under Aberdeen. The nave 
of its cathedral still stands, measures 126 
by 68 feet, has a very fine western window, 
and is used as Old Machar parish church. 
King's College was built in the 16th 
century, underwent much renovation and 
improvement subsequent to 1859, and has 
a tower surmounted by a stone crown. 
similar to that of St. Giles' Church in 
Edinburgh. The arts and divinity classes 



ABE 



ABE 



are held in this college ; the law and 
medicine classes are held in Marischal 
College, Aberdeen ; and the number of 
matriculated students in the winter session 
of 1879-80 was 701, in the summer 
session of 1881, 233. An ancient one- 
arched bridge and a modern five-arched 
bridge span the Don in the near vicinity ; 
and the former is the ' Brig o' Balgownie,' 
figuring in an anecdote and lines of 
Lord Byron. 

ABERDEENSHIRE, maritime county, ex- 
tending from the river Dee to the Moray 
Firth, and from the Dee's mouth to the 
summits of the Cairngorm Mountains. 
Its length is about 86 miles ; its greatest 
breadth about 47 miles ; its extent of coast 
about 70 miles ; its circumference about 
2$0 miles ; its area 1970 square miles. 
Its ancient divisions were Buchan, Strath- 
bogie, Formartine, Garioch, and Mar ; and 
its modern districts are Deer, Turriff, 
Huntly, Garioch, Alford, Ellon, New 
Machar, Aberdeen, Deeside, and Braemar. 
The coast has few indentations, is partly 
rocky and precipitous, and includes the 
most easterly ground in Scotland. About 
two-thirds of the interior are either sands, 
mosses, moors, hills, or mountains. The 
northern, eastern, and south-eastern parts 
are the least elevated, and comprise a 
large aggregate of low flat land ; while 
the south-western parts are prevailingly 
lofty and rugged, and include summits 
and offsets of the Cairngorm Mountains. 
The chief rocks are granite, gneiss, and 
mica slate. The principal rivers are the 
Dee, the Don, the Deveron, and the 
Ythan. The soils are very various and 
averagely poor, but have been so skilfully 
worked as to be remarkably productive. 
The towns with each above 4000 inhabi- 
tants are Aberdeen, Peterhead, and 
Fraserburgh ; with each above 2000, 
Huntly, Inverury, Turriff, and New Pit- 
sligo ; with each above 1000, Old Meldrum, 
Rosehearty, and Strichen ; and the villages 
with each above 500, Auchmull, Ballater, 
Boddam,Cuminestone, Ellon, Inverallochy, 
Kintore, New Aberdour, Newburgh, and 
St. Comb. The county sends 2 mem- 
bers to Parliament, and is cut for that 
purpose into two divisions, eastern and 
western. Real property in 1880-81, 
£919,203. Pop. in 1871, 244,603 ; in 1881, 
267,963. 

ABERDONA, seat, 4^ miles north-east of 
Clackmannan. 

ABERDOUR, village and parish on north 
coast of Firth of Forth, Fife. The village 
stands on a fine sheltered bay, 2\ miles 
west-by-south of Burntisland ; consists of 
three parts, Wester Aberdour, Easter 
Aberdour, and Newton ; was anciently a 
loyal landing-place for Dunfermline ; con- 
tains the site of an ancient nunnery and 
finely situated ruins of an nncient castle ; 
is now a favourite summer resort for 
rustication and sea-bathing; maintains 
direct steamboat communication with 



Leith ; and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Burntisland, an Established church, a 
Free church, and a public school with 
about 166 scholars. Pop. 610. — The parish 
contains also Donibristle colliery and 
"Wemyss Square villages, and includes 
Inchcolm Island. Acres, 5974. Beal pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £12,500. Pop. 1736. The 
coast is intricate, diversified, and pictur- 
esque, and commands charming views. 
The land thence, to a hill-ridge through 
the centre, is mostly fertile and beautiful, 
and the tract on the north is mostly bleak 
hill. Aberdour Castle is a seat of Baron 
Aberdour, the Earl of Morton, and there 
are 4 other mansions. A public school 
is at Donibristle. 

ABERDOUR, parish, containing New 
Aberdour village, on north coast of 
Aberdeenshire. New Aberdour stands 8 
miles west-south-west of Fraserburgh, was 
founded in 1798, and has a post office 
under Fraserburgh, an Established church, 
a Free church, and 2 public schools with 
about 238 scholars. Pop. 642. — The parish 
contains also the fishing village of Pennan, 
and is about 7 miles long and 5 miles 
broad. Acres, 15,508. Real property in 
1880-81, £8672. Pop., quoad civilia, 2124 ; 
quoad sacra, 1903. The western division 
rises mostly from 200 to 300 feet above 
sea-level ; the eastern division is compara- 
tively low and flat ; the whole comprises 
a great proportion of moss, moor, and 
barren land. The coast is rocky, bold, 
and cavernous ; includes a striking natural 
feature similar to the Bullers of Buchan ; 
and is surmounted at one point by the 
ruined historical castle of Dundargue. 
The rocks possess much interest both for 
science and for utility. There are 4 
schools for 440 scholars, and one of them 
and an enlargement for 121 are new. 

ABERFELDY, town at terminus of branch 
of Highland Railway, 32J miles north-west 
of Perth. It stands on Moness burn, 
adjacent to the Tay, amid a picturesque 
tract of country ; is famous for falls on 
Moness burn in a wooded dell, sung by 
Burns as the ' Birks o' Aberfeldy ; ' has 
good street arrangements, with recent ex- 
tension in questionable tastes ; has much at- 
traction for tourists and summer residents, 
and contains a head post office with all 
departments, 3 banking offices, 2 hotels, 
a public hall projected in 1880, an Estab- 
lished church, also projected in 1880, a 
lai'ge Free church, a large Congregational 
church, a small Baptist chapel, and a 
public school with about 240 scholars. 
Pop. 12130. 

ABERFOYLE, parish in south-west ex- 
tremity of Perthshire, with post office 
under Stirling, and a hotel 6J miles north- 
north-west of Bucklyvie railway station. 
Length, 10i miles ; breadth, 5i miles ; area, 
26,810 acre's. Real property in 1880-81, 
£4579. Pop., quoad civilia, 465 ; quoad 
sacra, 409. A bill was promoted in 1880 



ABE 



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for a railway, on a capital of £55,000, 
from the vicinity of the hotel to a junction 
with the Forth and Clyde Kail way between 
Bucklyvie and Balfron. A glen, on the 
south-east border, contains the hotel and 
the church; extends about 2 miles west- 
ward, with a width of about J mile, and is 
traversed by the chief head-stream of the 
river Forth. A pass at the glen's head 
figured much in the raids of the Highland 
caterans, and was the scene of a victory 
by Graham of Duchray over a body of 
Cromwell's troops. The general surface 
is upland, and includes Benvenue, Ben- 
chochan, and some lesser mountains. 
Loch Katrine, the Trossachs, and Loch 
Achray are on the northern border ; Loch 
Drunkie is in the north-east corner ; and 
Locbs Chon and Ard are in the south- 
west. The aggregate scenery is much 
diversified and richly picturesque, and 
many spots figure graphically in Sir Walter 
Scott's Rob Boy, Waverley, and Lady of 
the Lake; but the ' clachan ' of his romance, 
on a site about a mile west of the hotel, 
is now extinct. The public school has 
about 65 scholars. 

ABERGELDIE, seat on the Dee, 2^ miles 
east of Balmoral, Aberdeenshire. The 
Birks of Abergeldie are the subject of an 
old melody, transferred by Burns to his 
'Birks o' Aberfeldy.' The mansion is a 
modernized, ancient, castellated edifice, 
and, together with the grounds, was 
purchased by the late Prince Consort, and 
is now included in Balmoral demesne. 

ABERIACHAN, burn, entering left side 
of Loch Ness, 4 miles north-east of Fort- 
Augustus, Inverness-shire. It traverses 
romantic scenery, makes fine falls, and 
passes a large spar cave. 

ABERLADY, village and parish on north- 
west coast of Haddingtonshire. The vil- 
lage stands 3 miles west-by-north of Drem 
railway station, is a sea-bathing resort, and 
has a post office, with money order depart- 
ment, under Longniddry, an Established 
church, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a public school with about 185 scholars. 
Pop. 438. — The parish is 3f miles long, 
and 3J miles broad. Acres, 4319. Real 
property in 1880-81, £11,270. Pop. 1000. 
The surface rises very slowly from the 
shore, and looks to be almost flat, yet 
presents a rich appearance. Gosford 
House, the seat of the Earl of "Wemyss, 
and Ballencrieff, the seat of Lord Elibank, 
are chief features. Aberlady Bay, taking 
name from the parish, is an encurvature 
from Gullane Point, past Prestonpans, 
Musselburgh, and Portobello, to Leith. 

ABERLEMNO, parish around Auldbar 
railway station, near centre of Forfarshire. 
It has a post office under Forfar. Its 
length is 6 miles, its greatest breadth 4f 
miles, its area 8914 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £10,874. Pop. 993. The 
surface is partly level, partly hilly, and 
rises from about 200 to about 600 feet 
above sea-level. The seats are Auldbar 



Castle, Balgavies, and Carsegownie ; and 
the chief antiquities are Flemmington 
Castle and Melgund Castle, the latter a 
ruin giving the title of viscount to the 
Earl of Mrnto. The churches are Estab- 
lished and Free ; and the public school has 
about 104 scholars. 

ABERLOUR, village and parish on south- 
west border of Banffshire. The village 
stands on the Spey, 17 miles south-west of 
Keith, was founded in 1812, presents a 
well-built appearance, and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Craigellachie, a railway 
station, 2 banking offices, an Established 
Norman church of 1861, a Free church, an 
Episcopalian early English church of 1877, 
an orphanage connected with that church, 
and a public school with about 190 scholars. 
Pop. 721. — The parish is 9 miles long and 
5 miles broad. Acres, 14,781. Beal pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £6464. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 1912 ; quoad sacra, 1794. The Spey 
traces all the boundary with Elginshire, 
and is here deep and rapid. Aberlour burn, 
entering that river at the village, makes a 
cascade of 30 feet. Craigellachie on the 
Spey will be separately noticed. The 
south-western district is mountainous, and 
includes most of Benrinnes ; the other 
districts also are prevailingly hilly, yet 
about two-thirds of the entire area are 
cultivated. Aberlour House is an elegant 
modern mansion. There are 3 schools 
for 343 scholars, and include recent en- 
largements for 61. 

ABERLUTHNOTT, ancient parish, now 
called Marykirk, Kincardineshire. 

ABERMILE, ancient parish, now called 
St. Mungo, Dumfriesshire. 

ABERNETHY, village in Perthshire, and 
parish, partly also in Fife. The village 
stands 7f miles south-east of Perth, was 
anciently a seat of the Culdees, and a 
capital of Pictavia ; contains an ancient 
round tower similar to the famous round 
towers of Ireland ; presents now a plain, 
modern appearance, and has a post office, 
with money order department, under New- 
burgh, a railway station, an Established 
church, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a recently enlarged public school for 362 
scholars. Pop. 906.— The parish contains 
also Aberargie village, includes Mugdrum 
Island, and is nearly 5 miles long and 
about 4 miles broad. Acres in Perthshire, 
7577; in Fife, 1967. Beal property in 
1880-81, £12,788 and £2343. Pop. 1586 
and 128. About one-third of the surface 
is low, rich land around and near the 
confluence of the Earn and the Tay ; and 
the rest is part of the Ochil Hills, cloven 
by Glenfarg. The seats are Carpow, 
Ayton, and Carey ; and some antiquities 
are Balvaird Castle, remains of a Roman 
camp, and vestiges of a vitrified fort. 

ABERNETHY, parish around Nethy 
Bridge, Broomhill, and Boat-of-Garten 
stations on Strathspey and Highland 
Railways, east border of Inverness-shire. 



ABE 



ACH 



Area, about 146 square miles. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £8329. Pop. 1530. The 

surface extends along the Spey from 
Rothiemurchus to Cromdale, and ascends 
thence south-eastward to summits of the 
Cairngorms. Small part is low, flat land 
contiguous to the Spey ; and much of the 
mountains is covered with natural pine 
woods. The parish has a post office under 
Grantown, 2 parochial churches with 
1000 and 600 sittings, a Free church, and 
3 public schools for 310 scholars. 

ABERNYTE, parish in Sidlaw district, 
Perthshire, mainly about 2 miles 
north-north-west of Inchture railway 
station. Post town, Inchture. Acres, 
2532. Eeal property in 1880-81, £3011. 
Pop. 275. The surface is mostly hilly, and 
rises from about 300 to about 1155 feet 
above sea-level. A Free church serves for 
Abernyte and Rait. The public school 
has about 75 scholars. 

ABERTARF, parish, united to Boleskine, 
Inverness-shire. 

ABERUCHILL, seat, 2 miles west-south- 
west of Comrie, Perthshire. 

ABERUTHVEN, village, 2| miles north- 
east of Auchterarder, Perthshire. It has 
a post office under Auchterarder, a ruined 
ancient church used as a burying-place of 
the Duke of Montrose, a Free church, and 
a public school. Pop. 331. 

ABINGTON, village on the Clyde, 43J 
miles south-west-by-south of Edinburgh. 
It is a meet for huntsmen, and a centre 
for anglers, and it has a post office desig- 
nated of Lanarkshire, a railway station, 
an inn, and a Free church. 

ABOVE-THE-HILL, place, with public 
school, in Harray parish, Orkney. 

ABOYNE, village and parish in Deeside 
district, Aberdeenshire. The village 
stands on the Dee, 32J miles west-south- 
west of Aberdeen ; it has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Aberdeen, a railway station, a 
banking office, an inn, a suspension bridge, 
an Established church of 1842, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 
164 scholars, and it gives the titles of 
baron, viscount, and earl to the Marquis 
of Huntly. Pop. about 200. — The present 
parish comprises the old parishes of 
Aboyne and Glentanner, and extends 
from Coull to Kincardineshire. Acres, 
25,265. Eeal property in 1880-81, £8005. 
Pop. 1427. About one-tenth of the land 
is arable, a considerable aggregate is 
under wood, and the rest is pastoral or 
heathy hill and mountain. Aboyne Castle, 
the seat of the Marquis of Huntly, stands 
near the village, and is an imposing edifice 
of dates from 11th century till recent 
years. There are 3 public schools for 
318 scholars, and one of them, for 160, is 
new. 

ACHADASHENAIG, seat, overlooking 
Aros Bay, Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

ACHADHAMILLAN, place on south-east 
side of Loch Killisport, Argyleshire. 



ACHAHOISH, hamlet at head of Loch 
Killisport, Argyleshire. It has a post 
office under Lochgilphead. 

ACHALERAN, place in Ardchattan 
parish, Argyleshire. It has a public 
school with about 53 scholars. 

ACHALICK, bay on east side of Loch 
Fyne, nearly opposite Tarbert, Argyleshire. 

ACHALL, lake in Lochbroom parish, 
Eoss-shire. 

ACHALL ADER, ruined baronial fortalice 
on Loch Tolla, Glenorchy, Argyleshire. 

ACHALLY, lake, and hill 1694 feet high, 
in Clunie parish, Perthshire. 

ACHANACY, hill in Keith parish, Banff- 
shire. 

ACHANAULT. See Auchanault. 

ACHANDARINE, village in Inverary 
parish, Argyleshire. 

ACHANEILAN, deep quagmire, 5 miles 
long, adjacent to Loch Shiel, on north 
border of Argyleshire. 

ACHANY, seat, 4 miles south-west of 
Lairg, Sutherland. 

ACHARACLE, quoad sacra parish around 
Loch Shiel, Argyleshire and Inverness- 
shire. Pop. 1236. It has . a post office 
under Fort-William, an Established 
church, a Free church preaching-station, 
and 3 new public schools. 

ACHARDALE, quondam hamlet in Hal- 
kirk parish, Caithness. 

ACHARN, village, and burn with pic- 
turesque cascades, 2 miles west-south-west 
of Kenmore, Perthshire. 

ACHASTLE, ruined old castle in Latheron 
parish, Caithness. 

ACHAVANICH, place, 8 miles north of 
Dunbeath, in Caithness. 

ACHBRECK, village in Glenlivet, 10 
miles south of Dufftown, Banffshire. It 
has a post office under Ballindalloch. 

ACHILTIE, lake in Contin parish, Ross- 
shire. 

ACHINCASS. See Auchincass. 

ACHINDUIN, ruined episcopal castle on, 
west coast of Lismore Island, Argyleshire. 

ACHINDUNE, ruined strong baronial 
fortalice on Fiddich rivulet, near Dufftown, 
Banffshire. 

ACHLYNE, noble shooting-lodge in Glen- 
dochart, Perthshire. 

ACHNACARRY, hamlet and seat at 
convergence of Glenarchaig and Great 
Glen, Inverness-shire. The hamlet has a 
post office under Fort- William. 

ACHNACLOICH, lake in Rosskeen 
parish, Ross-shire. 

ACHNACRAIG, hamlet at mouth of 
Loch Don, Mull Island, Argyleshire. It 
is the ferry station to Oban, and it has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Oban, and a harbour. 

ACHNACROISH, place, 3 miles north of 
Achnacraig, Mull Island, Argyleshire. It 
has a post office under Oban. 

ACHNAGOL, village in Inverary parish, 
Argyleshire. 

ACHNAHANNET, place, with public 
school, in Kincardine parish, Ross-shire. 



ACH 



AIR 



ACHNAHOW, glen in Kildonan parish, 
Sutherland. 

ACHNESS, castle near foot of Glen- 
cassley, Sutherland. 

ACHRANNIE, wild cataract within 
frightful chasm on river Isla, on west 
border of Forfarshire. 

ACHRAY, picturesque lake a short 
distance east of the Trossachs, Perthshire. 

ACHRISGILL, impetuous stream run- 
ning to Loch Inchard, on west coast of 
Sutherland. 

ACHTERCAIRN, hamlet in Gairloch 
parish, Ross-shire. It has a public school 
with about 123 scholars. 

ACKERGILL, place on Sinclair Bay, 3 
miles north of Wick, Caithness. It has 
a public school, and it was designed in 
December 1879 to have a steamship pier 
to accommodate steamers in lieu of their 
going up to AVick. Ackergill Tower is 
partly an ancient, massive, well-preserved 
fortalice, and partly a modern castellated 
mansion. 

ADAM'S ROW, village in Newton parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

ADAMTON, seat near Monkton, Ayr- 
shire. 

ADD, river, running 12 miles south- 
westward to head of Loch Orinan, Argyle- 
shire. 

ADDIEWELL, town, about a mile west 
of West Calder, Edinburghshire. It was 
founded subsequent to 1864 ; it consists 
almost wholly of extensive paraffin works 
and of houses for the workmen ; and it 
stands adjacent to West Calder railway 
station, and has a post office under Mid- 
Calder. Pop. 1819. 

ADIE, hill in Bathven parish, Banffshire. 

ADIGO, lake in Uig parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hedrides. 

ADVIE, old parish, now part of Crom- 
dale, Elginshire. It has a railway station 
8y miles north-east of Grantown, a post 
office under Ballindalloch, and a chapel-of- 
ease. 

AE, river, running 16 miles south-east- 
ward to the Kinnel, at 2 miles north-north- 
west of Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire. 

AFFLECK, old baronial fortalice, almost 
entire, in Monikie parish, Forfarshire. 

AFFLECK, Ayrshire. See Auchinleck. 

AFFORSK, romantic ravine in Gamrie 
parish, Banffshire. 

AFFRICK, lake and river in Strath- 
affrick, north-west border of Inverness- 
shire. The lake lies in the upper part of 
the strath, measures about 5 miles in 
length, and is overhung by Alpine moun- 
tains. The river traverses both that lake 
and Loch Benevean, makes several fine 
cascades, and takes afterwards the name 
of Glass. 

AFTON, rivulet, running 6 1 miles north- 
ward to the Nith, at New Cumnock, Ayr- 
shire. It is sung by Burns. 

AFTON-BRIDGEND, village on Afton 
rivulet, near New Cumnock, Ayrshire. It 
has a Free church. Pop. 350. 



AHEURICH, glen in Sunart district, 
Argyleshire. 

AICHILTIBTJIE, hamlet in Lochbroom 
parish, Eoss-shire. It has a public school 
with about 120 scholars. 

AIGAS. See Ellan-Aigas. 

AIKENHAULD, site of old parochial 
church in Oathlaw parish, Forfarshire. 

AIKENHEAD, seat in Cathcart parish, 
Eenfrewshire. 

AIKERNESS, estate in Evie parish, 
Orkney. 

AIKET, ancient castle in Dunlop parish, 
Ayrshire. 

AIKEY-BRAE, historical spot near Old 
Deer, Aberdeenshire. 

AILSA-CRAIG, insular conical rock in 
Firth of Clyde, 10 miles west-by-north of 
Girvan, Ayrshire. It consists of syenitic 
trap, rises steeply to height of 1114 feet 
above mean level tide, and is inhabited by 
countless multitudes of sea-fowl. Pop. 7. 

AILSK, wild upland lake, a source of 
Oikell river in Sutherland. 

AIRD, peninsula, 5 miles long, in Storno- 
way parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

AlRD, headland, forming north - east 
extremity of Skye Island, Inverness-shire. 

AIRD, large, rich, picturesque tract on 
the Beauly, in north-west extremity of 
Inverness-shire. 

AIRD, rocky promontory, with remains 
of Scandinavian fort, in Saddell parish, 
Kintyre, Argyleshire. 

AIRD, hamlet in Inch parish, Wigton- 
shire. 

AIRD or ARD, any hummocky height, 
small or large, low or high, either on 
coast or inland. The word is used chiefly 
as a prefix, and mostly in the form of 
'Ard.' 

AIRDIT, seat in Leuchars parish, Fife. 

AIRDRIE, parliamentary burgh, 12 miles 
east-by-north of Glasgow. It was no more 
than a small hamlet so late as 1725 ; and 
it rose into consequence, and has con- 
tinued to prosper, in connection with 
mining and manufacture. It includes a 
long, spacious, well-built principal street ; 
but it is incompact, and straggles into 
suburbs. It has a head post office with 
all departments, 2 railway stations, 4 
banking offices, a large hotel, a neat town 
hall, a company's public hall, 3 Estab- 
lished churches, 4 Free churches, 2 
United Presbyterian churches, Congrega- 
tional, Evangelical Union, Baptist, Wes- 
leyan, and Eoman Catholic chapels, 3 
public schools, 2 academies, and 2 
other schools, and it publishes a weekly 
newspaper. One of its Established 
churches was erected in 1875, at a cost 
of about £6000, and contains about 900 
sittings. One of the public schools was 
erected in 1876, at a cost of about £8000, 
and has accommodation for about 800 
scholars. The burgh unites with Hamil- 
ton, Lanark, Falkirk, and Linlithgow in 
sending a member to Parliament. Pop. 
13,363. 



AIR 



ALF 



AIRDRIE, seat in Crail parish, Fife. 

AIRDS, peninsula between Loch Linnhe 
and Loch Creran, Argyleshire. 

AIRDS, bay of Loch Etive, Muckairn 
parish, Argyleshire. 

AIRDSMOSS. See Aiksmoss. 

AIRI-INNIS, lake in Morvern parish, 
Argyleshire. 

AIRLEYWIGHT, seat in Auchtergaven 
parish, Perthshire. 

AIRLIE, parish on west border of For- 
farshire, midway between Kirriemuir and 
Alyth. Post town, Kirriemuir. Length, 
6 miles ; greatest breadth, 4 miles ; area, 
8923 acres. Peal property in 1880-81, 
£11,092. Pop. 844. The surface is partly 
low ground within Strathmore, and partly 
a series of ridges, rising thence to an ex- 
treme altitude of about 510 feet. Airlie 
Castle, the seat of the Earl of Airlie, 
stands in the north-west corner, crowns 
a rocky promontory at the influx of Mel- 
gum rivulet to the Isla, is an elegant 
modern edifice, and retains vestiges of the 
'Bonnie House o' Airlie,' celebrated in 
song. Lindertis House and Baikie House 
also are modern. The churches are Estab- 
lished and Free ; and there are 2 
public schools for Airlie, and another for 
it and part of Kirriemuir. 

AIRNTULLY. See Arntullt. 

AIRSMOSS, large morass between Auch- 
inleck and Muirkirk, Ayrshire. It was 
the scene in 1680 of the skirmish in which 
the famous Covenanter Richard Cameron 
fell ; and it contains a monument called 
' Cameron's Stone.' 

AIRTH, village and parish in Carse dis- 
trict, Stirlingshire. The village stands 
near the Forth, 5 miles north-by-east of 
Falkirk, and has a post office under Lar- 
bert. Pop. 487. — The parish contains 
also Dunmore village, and extends about 
5 miles along the Forth. Acres, 5477. 
Real property in 1880-81, £13,769. Pop. 
1362. The surface, with exception of 
two small hills, is all low and flat, and 
most of it is very fertile. Airth Hill is a 
circular eminence less than 100 feet high. 
Airth Castle is an elegant modern man- 
sion, and was preceded by an ancient 
tower, which figures in the history of Sir 
William Wallace. Dunmore House, the 
seat of the Earl of Dunmore, is a pro- 
minent feature ; and Higgin's Nook and 
Powfoulis are other mansions. The 
churches are Established, Free, and 
United Presbyterian. The schools are 
4, with accommodation for 466 scholars, 
and one of them and an enlargement for 
200 are new. 

AIRTHREY, mineral wells and an es- 
tate on northern verge of Stirlingshire. 
The wells are on a height in the eastern 
vicinity of Bridge of Allan, are approached 
thence by ornate walks, and have a neat 
bath - house. The estate belongs to 
Lord Abercromby, comprises picturesque 
grounds among skirts of the Ochil Hills, 
and has a fine castellated mansion. 



AITHSTING, parish united to Sand- 
sting, Shetland. 

AIT-SUIDHE-THUIN, lofty mountain, 
with magnificent view, at head of Loch 
Portree, Isle of Skye. 

AKERMOOR, lake, 8 miles south-west of 
Selkirk. 

AKERNESS, tract in extreme north of 
Westray Island, Orkney. It has coast 
cliffs so torn and pierced as to disport the 
sea billows in a manner similar to the 
Bullers of Buchan. 

ALAUNA, quondam Caledonian town 
and Roman station on Allan river, near 
boundary between Perthshire and Stirling- 
shire. 

ALBANY, originally all the country of 
the Scottish Celts, afterwards only the 
region now forming Breadalbane, Athole, 
and parts of Lochaber, Glenorchy, and 
Appin. A dukedom of Albany was 
created first for a younger son of Robert 
II., next for the second son of James II. 

ALCLUYTH, 'the rock on the Clyde,' or 
Dumbarton Castle, as known to the 
Venerable Bede. 

ALDARDER, streamlet running to the 
Spey, in Knockando parish, Elginshire. 

ALDCAMBUS, old parish, now part of 
Cockburnspath, Berwickshire. 

ALDCATHIE, detached part of Dalmeny 
parish, Linlithgowshire. 

ALDERNIE, affluent of the Fiddich, in 
Boharm parish, Banffshire. 

ALDERSTONE, seat in Haddington 
parish, Haddingtonshire. 

ALDHAM, old parish, now part of 
Whitekirk, Haddingtonshire. 

ALDHOUSE, village in East Kilbride 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

ALDIE, hamlet, deserted baronial fort- 
alice, and estate in Fossaway parish, 
Perthshire. 

ALDOURIE, seat and public school in 
Dores parish, Inverness-shire. 

ALE, affluent of the Eye, between Ayton 
and Eyemouth, Berwickshire. 

ALE, affluent of the Teviot, near An- 
crum, Roxburghshire. 

ALEMOOR, lake in Roberton parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

ALEXANDRIA, town and quoad sacra 
parish in Vale of Leven, Dumbartonshire. 
The town stands on Leven river, 3J miles 
north of Dumbarton ; forms practically a 
joint town with Bonhill, separated from 
it only by the Leven ; is modern, well- 
built, and prosperous ; conducts much 
business in connection with neighbouring 
printfields and other public works ; and 
has a post office with all departments 
under Dumbarton, a railway station, a 
banking office, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, Congregational, Wesleyan, 
and Roman Catholic churches, and 2 
public schools with about 745 scholars. 
Pop. of the town, 6173; of the quoad 
sacra parish, 6616. 

ALFORD, village, parish, and district in 
south-west of Aberdeenshire. The village 



ALG 



ALL 



stands on the Don, at terminus of branch 
railway, 29J miles west - north - west of 
Aberdeen ; is a scattered place, but a 
centre of considerable business ; and has 
a post office, with money order and tele- 
graph departments, under Aberdeen, 2 
banking offices, a hotel, Established, Free, 
and Episcopalian churches, and a public 
school. Pop. 529. — The parish is 
7 miles long and 3 miles broad. Acres, 
9102. Eeal property in 1880-81, £8198. 
Pop. 1472. The surface is partly the 
western portion of a vale 10 miles long, 
including portions of 3 other parishes, 
and partly an engirdling series of hills and 
mountains. Less than half is under the 
plough, and much of the rest is moss, 
moor, and upland pasture. The mansions 
are Haughton and Breda. There are 
3 schools, with accommodation for 292 
scholars. — The district comprehends also 
the parishes of Auchindoir, Olatt, Glen- 
bucket, Keig, Kildrummy, Kinnethmont, 
Leochel, Ehynie, Strathdon, Tullynessle, 
Tough, Towie, and the Aberdeenshire 
part of Cabrach. 

ALGUISH, place, 10 miles north-west of 
Garve, in Eoss-shire. 

ALLACHY, head-stream of the Tanner, 
Aboyne parish, Aberdeenshire. 

ALLAN, river of Perthshire and Stirling- 
shire, entering the Forth 1| mile north- 
west of Stirling. 

ALLAN, stream, running to the Teviot 
at 4 miles south-west of Hawick, Boxburgh- 
shire. 

ALLANBANK, hamlet on Whitadder 
water, in Edrom parish, Berwickshire. 

ALLAN (BRIDGE OF). See Bridge of 
Allan. 

ALLANDER, river of Dumbartonshire 
and Stirlingshire, running to the Kelvin at 
4^ miles west-south-west of Kirkintilloch. 

"ALLANMOUTH, place, with remains of 
Border peel, 4 miles south-west of Hawick, 
E oxburghshire. 

ALLANSHAW, farmhouse, formerly an 
important seat in Hamilton parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

ALLANTON, village on the Whitadder, 
1J mile south of Chirnside, Berwickshire. 
It has a Free church. 

ALLANTON, village in Hamilton parish, 
Lanarkshire. Pop. 351. 

ALLANTON, seat of Sir Henry J. S. 
Steuart, Bart., 3J miles east-north-east 
of Wishaw, Lanarkshire. It is mainly 
modern, but includes an old castle. 

ALLANTON, place, with public school, 
in Galston parish, Ayrshire. 

ALLANTON, burn, entering the Nith 
near Auldgirth Bridge, Dumfriesshire. 

ALLARDYCE, estate, with ruined ancient 
mansion, in Arbuthnot parish, Kincardine- 
shire. 

ALLEAN, seat on lower part of the 
Tummel, Perthshire. 

ALLEN, stream, running 6 miles south- 
ward to the Tweed, at If mile west-north- 
west of Melrose, Roxburghshire. Its vale 



is the Glendearg of Sir Walter Scott's 
Monastery. 

ALLERMUIR, a summit of the Pentland 
Hills, 1617 feet high, 5 miles south -by- 
west of Edinburgh. 

ALLNESS. See Alness. 

ALLOA, town and parish in Clackmannan- 
shire. The town stands on the Forth, 7 
miles east of Stirling ; has railway com- 
munication towards the four points of the 
compass, is a head port, a seat of manu- 
facture, a police burgh, and the political 
capital of Clackmannanshire ; dates from 
ancient times, but has few marks of 
antiquity, and few associations with 
history ; shows well-built modern streets 
and some elegant outskirts, and has a 
head post office with all departments, a 
junction railway station, a ferry nexus 
with South Alloa railway station, 4 
banking offices, 4 hotels, a county court- 
house of 1865, an archaeological hall 
of 1874, a steepled Established church of 
1819, 2 Free churches, 2 United Pres- 
byterian churches, a Baptist church of 
1881, an Episcopalian church, a Sweden- 
borgian church, a burgh school of 1876, a 
beautiful small academy, and a new dock, 
formed in 1879-81. Its shipping in 1879 
comprised 776 British vessels, of 95,900 
tons, and 291 foreign vessels, of 46,281 
tons, inwards ; and 755 British vessels, of 
93,260 tons, and 298 foreign vessels, of 
51,866 tons, outwards. Alloa Tower, on 
its east side, was the seat of the Earls of 
Mar, dated from the 13th century, was 
burnt in 1800, and is now a thick-walled 
shell, 89 feet high. Alloa Park House, 
eastward of the tower, is the seat of the 
Earl of Mar and Kellie, an ornate hollow 
quadrangle, 185 feet by 120. Pop. of 
the police burgh, 8812 ; of the town, 
including New Sauchie suburb, 10,591. — 
The parish excludes New Sauchie, but in- 
cludes Tullibody village and 2 islands, and 
is averagely 4 miles long. Acres, 5499. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £55,330. Pop. 
11,638. The part adjacent to the Forth is 
rich carse, and the rest is a fertile diversi- 
fied assemblage of vales, rising grounds, 
and small hills. There are 10 schools 
for 2022 scholars, and one of them and a 
class-room for 450 are new. 

ALLOA (SOUTH), place, with dock and 
railway station, on right bank of the Forth, 
opposite Alloa. The dock was projected 
in 1875 by a company with large capital. 

ALLOWAY, quoad sacra parish, with 
church, 2| miles south of Ayr. It is in- 
tersected by the river Doon ; and it com- 
prises, on the right side, an old parish of 
Alloway, which became annexed to Ayr ; 
on the left side, part of the parish of May- 
bole. Pop. of the Ayr part, 486 ; of the 
Maybole part, 421. The new church was 
erected in 1858. The old church, which 
served for the old civil parish, stands in 
the near vicinity of the new, is a small, 
plain, roofless ruin, and has much celebrity 
j as the scene of the fiend revelry in Burns' 



ALM 



10 



ALV 



Tarn o' Skanter. The ' Auld Brig o' Doon, ' 
figuring also in Tarn o' Shanter, a new 
bridge erected since Burns' time, a cyclo- 
style monument to Burns, erected in 1820, 
and a neat inn, called Burns', are in the 
same vicinity ; and Burns' cottage, where 
the poet was born, is about f mile to the 
north, and was purchased in September 
1880 for £4000, to be converted into a 
Burns' museum. 

ALMAGILL, hill, with ancient Caledonian 
camp and extensive view, in Dalton parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

ALMERICLOSS, seat in St. Vigeans 
parish, Forfarshire. 

ALMOND, river, running 25 miles north- 
eastward to Firth of Forth, between Lin- 
lithgowshire and Edinburghshire. 

ALMOND, river, running 22 miles east- 
ward to the Tay, at 2^ miles north of Perth. 

ALMOND BANK, village on the Almond, 
4 miles north-west of Perth. It has a 
post office under Perth, and a railway 
station. Pop. 317. 

ALMOND CASTLE, ruined grand edifice 
on the left side of the Avon, 5J miles 
east-south-east of Falkirk. It dates from 
the time of James III., and was often held 
for the crown by the Earls of Linlithgow. 

ALMONDDALE. See Amondell. 

ALNESS, river, town, and parish in 
east side of Ross-shire. The river runs 
14 miles eastward and south-eastward to 
Cromarty Firth, at about 10 miles north- 
north-east of Dingwall, and it forms the 
boundary between Alness and Bosskeen 
parishes. — The town stands on the river, 
near its mouth, adjacent to the Highland 
Railway ; consists of Alness proper, in 
Alness parish, and Alness Bridge or 
Bridgend of Alness, in Rosskeen parish, 
and has a post office, with money order 
and telegraph departments, under Inver- 
ness, a railway station, a banking office, 
an Established church, a Free church, 
and 2 public schools. Pop. of Alness 
proper, about 202 ; of Alness Bridge, 942. 
— The parish measures about 20 miles in 
length, and about 5 miles in mean breadth. 
Real property in 1880-81, £8531. Pop.1033. 
The tract adjacent to the firth is mostly 
flat, arable, and embellished ; but the other 
parts are hilly or mountainous, and exten- 
sively barren. Novar House, in the lower 
part, is a fine feature ; and 21akes and Ault- 
grande burn richly diversify the uplands. 
There are 3 schools for 191 scholars, and 2 of 
them and an enlargement for 131 are new. 

ALNWICK LODGE, collier village in 
Irvine parish, Ayrshire. 

ALTACHOYLACHAN, burn in Glenlivet, 
Banffshire. The battle of 1594, commonly 
called the battle of Glenlivet, was fought 
on its banks. 

ALTANDOW, hamlet in Lochbroom 
parish, Ross-shire. It has a public school 
with about 86 scholars. 

ALTASS, place 4£ miles from Invershin, 
on south border of Sutherland. It has a 
post office under Ardgay. 



ALTAVAIG, low, flat islet, with site of 
ancient chapel, off north-east coast of Skye. 

ALTBEA, place, with pleasant small bay, 
on east side of Loch Ewe, Ross-shire. 

ALTDOURAN, romantic glen in Leswalt 
parish, Wigtonshire. 

ALTENS, fishing harbour in Nigg parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

ALTIMARLACH, burn, entering Wick 
river 3 miles west of Wick, Caithness. 
The notable conflict between the Campbells 
and the Sinclairs, in 1680, was fought on 
its banks. 

ALTMORE, hill-ridge, 5 miles south- 
south-east of Buckie, Banffshire. 

ALTMORE, burn, entering the Isla 1J 
mile east of Keith, Banffshire. 

ALTNABREAC, place with post office 
under Wick, and with railway station, 27^ 
miles west-south-west of Wick, Caithness. 

ALTNACH, affluent of the Aven, near 
Tomantoul, Banffshire. 

ALTNAHARRA, place near head of Loch 
Naver, 21 miles north of Lairg, Sutherland. 
It has a post office under Lairg, an inn, 
and a Free church. 

ALTNARIE, upland affluent of the Find- 
horn, with grand cascade, in Ardclach 
parish, Nairnshire. 

ALTON, village in Loudoun parish, 
Ayrshire. 

ALTRIVE, farm, 1| mile south-east of 
foot of St. Mary's Loch, Selkirkshire. It 
was the last residence of Hogg, the Ettrick 
Shepherd. 

ALTYRE, old parish, now part of Rafford, 
Elginshire. Altyre mansion here is the 
seat of Sir William G-. dimming, Bart. ; 
and Altyre burn is a head-stream of Forres 
river. 

ALVA, town and parish forming detached 
part of Stirlingshire. The town stands on 
low flat ground, at terminus of branch 
railway, adjacent to acclivities of the 
Ochil Hills, 7 miles east-north-east of 
Stirling ; extends about f mile across the 
entrance of a romantic glen of its own 
name ; carries on woollen manufacture, 
and has a post office, with money order 
and telegraph departments, under Stirling, 
2 banking offices, a town hall, Estab- 
lished, Free, and United Presbyterian 
churches, and a public school of 1876, with 
accommodation for more than 700 scholars. 
Pop. 4961. — The parish measures about 4|- 
by 2J miles, and comprises 5458 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £13,971. Pop. 
5113. The southern part is low and fertile, 
and the other parts are a portion of the 
Ochils, enclosing Alva Glen. That glen is 
a cul de sac about 3 miles long ; contains 
the mansion and grounds of Alva House ; 
exhibits striking features of ravine, cliff, 
and waterfall ; and is overhung at the 
head by Bencleuch, the loftiest of the 
Ochils. There are 4 schools, with ac- 
commodation for 934 scholars. 

ALV AH, parish on north-east border of 
Banffshire, midway between Banff and 
Turriff. Post town, Banff. Length and 



ALV 



11 



AND 



greatest breadth, each about 6 miles; 
area, 11,488 acres. Eeal property in 
1880-81, £9712. Pop., quoad civilia, 1356; 
quoad sacra, 1187. The river Deveron 
traces most of the north-eastern boundary, 
and traverses there a romantic chasm 
spanned by a noble bridge. Much of the 
land adjacent to the river is alluvial, but 
much of the rest is hilly, and part of it 
barren. There are 2 public schools, 
one of them for females only, and they 
have about 52 and 49 scholars. 

ALVES, hamlet and parish in north-west 
of Elginshire. The hamlet lies 5^ miles 
west of Elgin, and has a post office under 
Forres, and a railway station. The parish 
includes about a mile of coast, and is about 
6J miles long and 51 miles broad. Acres, 
9404. Real property in 1880-81, £8992. 
Pop. 1117. The surface presents a pleasant 
diversity of dale and hill. The Knock, 
on the east border, is crowned by a modern 
tower, commands an extensive view, and 
is traditionally associated with the story 
of Macbeth and the witches. The churches 
are Established and Free ; and the public 
school is a new building, with accommoda- 
tion for 200 scholars. 

ALVIE, parish in Badenoch district, 
Inverness-shire. It contains the post office 
of Lynwilg, under Aviemore, and the rail- 
way station of Kincraig. Its extreme 
length is upwards of 20 miles, and its 
area is 86,618 acres. Eeal property in 
1880-81, £8561. Pop. 707. The surface 
is bisected by the Spey, includes part of 
that river's strath, averagely about 650 feet 
above sea-level, and extends on one side 
to one of the loftiest summits of the 
Central Grampians, on the other side to 
mountain summits considerably lower. 
Loch Alvie, in the strath, measures about 
3 miles in circuit ; and Tor Alvie, adjacent 
to that lake, is a lofty crag surmounted 
by a monumental cairn. Other chief 
features are Kinrara, a seat of the Duke 
of Richmond ; and Belleville, built by 
' Ossian ' Macpherson, on site of an ancient 
stronghold of the Comyns. The churches 
are Established and Free ; and the public 
school is a new building, with accommoda- 
tion for 150 scholars. 

ALYTH, town on east border of Perth- 
shire, and parish, partly also on west 
border of Forfarshire. The town stands 
on a burn of its own name, at terminus of 
branch railway, 5jr miles north-west of 
Alyth Junction and 5 north-east of Blair- 
gowrie, carries on woollen and linen 
manufacture, and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Meigle, 3 banking offices, an 
Established Norman church of 1839, 
Free, United Presbyterian, and Episcopal 
churches, and 2 public schools with 
about 238 scholars. Pop. 2377. — The 
parish is about 15 miles long, and com- 
prises 19,972 acres in Perthshire, and 
3324 in Forfarshire. Real property in 
1880-81 of the Perthshire part, £23,766 ; of 



the Forfarshire part, £1296. Pop. 3521. 
A tract of about 15 square miles is part of 
Strathmore, low and fertile, and the other 
tracts ascend thence toward the Grampians, 
and are variously cultivated ground, moor, 
moss, and mountain. Chief objects are 
Mount Blair Mountain, King's Seat Hill, 
Sir James H. Ramsay's seat of Bamff 
House, Balhary and Jordanstone mansions, 
Inverquiech Castle ruins, and a notable 
Pictish entrenchment. There are 4 
schools for 562 scholars, and one of them, 
for 300, is new. 

ALYTH JUNCTION, railway station, 24i 
miles north-east of Perth. 

AMISFIELD, village, 5 miles north-east 
of Dumfries. It has a post office under 
Dumfries, and a railway station. Amisfield 
House and Tower stand in the vicinity, and 
the latter is a remarkably interesting old 
baronial fortalice. 

AMISFIELD, a seat of the Earl of 
Wemyss, on the Tyne, about a mile east 
of Haddington. 

AMONDELL, seat of the Earl of Buchan, 
on Almond river, in Uphall parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

AMPLE, stream, running northward to 
head of Loch Earn, Perthshire. It makes 
a fine cascade adjacent to Edinample 
House. 

AMULREE, village, on river Bran, lOmiles 
south-west of Dunkeld, Perthshire. It 
has a post office under Dunkeld, an inn, a 
quoad sacra parish church for a pop. of 458, 
a Free church station, and a public school. 

ANCRUM, village and parish, near centre 
of Roxburghshire. The village stands on 
Ale river, near Aricrum bridge, on the 
Teviot, 3| miles north-north-west of 
Jedburgh ; is near the site of an ancient 
Caledonian fort ; had a monastery of the 
time of David I. and a large establishment 
of the knights of Malta, and now has a 
post office under Jedburgh, an ancient 
cross, a parochial church, a Free church, 
and a public school with about 144 scholars. 
Pop. 430. — The parish is 6 miles long, 
and comprises 10,295 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £15,586. Pop. 1360. The 
surface is pleasantly diversified, and in- 
cludes considerable eminences, but is 
nowhere hilly. The river Teviot traces 
all the south-eastern boundary, and the 
Ale runs through the centre, and has a 
reach of rocky banks pierced with numer- 
ous artificial caves. Ancrum Moor, on 
the north-east border, was the scene of a 
battle between the Scotch and the English 
in 1545. Ancrum House, in vicinity of 
the village, is the seat of Sir William 
Scott. Bart. , and was a fine old baronial 
mansion, but suffered such utter destruc- 
tion by fire in 1873 as to require being 
rebuilt. Chesters House, on the Teviot, 
is another fine seat. 

ANDERSTON, south-western suburb of 
Glasgow. It lies averagely about a mile 
west-south-west of the Royal Exchange, is 
bounded by St. Yincent Street, Macalpine 



AND 



12 



AND 



Street, the river Clyde, and Finnieston; 
extends about 3j furlongs from north to 
south, and about 5 furlongs from east to 
west ; embraces an important section of 
the harbour; contains many factories, 
foundries, and other industrial establish- 
ments, and presents for the most part 
a dingy appearance, very different from 
that of adjacent places. It was originally 
a weavers' village, founded in 1725 ; it 
became a considerable town, with the 
status of a burgh of barony ; it was long- 
separated from the outskirts of Glasgow 
by a wide rural tract, and it was even- 
tually overtaken and engirt by the city's 
westward extension, and included in Glas- 
gow municipal burgh. It has tramway 
communication with all parts of the city, 
and it contains several ornamental 
churches, a number of other churches, 
and a very large public school. Pop. of 
Anderston quoad sacra parish, 7273; of 
registration district, 38,753. 

ANDREW (ST.), parish, with Established 
and Free churches, in New Town of Edin- 
burgh. Pop. 2963. 

ANDREW (ST.), parish, with Established 
and Free churches, in east of Glasgow. 
Pop. quoad sacra, 5221. 

ANDREWS (ST.), city and parish on east 
coast of Fife. The city stands at terminus 
of branch railway, 45 miles north-by-east 
of Edinburgh ; ranks as a royal and 
parliamentary burgh, a university town, 
a nominal seaport, and a fashionable 
summer resort ; occupies a rocky plateau 
about 50 feet above sea-level ; overlooks a 
wide unsheltered expansion of the Eden's 
estuary, called St. Andrews Bay ; adjoins 
a large extent of links or downs, famous 
for the game of golf ; looks landward over 
a low, flat, fertile country, screened at 
some miles' distance by gentle hills, and 
presents a striking appearance as seen at 
a little distance, and a very suggestive 
one as seen within its own thoroughfares. 
It dates from about the Culdee times ; it 
got its name of St. Andrews from a fiction 
that some bones of the Apostle Andrew 
were brought to it by an ancient ecclesi- 
astic; it figured long and powerfully as 
the Canterbury of Scotland ; it was the 
scene of martyrdoms, commotions, and 
events of national import in the times of 
the Reformation ; it figured also in politi- 
cal matters of the highest consequence at 
various periods, from that of Robert Bruce 
till that of James vi. ; it passed eventually 
into prolonged neglect and decay, till most 
of its historical splendour became lost in 
mere ruins and memory, and it underwent 
such modern revival as has rendered it a 
pleasant and prosperous resort of literary 
men, students, wealthy annuitants, and 
summer residents. 

The town comprises regular, well-built 
thoroughfares, 3 principal old streets, 
and a number of handsome modern ex- 
tensions ; includes great public buildings, 
and grand, picturesque, historical ruins ; 



has a head post office with all departments, 
4 banking offices, 3 hotels, and a number 
of boarding and educational estab- 
lishments, and publishes 2 weekly news- 
papers. The old town hall has been 
renovated, and contains curious relics. 
The new town hall was erected in 1858-59, 
and is well suited for public assemblies. 
The Martyrs' Monument was erected in 
1842, and is 45 feet high. Trinity Church, 
erected in 12th century, was the scene of 
some of John Knox's heaviest blows at 
Romanism, and underwent repair in 1798. 
St. Leonard's Church was originally St. 
Salvator's Chapel, erected in 15th century, 
and contains a magnificent monument of 
its founder, Bishop Kennedy. Other 
churches are Free, United Presbyterian, 
Congregational, Baptist, and Episcopalian. 
The University Library was erected in 
1764, on the site of a parliament house. 
St. Mary's College was founded in 1537, 
forms two sides of a quadrangle, and is 
used for only the divinity classes. The 
United College comprises St. Salvator's, 
founded in 1455, St. Leonard's, founded in 
1512, united in 1747 ; forms also two sides 
of a quadrangle, and is entered by an 
archway through the basement of a lofty 
steeple. The number of matriculated 
students in 18S0 was 187. The Madras 
College, for secondary education, was 
erected in 1832, comprises an open quad- 
rangle, and has accommodation for more 
than 1000 pupils. 4 other schools are 
in the burgh, and the 5 have aggregately 
accommodation for 2008 scholars. The 
Castle was erected towards the end of 
14th century, succeeded a previous strong 
structure of about the beginning of the 
13th century, served as both a fortress and 
a palace, was destroyed in connection with 
the events of the Reformation, and is now 
represented chiefly by a tower and part of 
a wall. The Cathedral was founded in 
1162, completed in 1318, and destroyed in 
1559, was a cruciform edifice of 370 feet 
from east to west and 180 feet from 
north to south, and is now represented 
by only the east end, half of the west 
end, and part of the south walls. St. 
Rule's Chapel is one of the oldest 
ecclesiastical structures in Scotland, and 
though long a ruin, still shows a well- 
preserved portion of a very small church, 
with a tower 108 feet high. The Augus- 
tine Monastery, long one of the grandest in 
Europe, is now almost entirely extinct. The 
Dominican Monastery is still represented 
by a fine fragment of arched roof. St. 
Andrews unites with 6 other Fife burghs 
in sending a member to Parliament. A 
railway to Anstruther was begun to be 
formed in 1881. Pop. of the parliamen- 
tary burgh, 6452. 

The parish excludes the St. Leonards 
part of the town, but includes Strath- 
kinness and Boarhills villages, and it 
measures 9 miles in length and less than 
3 miles in greatest breadth. Acres, 11,482. 



AND 



13 



ANS 



Real property of landward part in 1880-81, 
£25,250. Pop., quoad civilia, 7829; quoad 
sacra, 6709. The river and estuary of 
Eden form the northern boundary ; the 
coast thence to the city is firm sandy 
beach, skirted by the famous links, and 
the coast thence to the southern boundary 
is mostly rugged and rocky. Much of the 
interior is low flat land, and the rest is 
mostly low hill or moor. The seats are 
numerous. 3 schools, with accom- 
modation for 395 scholars, serve for the 
landward parts of both this parish and 
St. Leonards. 

ANDREWS (ST.), parish on east side of 
Pomona, Orkney. It extends from the 
eastern boundary of Kirkwall parish to 
the sea, includes the islands of Copinshay 
and Kirkholm, and has an area of about 
13 square miles. Post town, Kirkwall. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £2063. Pop. 
1695. The land is mostly flat, but has 
diversities of surface, and rises nowhere 
higher than about 350 feet. The coast 
includes both sandy beach and precipitous 
rock, and has a large sea cavern. The 
churches are Established and Free. St. 
Andrews and Deerness parishes are in 
some respects united, and they have 3 new 
public schools for 290 scholars. 

ANDRE WS-LHANBRYDE (ST.), village 
and parish in Elginshire. The village 
stands 4 miles south-east of Elgin, and has 
a post office, of the name of Lhanbryde, 
under Elgin. Pop. 294. The parish contains 
also a small suburb of Elgin. Acres, 9197. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £7894. Pop.1396. 
The land is a plain diversified with small 
hills, and has mostly a sandy but fertile 
soil. There are 3 schools for 258 scholars. 

ANDUNTY, lake in Petty parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

ANGELS HILL, eminence, with small 
cairn and small stone circle, in Iona Island, 
Argyleshire. 

ANGUS, Forfarshire. 

ANKERVILLE, village in Nigg parish, 
Ross-shire. 

ANNAN, river, town, and parish in 
Annandale, Dumfriesshire. The river 
rises among the Hartfell Mountains, runs 
about 30 miles southward to the upper 
part of the Solway Firth ; receives Evan, 
Moffat, Kinnel, Dryfe, Milk, and Mein 
waters, and is notable for both the 
kinds and the qualities of its fish. — The 
town stands on the river about a mile 
from the Solway, and on the Glasgow and 
South-Western and the Solway Junction 
Railways, 15J miles south-east of Dumfries; 
ranks as a royal and parliamentary burgh, 
covers ground which may have been 
occupied by a Roman station, was an 
important post of the Romanized Britons 
and of their successors till the time of 
William the Lion, made a great figure in 
the wars of the Succession and in the 
Border forays, had a grand strong castle 
of Robert Bruce and military defences of 
wall and fosse ; is now a well-built town 



of modern aspect, has a head post office 
with all departments, 2 railway stations, 
3 banking offices, a chief hotel, a fine 
town hall of 1878, a new water supply of 
1881, a steepled Established church, Free 
and United Presbyterian churches, Con- 
gregational, Episcopalian, and Roman 
Catholic chapels, 2 large public schools, 
and a mechanics' institute ; and unites 
with Dumfries, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, 
and Kirkcudbright in sending a member 
to Parliament. Real property in 1880-81, 
exclusive of railways, £10,805. Pop. 
of parliamentary burgh, 3368. — The parish 
contains also the village of Annan- Water- 
foot, and part of the village of Bridekirk, 
and is 8 miles long. Acres, 10,915. Real 
property of landward part in 1880-81, 
£15,801. Pop., quoad civilia, 5516; quoad 
sacra, 4936. The coast is flat and tame, 
but the interior is diversified by swells, 
3 low parallel ridges, and 3 small 
hills. The seats are Mount Annan, 
Warmanbie, and Northfield. The town 
public schools are the quondam aca- 
demy and 2 parochial, with about 140 
and 29 scholars ; and the landward schools 
are 2, with accommodation for 302 scholars. 

ANNANDALE, basin of river Annan. It 
begins with a mountain glen about 5 miles 
long, forms then the vast hollow of the 
Deil's Beef-Tub, and is thence to the 
firth a beautiful, fertile, hill-screened 
valley, called the How of Annandale, 
partly from 15 to 18 miles wide. It con- 
tained strong posts of the Romans ; be- 
came the property and lordship of the 
royal Bruces, passed to the Earl of Moray, 
the Earls of Dunbar, and the Earls of 
Douglas, and gave the title of earl from 
1643, and of marquis from 1701 till 1792, 
to the Johnstones. 

ANNAN-WATERFOOT, port of Annan 
town, at mouth of Annan river. 

ANNAT, place, with public school, in 
Kilchrenan parish, Argyleshire. 

ANNAT, small affluent of the Teith, near 
Doune, Perthshire. It has numerous 
cascades. 

ANNBANK, town, 5 miles east-by-north 
of Ayr. It has a post office, with money 
order department, under Kilmarnock, a 
railway station, and an Established 
church. Pop. 1309. 

ANNICK, river, running about 14 miles 
south-westward to the Irvine, near Irvine 
town, Ayrshire. 

ANNICK LODGE, place, with public 
school, in Irvine parish, Ayrshire. 

ANNIESLAND, village in Renfrew parish, 
Renfrewshire. Pop. 440. 

ANNISTON, seat in Inverkeilor parish, 
Forfarshire. 

ANN'S BRIDGE (ST. ), picturesque locality 
on Kinnel river, 13 miles north-north-east 
of Dumfries. 

ANOCH, place near head of Glenmoris- 
| ton, Inverness-shire. 

ANSTRUTHER, seaport town and 2 
parishes on south-east coast of Fife. 



ANT 



14 



ARA 



The town stands at terminus of the 
East of Fife Railway, 23f miles east-north- 
east of Kirkcaldy ; comprises the royal 
burgh of Anstruther- Wester, the royal 
burgh of Anstruther - Easter, and the 
suburb of Cellardyke, or main part of the 
royal burgh of Kilrenny ; forms one con- 
tinuous town, with slender breadth, along 
the coast ; has a head post office with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
3 banking offices, a town hall of 1872, 
elaborate harbour works begun in 1866, 
and costing upwards of £60,000 till 1874, 
a notable and very ancient Established 
church, another Established church, 
Free, United Presbyterian, Evangelical 
Union, and Baptist churches, a public 
school with about 340 scholars, and 3 
other public schools ; figures notably in 
Dr. Tennant's Anster Fair, and was the 
birth-place of Maggie Lauder and the 
Eev. Dr. Chalmers. A railway to St. 
Andrews was begun to be formed in 1881. 
The burghs unite with 4 other Fife 
burghs in sending a member to Parliament. 
Pop. of Anstruther- Wester, 594 ; of An- 
struther-Easter, 1349 ; of Kilrenny, 2769. 
— The parishes are Anstruther- Wester and 
Anstruther-Easter. Acres, 911 and 25. 
Peal property in 1880-81 of landward part 
of Anstruther- Wester, £1664. Pop. of all 
Anstruther- Wester, 683. 

ANTERMONY, hamlet and seat in 
Campsie parish, Stirlingshire. 

ANTONINUS' WALL, quondam Roman 
rampart, from Carriden on Firth of Forth 
to a point near Old Kilpatrick on the 
Clyde. It was nearly 36J miles long. It 
comprised a wall 24 feet thick and 20 feet 
high, and a north-side fosse 40 feet wide 
and 20 feet deep. It had 3 forts at 
each end, and 15 forts at regular in- 
termediate distances, and it has yielded 
many interesting relics, but has left very 
few and slight vestiges in situ. 

ANWOTH, village and parish on south- 
west seaboard of Kirkcudbrightshire. 
The village stands on the Fleet opposite 
Gatehouse, and is suburban to that town. 
Pop. 337. — The parish includes the pen- 
insula between Fleet Bay and Wigton 
Bay, and is about 6J miles long. Acres, 
11,774. Peal property in 1880-81, £6797. 
Pop. 728. The coast is mostly flat, but 
partly rocky, and has 2 large caves. 
The interior is tumulated in the south 
and centre, and bold and barren in the 
north. The seats are Cardoness, Ardwall, 
Kirkclauch, and Eusco. The present 
parochial church is modern, and contains 
400 sittings. The previous church, a 
barn-like building, was served by the 
celebrated Samuel Rutherford, and is still 
standing. A granite obelisk to Ruther- 
ford's memory was erected in 1842, 
destroyed by lightning in 1847, and rebuilt 
in 1851, and makes a conspicuous figure on 
a neighbouring hill. A United Presby- 
terian church is in the village, but takes 
designation from Gatehouse. There are 



3 schools for 235 scholars, and one of 
them, for 70, is new. 

APP, stream of Glenapp, Ballantrae 
parish, Ayrshire. It runs south-westward 
to Loch Ryan. 

APPIN, village and quoad sacra parish 
in north of Argyleshire. The village 
stands on a bay of its own name on south- 
east side of Loch Linnhe, 12 miles north- 
north-east of Oban, and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Fort- William. — The parish 
was constituted in 1868 ; is part of an old 
parish of Appin, now united to Lismore ; 
measures about 18 miles by 12, and ex- 
hibits much diversity and picturesqueness 
of landscape. Pop. 762. Appin House, 
on the coast, is a fine mansion. ' A land 
that was famous of yore, the land of 
green Appin,' is sung in Hogg's ballad, 
entitled, 'The Stuarts of Appin.' The 
churches are Established and Free, and 
the public school has about 87 scholars. 

APPIN, vale on left side of the Tay, 
near Aberfeldy, Perthshire. 

APPIN, hill, with large cairn, in Tynron 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

APPIN, estate in Dunfermline parish,Fif e. 
APPLEBY, lake in Glasserton parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

APPLECROSS, hamlet, vale, and parish 
on south-west coast of Ross-shire. The 
hamlet lies on a bay of its own name, 14 
miles north-by-west of Kyleakin ; has a 
post office under Dingwall, an Established 
church, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 83 scholars, and had anciently 
a Culdee cell, followed by a famous 
Romish church, now represented by a 
curiously-sculptured small obelisk. The 
vale lies around the hamlet, and is over- 
hung by lofty sandstone mountains with 
grand views. The parish includes Kis- 
horn, Croulin, and Ba islands, and 
measures on the mainland about 20 miles 
by 20. Real property in 1880-81, £4415. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 2354; quoad sacra, 
949. The surface, with small exception, 
is mountainous and bleak. There are 10 
schools for 476 scholars, and 8 of them, 
for 383, are new. 

APPLEGARTH,parish,containingNether- 
cleugh and Dinwoodie railway stations, 
in centre of Annandale, Dumfriesshire. 
Post town, Lockerby. Length, about 6 
miles ; greatest breadth, about 5 miles ; 
area, 11,869 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £11,979. Pop. 969. The river 
Annan traces all the western boundary, 
and the Dryfe traverses the interior. 
More than half of the land is low plain, 
and the rest is hilly. Jardine Hall, the 
seat of Sir Alexander Jardine, Bart., is a 
chief feature ; and Balgray and Hook are 
other mansions. There are 2 public 
schools, with about 105 scholars. 

APPLETREE HALL, village in Wilton 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

ARASAIG, village and district on south- 
west coast of Inverness-shire. The village 



ARA 



15 



ARB 



stands on north side of Loch-na-Gaul, 
near the sea, about 30 miles south of 
Kyleakin ; is regularly called at by 
steamers, and has a post office, with money 
order department, under Fort-William, a 
large inn, an Established mission church, 
a Free church preaching-station, a Roman 
Catholic church with 600 sittings, and a 
Roman Catholic school. The district is 
bounded on the north by Loch Morar, on 
the south by Loch Aylort, and is mostly 
mountainous and sterile. 

ARAY, rivulet, running 9 miles south- 
ward to Loch Fyne, in vicinity of Inverary, 
Argyleshire. It traverses a romantic 
glen, and makes 2 fine cascades. 

ARBEADIE, village in Banchory-Ternan 
parish, Kincardineshire. Pop. 302. 

ARBIGLAND, seat in Kirkbean parish, 
Kirkcu dbrightshire. 

ARBIRLOT, village and parish on east 
coast of Forfarshire. The village stands 
on Elliot rivulet, 3 miles west-south-west 
of Arbroath, and has a post office under 
Arbroath. The parish contains also Bon- 
nington village, and is about 4 miles long. 
Acres, 6747. Real property in 1880-81, 
£13,224. Pop. 822. The coast is flat 
and sandy, and the interior undulates or 
gradually rises,but is nowhere hilly. Kelly 
Castle is a chief feature. The churches 
are Established and Free, and the public 
school is a new building, for 135 scholars. 

ARBORY, conical hill, adjacent to the 
Clyde, in Lamington parish, Lanarkshire. 
It rises about 500 feet above the Clyde's 
level, and has extensive rude antiquities, 
apparently of the Caledonian times. 

ARBROATH, town and parish on east 
coast of Forfarshire. The town stands at 
a junction of railways, opposite Bell Rock 
lighthouse, 16J miles east-north-east of 
Dundee ; is a royal and parliamentary 
burgh, a head port, and a seat of manu- 
facture ; made a great figure throughout 
the Middle Ages in connection with a 
grand abbey, but has figured little in civil 
history, and is the ' Fairport ' of Sir 
Walter Scott's Antiquary. It has a head 
post office with all departments, 5 
banking offices, 3 hotels, a town hall, 
public reading-rooms, a public library, a 
museum, public baths, an infirmary, 5 
Established churches, 5 Free churches, 
3 United Presbyterian churches, and 
Original Secession, Congregational, Evan- 
gelical Union, Baptist, Wesley an, and 
Roman Catholic churches, and a number 
of public schools and other institutions. 
It contains some well-built streets and 
handsome public buildings, and has under- 
gone much recent improvement, yet shows 
less attractiveness than many other British 
towns of its size. Its abbey, though now 
a fragmentary ruin, is still its most strik- 
ing feature, was founded in 1178 by 
William the Lion, stood within a wall- 
engirt area of 1150- by 706 feet, had a 
cruciform church measuring 270 feet from 
east to west and 132 feet from north to 



south, and now exhibits in its ruins 
beautiful blendings of Norman and early 
pointed architecture. The town hall is a 
neat edifice of 1806. The market-place 
was erected in 1856, at a cost of about 
£5000. The public baths were projected 
in September 1880. The burgh church in 
the Romish times disappeared after the 
Reformation, and remains of it were 
found hi the course of improving the har- 
bour in 1877. The present burgh church 
was erected in 1791, acquired an elegant 
steeple in 1830, and contains 1690 sittings. 
St. Margaret's Established Church was 
erected in 1879, at a cost of about £6000, 
and contains 1000 sittings. Several of 
the other churches are recent and good. 
15 schools, for 3421 scholars, are in the 
burgh, and 3 of them, for 1660, are 
new. A public park adjacent to the north- 
eastern boundary was projected in 1876. 
The harbour is artificial, and a dock on it 
was completed in September 1877, cost 
nearly £40,000, and has an area of 
1\ acres, a quayage of 1313 feet, and a 
depth of Yl\ feet at ordinary spring tides. 
The shipping in 1879 comprised 281 British 
vessels, of 27,409 tons, and 35 foreign 
vessels, of 5404 tons, inwards ; and 274 
British vessels, of 25,836 tons, and 32 
foreign vessels, of 4928 tons, outwards. 
The parliamentary burgh unites with 
Montrose, Forfar, Brechin, and Bervie in 
sending a member to Parliament. Real 
property in 1880-81, exclusive of railways, 
£79,185. Pop. of parliamentary burgh, 
21,758. — The parish includes less than 
half of the town, the rest of which is in 
St. Vigeans. Acres, 943. Real property 
of landward par t in 1880-81, £1420. Pop. , 
quoad civilia, 9466; quoad sacra, 4706. The 
parts of it and of St. Vigeans outside the 
burgh are under one board, and have 
school accommodation for 427 scholars. 

ARBROATH AND DUNDEE RAILWAY. 
See Dundee and Arbroath Railway. 

ARBROATH AND FORFAR RAILWAY, 
railway from Arbroath harbour north- 
westward and west -north -westward to 
Guthrie Junction, and westward thence to 
Forfar. It is 15i miles long, and rises 220 
feet ; it was completed in 1839, at a cost of 
£131,644 ; it became amalgamated with the 
Aberdeen Railway, and through that with 
the Caledonian, and the dividend for it 
was arranged in 1876 to stand at 6 per 
cent, till 1879, and become permanently 
5J in 1880. 

ARBROATH AND MONTROSE RAIL- 
WAY, railway from junction with the 
North British system at Arbroath north- 
ward along the coast to Montrose. It was 
undertaken in 1871, was, with some local 
exception, not commenced till early part 
of 1879, was partially opened for goods 
traffic in October 1880, and cost, till near 
that time, £219,398. It goes almost due 
north to Lunan Bay, proceeds thence on 
the coast all the way to Ferryden, circles 
thence across the South Esk to back of 



ARB 



16 



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Montrose High Street, sends off a branch, 
about a mile long, into junction with 
Montrose and Bervie Railway, and proceeds 
about 3 miles north-westward into junction 
with the Caledonian. Three viaducts are 
on it nearLunan Bay ; an elaborate cutting, 
about a mile long, conveys it past Ferryden ; 
two viaducts, costing about £8000 and 
£18,000, take it across the two arms of the 
South Esk ; and a plot of 33 acres, re- 
claimed from Montrose lagoon by means 
of a lofty sea-wall, fully a mile long, is 
partly occupied by its Montrose station. 

ARBUTHNOT, parish midway between 
Fordoun and Bervie, Kincardineshire. It 
has a post office under Fordoun. Its length 
is 5 miles ; its area 9585 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £9767. Pop. 809. 
The surface is a very diversified assemblage 
of vale and hill, and rises nowhere higher 
than about 650 feet. The mansions are 
Arbuthnot House and Kair, and the former 
is the seat of Viscount Arbuthnot. The 
public school has room for 109 scholars. 

ARCHAIG, lake in Glenarchaig, Inver- 
ness-shire. It measures about 10 miles in 
length and about f mile in mean breadth, 
and reaches to vicinity of Great Glen ; it 
describes, from head to foot, the segment 
of a circle, it is overhung by lofty peaked 
mountains, and it has a wooded islet con- 
taining the burial-place of the Lochiel 
family. 

ARCHERBECK, burn, running to the 
Liddel, in Canonbie parish, Dumfriesshire. 
ARCHERFIELD, seat in Dirleton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

ARCHIESTON, village in Knockando 
parish, Elginshire. It has a post office 
under Craigellachie. Pop. 375. 

ARCLET, gloomy small lake on north- 
west border of Stirlingshire, between 
Inversnaid and Loch Katrine. 

ARD, lake on south-west verge of Perth- 
shire, skirted by road from Aberfoyle to 
Inversnaid. It is divided by a gorge into 
two lakes, larger and smaller ; it measures 
about 4 miles in length, and from 3 to 9 
furlongs in breadth ; it shares much of 
the grandest mountain scenery of Lochs 
Katrine and Lomond ; it presents views 
ranging from the beautiful to the sublime ; 
it contains an islet crowned with a ruined 
castle of Murdoch, Duke of Albany ; and 
it has on its shores a number of ornate 
residences. 

ARDALANISH, headland near south- 
west extremity of Mull Island, Argyleshire. 
ARDALLIE, quoad sacra parish in north- 
east of Aberdeenshire. It comprises parts 
of Cruden, Ellon, Longside, and Old Deer. 
It has a public school with about 130 
scholars, and its post town is Mintlaw. 
Pop. 1258. 

ARDARGIE, estate, with well-preserved 
small Roman camp, in Forgandenny parish, 
Perthshire. 

ARDARUNAR, headland on west coast of 
North Uist, Outer Hebrides. 
ARDAVASAR. Sse Ardvarsar. 



ARDBEG, headland, forming west horn 
of Rothesay Bay, Bute Island. 

ARDBLAIR, lake and old seat in Blair- 
gowrie parish, Perthshire. 

ARDCARNICH, place, 5J miles south- 
south-east of Ullapool, Ross-shire. 

ARDCHADUILL, promontory in Loch- 
broom parish, Ross-shire. 

ARDCHATTAN, parish in Lorn district, 
Argyleshire. It is bisected by Loch Etive, 
comprises Ardchattan proper on the north, 
and Muckairn on the south, includes Eriska 
and Duirnish Islands, is traversed by the 
Callander and Oban Railway, and its post 
town is Taynuilt, under Oban. It measures 
more than 40 miles in length and about 
10 miles in mean breadth. Real property 
in 1880-81, £15,191. Pop., quoad civilia, 
2001 ; quoad sacra, 1386. — Ardchattan 
proper is remarkably mountainous, and 
consists very largely of rugged alpine 
masses, and great wastes of moor and 
moss, yet includes charming varieties of 
fertile plain, pleasant valley, and wooded 
hill. Muckairn contains some lofty ground, 
yet is comparatively low. Ardchattan 
Priory, on Loch Etive, 4 miles north-west 
of Taynuilt, was founded in 1231, is notable 
for a national council held in it by Robert 
Bruce, had a cruciform church with central 
tower, and has left some interesting re- 
mains. Ardchattan House, originally the 
prior's residence, is now a modernized 
massive mansion. Other seats are Loch- 
nell, Barcaldine, Inverawe, and Drimvuick, 
and anotable antiquity is the alleged vestige 
of the Dalriadan city Berigonium. The 
churches are 2 Established and 2 Free, 
and the public schools are 4, with about 
279 scholars. 
ARDCHULLARIE. See Ardhullart. 
ARDCLACH, hamlet and parish in Nairn- 
shire. The hamlet lies on Findhorn river, 
9 miles south-south-east of Nairn, and has 
a post office under Forres. The parish 
measures about 11 miles by 7i. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6812. Pop. 1117. 
The surface is sub-alpine, but includes low 
tracts on the Findhorn. Coulmony House 
is the only mansion ; and a sculptured 
obelisk, similar to the Forres pillar, is the 
chief antiquity. The churches are Estab- 
lished and Free. There are 4 schools for 
233 scholars, and one of them, for 50, is 
new. 

ARDEER, town, with extensive iron- 
works, suburban to Stevenston, Ayrshire. 
Pop. included in Stevenston. 

ARDELISTER, islets in Kildalton parish, 
Islay, Argyleshire. 

ARDELVE, hamlet in Lochbroom parish, 
Ross-shire. It has a post office under 
Lochalsh, and a public school. 

ARDEN, suburb of Airdrie, Lanarkshire. 
Pop. 294. 

ARDEN, seat of Sir James Lumsden, on 
Loch Lomond, 1\ miles north-north- west 
of Dumbarton. 

ARDENADAM, village on Holy Loch, 
near Dunoon, Argyleshire. 



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17 



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ARDENCONNEL, seat in Bow parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

ARDENTINNY, village on Loch Long, 5 
miles north of Strone, Argyleshire. It has 
a post office under Greenock, a hotel, and 
a quoad sacra parish church for a pop. of 
203 ; and it figures in a well-known song 
of Tannahill. 

ARDENTRIVE, bay in Kerrera Island, 
opposite Oban, Argyleshire. Measures 
were projected in 1SS0 for erecting on it 
villas or a village, building a pier, and 
instituting a steam ferry to Oban. 

ARDEONAIG, village on Loch Tay, 8% 
miles north-east of Killin, Perthshire. It 
has an inn, a Free church, and a public 
school. 

ARDERSIER, parish on Moray Firth and 
Highland Eailway, in north-east corner 
of Inverness - shire. It contains Fort- 
George and most of Campbelton village, 
and has a post office of its own name, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Fort-George Station. Acres, 
3824. Eeal property in 1880-81, £4424. 
Pop. 2086. The shore is flat and sandy, 
and the interior rises, with various cha- 
racter, to a border hill about 200 feet 
high. The churches are Established, Free, 
and United Presbyterian ; and there are 
2 public schools with about 293 scholars. 

ARDFERN, hamlet on upper part of 
Loch Craignish, Argyleshire. It has a 
post office under Lochgilphead. 

ARDFINAIG, place at south-western ex- 
tremity of Mull, opposite Iona, Argyleshire. 

ARDGARTEN, small low peninsula, with 
mansion, between Glencroe and Loch 
Long, Argyleshire. 

ARDGAY, village, adjacent to Highland 
Eailway, on northern verge of Eoss-shire, 
near Bonar Bridge. It has a head post 
office with all departments, a commodious 
inn, and a public school. 

ARDGOUR, district in Argyleshire, and 
quoad sacra parish, partly also in Inverness- 
shire. The district is a peninsula between 
Loch Eil and Loch Shiel, measures about 
13 miles by 11, contains Ardgour House 
near Corran Ferry, and has a post office of 
its own name, with money order and tele- 
graph departments, under Fort-William. 
The parish is called Ballachulish and Ard- 
gour. Pop. 749. 

ARDGOWAN, seat of Sir Michael E. S. 
Stewart, Bart., near Innerkip, Eenfrew- 
shire. 

ARDGREENAN, seat in Tongland parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ARDHULLARY, seat and two mountains 
on east side of Loch Lubnaig, Perthshire. 

ARDINCAPLE, a seat of Sir James 
Colquhoun, Bart., formerly jointure-house 
of the Dowager-Duchess of Argyle, adja- 
cent to Gareloch, in vicinity of Helens- 
burgh, Dumbartonshire. 

ARDINCAPLE, seat on Seil Island, 
Argyleshire. 

ARDINNING, small lake in Strathblane 
parish, Stirlingshire. 



ARDKENNETH, place, with Eoman 
Catholic chapel, in northern part of South 
Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

ARDKINGLASS, seat and vestiges of 
ancient castle on upper part of Loch 
Fyne, near foot of Glenkinglass, Argyle- 
shire. 

ARDLAIR, place on north side, near foot 
of Loch Maree, Eoss-shire. 

ARDLAMONT, headland, seat, and public 
school between Kyles of Bute and mouth 
of Loch Fyne, Argyleshire. 

ARDLE, rivulet of Strathardle, running 
13 miles south - south - eastward to the 
Ericht, in Perthshire. 

ARDLER, railway station, 18j miles 
north-east of Perth. 

ARDLISH, seat on east side of upper 
part of Loch Lomond. 

ARBLUI, steamboat station, seat, and 
public school, at head of Loch Lomond. 

ARDLUSSA, seat and streamlet in Jura 
Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDMADDY, a seat of the Earl of 
Breadalbane on the coast, 10 miles south- 
south-west of Oban, Argyleshire. 

ARDMARNOCH, seat on Loch Fyne, in 
Kilfinan parish, Argyleshire. 

ARDMATTY, fort on east side, upper 
part of Loch Etive, Argyleshire. 

ARDMEANACH, large, broad - backed, 
hilly peninsula between Cromarty Firth 
and Moray Firth, Eoss-shire. 

ARDMELLIE, seat in Marnoch parish, 
Banffshire. 

ARDMICHAEL, headland on west coast 
of South Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

ARDMIDDLE, hill, and hamlet with 
public school, in west of Turriff parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

ARDMILE, headland on west coast of 
South Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

ARDMILLAN, seat, 2\ miles south-south- 
west of Girvan, Ayrshire. 

ARDMINISH, bay and headland on east 
side of Gigha Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDMORE, wooded peninsula, with seat, 
on Firth of Clyde, between Dumbarton 
and Helensburgh. 

ARDMORE, bay, headland, and islets on 
east side of Islay Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDMORE, headland and bay at northern 
extremity of Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDMORE, headland in Vaternish dis- 
trict, Isle of Skye. 

ARDMORE, harbour in Eddertoun 
parish, Eoss-shire. 

ARDMUCKNISH, bay on north side of 
Loch Etive, immediately within that loch's 
mouth, Argyleshire. 

ARDNACALLIOCH, promontory at east 
end of Ulva, Argyleshire. 

ARDNACROSS, bay and estate, 6 miles 
north-east of Campbelton, Argyleshire. 

ARDNAMURCHAN, hamlet, headland, 
and district, Argyleshire, and parish, 
partly also in Inverness-shire. The ham- 
let lies on the coast, 7 miles by water 
north-north-west of Tobermory, and has a 
post office, with money order department, 



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18 



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under Fort-William, a parochial church 
with 600 sittings, and a Free church. The 
headland faces the Atlantic with salient 
point, 4J miles north-west of the hamlet ; 
exhibits a broad, bold, rugged appearance ; 
forms the most westerly ground on main- 
land of Scotland ; and is crowned with a 
lighthouse showing a fixed light visible at 
the distance of 18 nautical miles. The 
district is a peninsula, extending eastward 
from the headland ; measures about 16 
miles in length and about 4J miles in mean 
breadth ; consists chiefly of very diversified 
hills, rising nowhere higher than 1759 feet ; 
and includes considerable skirts and inter- 
spersions of good arable land. The parish 
comprises also Sunart district in Argyle- 
shire, and Moidart, Arasaig, and South 
Morar districts, together with Shona 
Island, in Inverness-shire. Its extreme 
length, by any road, is about 70 miles, its 
extreme breadth about 40 miles. Ileal 
property in 1880-81 of the Argyleshire part, 
£10,372; of the Inverness-shire part,£9512. 
Pop. of the whole, quoad civilia, 4091 ; 
quoad sacra, 2234. There are 9 schools 
for 506 scholars, and 5 of them, for 249, 
are new. 

ARDNEIL, sea cliff at south-west ex- 
tremity of "West Kilbride parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

ARDNISH, headland at south-west end 
of Coll Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDNOE, headland at mouth of Loch 
Crinan, Argyleshire. 

ARDO, seat near the Dee in Banchory- 
Devenick parish, Kincardineshire. 

ARDOCH, parish, containing Braco and 
Greenloaning villages, Perthshire. Acres, 
22,127. Pop. 1102. The surface adjoins 
the watershed between Strathallan and 
Strathearn, and is drained by the Knaik 
to Allan river. Ardoch House, and a 
Roman camp within that mansion's 
grounds, are chief features. The Roman 
camp is the best preserved and most 
notable in Great Britain ; has been the 
subject of much controversy as to its 
connection or non-connection with the 
battle of 'Mons Grampus,' comprises 3 
oblongs of 420 by 375, of 10G0 by 900, and 
of 2850 by 1590 feet ; underwent consider- 
able damage by the formation of General 
"Wade's military roads, yet retains distinct 
features of its original conformation, and 
possesses additional interest in the exist- 
ence, for miles around it, of remains or 
traces of Caledonian forts or entrench- 
ments. The churches are Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian ; and there 
are 3 public schools for 215 scholars. 

ARDOYNE, hill in Oyne parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

ARDPATRICK, headland, seat, and 
hamlet at south-western extremity of 
Knapdale, Argyleshire. The hamlet has 
a post office, with money order department, 
under Greenock. 

ARDRISHAIG, seaport town at entrance 
of Crinan Canal, 2 miles south-south-west 



of Lochgilphead, Argyleshire. It prospers 
in connection with the canal traffic and 
the herring fishery, and it has a post office, 
with all departments, under Lochgilphead, 
a hotel, a quoad sacra parish church, a Free 
church, an Episcopalian church, and a 
public school with about 160 scholars. 
Pop. of quoad sacra parish, 1210. 

ARDROSS, seat and post office, 4J miles 
north of Alness, Ross-shire. The seat is 
modern and castellated, and the post 
office is under Alness. 

ARDROSS, ruined baronial fortalice on 
the coast near Elie, Fife. 

ARDROSSAN, town and parish on north 
side of Ayr Bay, Ayrshire. The town is a 
police burgh, a head port, and a watering- 
place ; stands on a branch of Glasgow and 
South-Western Railway, 31J miles south- 
west of Glasgow; includes a small low 
promontory, long the site of ancient 
hamlet, baronial castle, and parochial 
church; was itself founded in 1806, with 
design of being the chief out-port of 
Glasgow; suffered such defeat of that 
design as caused it to struggle slowly 
toward importance ; consists of spacious, 
well-built streets, a fine crescent, and 
numerous villas ; contains the Earl of 
Eglinton's seaside seat of the Pavilion ; 
commands delightful views across the 
waters of the Firth of Clyde ; is so near 
Saltcoats as to render that town almost 
conjoint with it ; and has a head post 
office with all departments, a railway 
station, 3 banking offices, 3 hotels, 
2 Established churches, Free, United 
Presbyterian, Congregational, and Episco- 
palian churches, and 2 public schools. 
The harbour is artificial, was constructed 
at enormous cost, and affords facile steam- 
boat communication with Arran and 
Ireland. The arrivals at the port in 1879 
were 3748 British vessels, of 396,905 tons, 
and 54 foreign vessels of 13,308 tons ; the 
departures, 3630 British vessels, of 389,872 
tons, and 56 foreign vessels, of 14,515 tons. 
Pop. 3960. — The parish includes also the 
larger part of Saltcoats, and measures 
about 6 miles by 3f. Acres, 6668. Real 
property _ in 1880-81, £39,905. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 7754 ; quoad sacra, 3656. 
Most of the land is low, with generally 
light, fertile soil, and that in the north- 
west is hilly, culminating at 706 feet above 
sea-level. There are 4 schools for 1245 
scholars, and 2 of them, for 1000, are new. 

ARDROSSAN (NEW), quoad sacra parish 
in Ardrossan parish, Ayrshire. It was 
constituted in 1851, and its church stands 
in the town, and was built as a chapel-of- 
ease in 1844. Pop. 4022. 

ARDSHIEL, seat near junction of Loch 
Leven and Loch Linnhe, north verge of 
Argyleshire. 

ARDSKINISH, headland at south- 
western extremity of Colonsay Island, 
Argyleshire. 

ARDSTINCHAR, old castle near Ballan- 
trae, Ayrshire. 



ARD 



19 



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ARDTALNAIG, place, with public school, 
in Kenmore parish, Perthshire. 

ARDTEALLA, bay in Kildalton parish, 
Islay Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDTOE, headland and bay on north 
coast of Ardnamurchan district, Argyle- 
shire. 

ARDTORNISH. See Aktornish. 

ARDTUN, basaltic headland at mouth 
of Loch Scriden, Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

ARDUTHIE, part of Stonehaven, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

ARDVAR, small harbour in Assynt 
parish, Sutherland. 

ARDVARSAR, bay, headland, and ham- 
let on Sleat Sound, Isle of Skye. The 
hamlet has a post office under Broadford. 

ARDVERIKIE, ruined seat on west side 
of Loch Laggan, Inverness-shire. It was 
built as a hunting-lodge in 1840, by the 
Marquis of Abercorn ; was occupied, along 
with temporary erections, in the autumn 
of 1847, by the royal family and their 
household ; passed to Sir John Eamsden, 
and was destroyed by fire in 1874. 

ARDVOIRLICH, seat on south side of 
Loch Earn, Perthshire. It is the Darlin- 
varoch of Sir "Walter Scott's Legend of 
Montrose. 

ARDVOIRLICH, small bay on west side, 
near head of Loch Lomond. 

ARDVRACK, ruined ancient castle on 
Loch Assynt, Sutherland. It belonged to 
the Macleods, and was the place of the 
Marquis of Montrose's durance after his 
capture in 1650. 

ARDVRECKNISH, shooting - lodge of 
Earl of Breadalbane, on Loch Tolla, 
Glenorchy, Argyleshire. 

ARDWAL, island in Borgue parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ARDWALL, seat in Anwoth parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ARDWELL, bay, headland, village, and 
seat in Stoneykirk parish, Wigtonshire. 
The village has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Stranraer. 

AREEMING, estate in Kirkpatrick- 
Durham parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ARGYLE, district in mainland of Argyle- 
shire. It is separated from Lorn by 
Lochs Awe, Avich, and Melfort ; from 
Cowal by Loch Fyne ; from Knapdale by 
Loch Gilp and the Crinan Canal. Its 
name signifies ' The Land of the Gael.' 

ARGYLE'S BOWLING GREEN, group of 
mountains overhanging Loch Long, from 
Glencroe to Loch Goil, on east border of 
Argyleshire. The mountains culminate 
in a summit 2497 feet high ; they are all 
lofty, precipitous, and rugged ; they ex- 
hibit a wild, savage, impressive aspect ; 
they are so fissured and curved over flank 
and crown as to seem, in the distance, like 
a mass of statuary, and they figure 
superbly on the horizon of multitudes of 
views on upper parts of the Firth of Clyde. 
ARGYLESHIRE, maritime county in 
south-west of Scotland. It extends about 



115 miles southward from boundary with 
Inverness-shire to the North Channel 
opposite Ireland, and includes Tyree, MuD, 
Jura, Islay, and 46 other inhabited islands. 
Its greatest breadth on the mainland is 55 
miles, but to the extremity of the islands 
is 85 miles ; its coast line, both from in- 
tersection of its mainland by sea-lochs 
and from inclusion of the islands, is pro- 
portionately enormous ; and its land area 
is 3255 square miles. Part of its main- 
land lies north of Loch Linnhe, and com- 
prises the districts of Locheil, Ardgour, Sun- 
art, Ardnamurchan, and Morvern ; and the 
rest is divided into the districts of Lorn, 
Argyle, Cowal, Knapdale, and Kintyre. 
The islands comprehend all the Southern 
Hebrides of modern times, but not all of 
ancient times, and form the Mull group, 
with Tyree and Coll in the north, and the 
group of Jura and Islay, with Colonsay and 
Gigha, in the south. Most of the mainland, 
and most of Mull and Jura, are grandly 
mountainous, and very much of the former 
is intermixture of alpine heights, bleak 
moors, deep glens, long sea-lochs, and ex- 
tensive lakes. A large proportion of the 
whole, both continental and insular, 
displays much force and pictures queness 
of scenery. A number of the mountain 
peaks rise to altitudes of more than 3000 
feet, and many more are not much lower. 
The chief sea-lochs are Eil, Leven, Linnhe, 
Sunart, Etive, Craignish, Swein, Killis- 
port, Tarbert, Fyne, Long, Striven, 
Riddan, Tua, Na-Keal, Scriden, and 
Indal. The principal lakes are Shiel on the 
northern boundary, Awe between Lorn 
and Argyle, and Eck in Cowal. The chief 
streams are the Orchy entering Loch Awe, 
and the Awe leaving that lake ; but lesser 
streams are very numerous, and many of 
them interesting. The rocks are prin- 
cipally granite, quartz, mica slate, and 
trap, but include, at Ballachulisb and 
Easdale, plentiful and famous roofing 
slate. The ground capable of cultivation 
lies chiefly along the coast, and amounts 
to about one-eighth of the entire land 
area. A large portion of the property 
belongs to the Duke of Argyle and the 
Earl of Breadalbane. The distillation of 
whisky, carried on at Campbelton and in 
Islay, is the chief manufacture. The 
towns are Inverary, Campbelton, Dunoon, 
Oban, Lochgilphead, Ardrishaig, Tarbert, 
and Ballachulish ; and only 7 other 
seats of population have each more than 
300 inhabitants. The chief antiquities 
are Caledonian stone circles, Scandinavian 
duns, the castles of Dunstaffnage, Dunolly, 
Mingarry, Artornish, Kilchurn, Skipnish, 
Dunoon, and Carrick, and the ecclesias- 
tical ruins of Iona, Oronsay, Ardchattan, 
Kilmun, and Kintyre. Pop. in 1871, 
75,679 ; in 1881, 76,440. Real property in 
1879-80, exclusive of canals, £499,736. 

ARGYLE STONE, mountain, 2939 feet 
high, 3 miles south-east of Alvie church, 
Inverness-shire. 



ARI 



20 



ARR 



ARICHONAN, lofty hill in North Knap- 
dale parish, Argyleshire. 

ARICLINY, lake in Kildonan parish, 
Sutherland. 

ARIENAS, lake in Morvern parish, 
Argyleshire. 

ARINACRUMACHD, place, with public 
school, in Applecross parish, Ross-shire. 

ARINANCOUR, seaport village in Coll 
Island, Argyleshire. 

ARISAIG. See Aeasaig. 

ARITY, burn in Inverarity parish, 
Forfarshire. 

ARKAIG. See Akchaig. 

ARKENDEITH, ruined old fortalice in 
Avoch parish, Ross-shire. 

ARKLE, isolated tapering mountain, 
2578 feet high, in Edderachyllis parish, 
Sutherland. 

ARRXET. See Aeclet. 

ARLERY, seat near Milnathort, Kinross- 
shire. 

ARMADALE, town, 2J- miles west of 
Bathgate, Linlithgowshire. It was scarcely 
even a hamlet till within a recent period ; 
it became a town and has prospered in 
connection with mineral industries ; and it 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Bathgate, 
a railway station, Established and Free 
churches, Wesleyan and Episcopalian 
chapels, and a public school with about 
215 scholars. Pop. 2642. 

ARMADALE, rivulet, bay, fishing village, 
and headland in Farr parish, Sutherland. 
The rivulet is short, but important. The 
bay receives the rivulet, lies between 
Strathy head and Armadale headland, and 
is one of the safest landing-places on the 
north coast. The village stands on the 
bay, 20 miles west-south-west of Thurso, 
and has a post office under Thurso, and a 
small public school. 

ARMADALE, seat of Lord Macdonald on 
south-east coast of Skye Island, 7 miles 
north-east of Sleat point. It is a ca stellated 
edifice of 1815, and has well-wooded 
grounds. 

ARMANDAVE, acclivitous mountain, on 
west side of Loch Lubnaig, Perthshire. 

ARMIT, affluent of G-ala water, at 5 miles 
north- north - west of Stow, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

ARNAGE, railway station and seat, Si- 
miles north-north-west of Ellon, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

ARNAL, rivulet in Barvas parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. 

ARNATE, head -stream of the Ardle, 
Perthshire. 

ARNBARROW, hill in Fordoun parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

ARNCROACH, hamlet in Carnbee parish, 
Fife. It has a post office under Pitten- 
weem, a Free church, and a public school. 

ARNDEAN, seat, 2 miles east-north-east 
of Dollar, Clackmannanshire. 

ARNDILLY, seat on the Spey, in Boharm 
parish, Banffshire. 

ARNGASK, parish in the counties of 



Kinross, Fife, and Perth. It contains 
Damhead village, with post office under 
Kinross. Acres of the Kinross part, 1801 ; 
of the Fife part, 1834 ; of the Perth part, 
2815. Real property in 1880-81, £1897, 
£2379, £2506. Pop. 129, 219, and 199. The 
surface includes hills of the Ochils, and is 
richly diversified. The church contains 
380 sittings, and the public school has 
accommodation for 150 scholars. 

ARNGIBBON, seat and glen, about 2| 
miles east of Bucklyvie, Stirlingshire. 

ARNGOMERY, seat near Kippen, 
Stirlingshire. 

ARNHALL, hamlet in Fettercairn parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

ARNIFOUL, village in Glammis parish, 
Forfarshire. 

ARNISDALE, village in Glenelg parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

ARNISH, point in Loch Stornoway, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. A lighthouse is 
on it, with revolving light, visible at the 
distance of 12 nautical miles. 

ARNISH, bay on west side of Raasay 
Island, Inverness-shire. 

ARNISORT, sea -loch and hamlet in 
north-west of Skye Island, Inverness-shire. 
The sea-loch is a branch of Loch Snizort, 
and the hamlet has a post office under 
Portree. 

ARNISTON, seat of the Dundas famWy 
on the South Esk, 13 miles south-south- 
east of Edinburgh. 

ARNISTON COLLIERY, village in Cock- 
pen parish, Edinburghshire. 

ARNPRIOR, village in Perthshire section 
of Kippen parish. 

ARNSHEEN, quoad sacra parish in 
Colmonell parish, Ayrshire. Its post town 
is Girvan. Pop. 1059. 

ARNTULLY, village and estate, 8 miles 
north of Perth. 

AROS, village, bay, and ruined old castle, 
on east coast of Mull Island, Argyleshire. 
The village stands on the bay 9 miles 
south-south-east of Tobermory, and has a 
post office, with telegraph, under Oban, 
and an inn. The bay, though small, is 
screened by lofty cliffs, streaked with 
cascades. The old castle crowns one of 
the cliffs, was a residence of the Lords of 
the Isles, and is now a mere loftyfragment. 

ARRADOUL, place, with Episcopalian 
chapel, in Rathven parish, Banffshire. 

ARRAN, island in south of Buteshire. 
It lies in the Firth of Clyde, &J miles 
south-west of the nearest part of Bute, 
4f miles east of the nearest part of Kin- 
tyre, and 10 J west of the nearest part of 
Ayrshire. Its length, from north-by-west 
to south-by-east, is 20-J miles ; its mean 
breadth is about 6| miles ; and its area is 
105,436 acres. Its"northern half is chiefly 
a mass of rugged mountains, with altitudes 
up to 2874 feet, embosoming many deep 
ravines and glens. Its southern half is 
principally undulated, rolling, and hilly, 
with many summits of greater altitude 
than 500 feet, and with much diversity of 



AER 



21 



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intervening vale and plain. Its coast is 
mostly a narrow strip of low ground, over- 
hung by mountain or hill, and traversed 
all round by a good public road. Its 
aggregate character exhibits vast diversity, 
force, and wealth of landscape, and 
possesses more interest for geologists and 
naturalists than any other tract of equal 
extent in Great Britain. Most of it be- 
longs to the Duke of Hamilton. Brodick 
Castle, near the middle of the east coast, 
is a seat of the duke ; and Lamlash Bay, 
about 6 miles south of that seat, is a road- 
stead famous for both capacity and safety. 
Brodick and Lamlash villages are the 
largest seats of population, and draw 
many summer visitors. Pop. of the 
island, 4745. 

ARROCHAR, village and parish in north 
of Dumbartonshire. The village stands 
on east side, near head of Loch Long, 17J 
miles north of Helensburgh ; is a terminus 
of steam communication on the Upper 
Clyde, and a resort of tourists and summer 
visitors ; is engirt by very grand, striking 
scenery ; and has a post office, with money 
order department, under Dumbarton, an 
excellent hotel, an Established church of 
1847, a Free church, and a public school 
with about GO scholars. — The parish con- 
tains also the village of Tarbet, and is 
about 15 miles long. Acres, 25,858. Real 
property in 1880-81, £5291. Pop. 517. 
The surface extends about 3 miles along 
Loch Long, and nearly 14 miles along 
Loch Lomond ; is bordered along all the 
west by Argyleshire, and all the north by 
Perthshire; displays rich, diversified High- 
land scenery, and is so full of mountain 
and moor as to comprise only about 400 
acres of arable land. 

ARTARIG, fort on east side, near head 
of Loch Striven, Argyleshire. 

ARTHURLEE,severallocalitiesatandnear 
Barrhead, Renfrewshire. Cross-Arthurlee 
is a suburb, and was the place of the 
earliest bleachfield in Scotland. West 
Arthurlee is a neighbouring village. 
South Arthurlee is noted for the erec- 
tion of an extensive printfield in 1835. 
Arthurlee estate belonged anciently to a 
branch of the noble family of Darnley, 
but underwent division among several pro- 
prietors, acquired several mansions, and 
became a populous seat of manufacturing 
industry. Arthurlee House, one of the 
mansions, is a handsome modern edifice. 
An ancient cross-shaft stands near that 
mansion, and was reinstated on its original 
site there in 1872. 

ARTHUR'S OVEN, famous quondam 
Roman antiquity, on a site near Carron 
ironworks, Stirlingshire. It was an 
edifice in form resembling a bee-hive, and 
measured 88 feet in circumference, but 
was destroyed in 1743. 

ARTHUR'S SEAT, conspicuous hill in 
Queen's Park, contiguous to Edinburgh. 
It ascends from a base about § mile long ; 
culminates in a conical summit 822 feet 



above sea-level ; presents to the west a 
precipitous face, with shoulder and skirt 
outlined like a lion couchant, and com- 
mands from its summit an exquisite 
panoramic view. 

ARTHUR'S SEAT, rock on north side 
of Dunbarrow Hill, in Dunnichen parish, 
Forfarshire. 

ARTHUR'S STONE, ancient standing 
stone and modern seat in Coupar- Angus 
parish, Perthshire. 

ARTORNISH, ruined ancient castle on 
coast of Morvern parish, Argyleshire. It 
was a great stronghold of the Lords of the 
Isles, and a meeting-place of their national 
councils ; is graphically described as 
restored by his imagination in Sir Walter 
Scott's Lord of the Isles, and consists now 
of little else than remains of a tower and 
fragments of outworks. 

ASCAIG, lake in Kildonan parish, 
Sutherland. 

ASCOG, bay, village, lake, and estate on 
east side of Bute Island, Buteshire. The 
bay is about 1J miles south-east of Rothe- 
say. The village is chiefly a long chain of 
villas and ornate cottages, and has a post 
office under Rothesay, and a Free church. 
The lake lies adjacent, and has an area of 
75J acres. The estate, with mansion, was 
sold in 1876 for £39,420. 

ASCRIB, island in Duirnish parish, 
Skye, Inverness-shire. 

ASHARE, section of Edderachyllis par- 
ish, Sutherland. 

ASHBURN, seat in Innerkip parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

ASHDALE, rivulet with two cascades, 
and glen with grand scenery, in southern 
extremity of Arran Island, Buteshire. 

ASHDOW, waterfall on west border of 
Killearn parish, Stirlingshire. 

ASHFIELD, place, with public school, in 
North Knapdale parish, Argyleshire. 

ASHGROVE, seat and small lake in 
Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire. 

ASHIESTIEL, seat on _ the Tweed, 7| 
miles north-west of Selkirk. It was Sir 
Walter Scott's residence, the place where 
he wrote a number of his works, during the 
ten years prior to his removal to Abbots- 
ford. 

ASHINTULLY, seat in Kirkmichael 
parish, Perthshire. 

ASHKIRK, village in Roxburghshire, 
and parish partly also in Selkirkshire. 
The village stands on Ale river, 6 miles 
north-north-west of Hawick, and has a 
post office under Hawick, a parochial 
church, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 100 scholars. The parish 
comprises 8339 acres in Roxburghshire, 
and 3369 in Selkirkshire. Real property 
in 1880-81, £5163 and £2738. Pop. 362 
and 138. The surface includes pieces of 
level land on the Ale, but is elsewhere all 
hilly. There are 2 schools, with accommo- 
dation for 1 74 scholars. 

ASHLEY, seat in Ratho parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 



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ASHLEY, lake in Dores parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

ASHTON, southern part of Gourock, 
Renfrewshire. It extends south-westward 
along the coast, opposite Kirn and Dunoon, 
and consists chiefly of villas and neat two- 
storey houses, principally on a narrow 
belt of low ground, but partly on steep, 
overhanging braes. 

ASEADIL, headland on north-west of 
Ardnamurchan peninsula, Argyleshire. 
ASKAIG (PORT). See Port-Askaig. 
ASLEISE, ruined old baronial f ortalice, 5 
miles east of Forres, Elginshire. 

ASSEL, burn, entering Stinchar river, 
Ayrshire. 

ASSLEED, affluent of the Ythan, between 
NewDeer and Methlick parishes, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

ASSYNT, parish in extreme south-west 
of Sutherland. It contains Lochinver 
village, and has a post office of its own 
name under Lairg. Its length is 20miles, its 
greatest breadth 11 miles. Real property in 
1880-81, £6649. Pop. , quoad civilia, 2776 ; 
quoad sacra, 1390. The coast includes all 
the peninsula terminating in Store Point, 
and goes thence to south side of head of 
Kyle-Scow ; and the shore for the most 
part is rocky, bold, and dangerous. Old- 
ney Island, and numerous islets and in- 
sulated rocks, lie adjacent. The interior 
is one of the most rugged tracts in Scot- 
land, and may be described as mainly an 
assemblage of towering mountains, rocky 
hills, wild crags, and deep ravines, with 
interspersion of lakes and numerous 
lakelets and tarns. Quinag, Suilven, 
Canisp, and Benmore-Assynt are chief 
mountains, and the last has an altitude of 
3281 feet. Loch Assynt is the chief lake, 
measures 6f miles in length, and about 1 
mile in extreme breadth ; has intricate 
shores and a winding contour, and is 
flanked and overhung by diversified crags 
and mountains. Several caves and some 
natural arches are on the coast, and some 
caves are in the interior. Clachtoll dun, 
Ardvrack ruined castle, and Calda ruined 
mansion are the chief antiquities. The 
churches are 2 Established and 2 Free. 
There are 8 schools for 539 scholars, and 
4 of them, for 330, are new. 

ASTOUNE, old f ortalice in Alford parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, village and parish 
in north-west of Haddingtonshire. The 
village stands 3 miles north-north-east of 
Haddington, adjoins the scene of an early 
battle between the Scotch and the English, 
and has a post office under Drera, a modern 
church with about 500 sittings, remains of 
a church of the 12th century, and a public 
school for 161 scholars. — The parish con- 
tains also Drem village, and comprises 
5077 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£11,724. Pop. 762. The surface touches 
the north base of the Garleton Hills, and 
has considerable inequalities. Gilmerton, 
the seat of Sir David Kinloch, Bart., is a 



chief feature, and a ruined strong man- 
sion of the Earls of "Winton is a chief 
antiquity. 

ATHOLE, district in extreme north of 
Perthshire. It comprises an area of about 
450 square miles ; includes a prominent 
portion of the Central Grampians, and an 
extensive deer forest ; exhibits features of 
alpine height, deep glen, rushing stream, 
large lake, and massive wood, eminently 
picturesque; gives the titles of earl, mar- 
quis, and duke to a branch of the family 
of Murray, and contains the duke's chief 
seat, Blair Castle. 

AUCHABER, seat in Forgue parish, 

AUCHANAULT, place, 22} miles west of 
Dingwall, Ross-shire. It has a post office 
designated of Ross-shire, and a railway 
station. 

AUCHANS, seat in Dundonald parish, 
Ayrshire. 

AUCHENAIRN, village, 3 miles north-by- 
east of Glasgow. It has a public school 
with about 170 scholars. Pop. 634. 

AUCHENBATHIE, ruined ancient castle, 
once the property of Sir "William Wallace, 
4J miles east-south-east of Lochwinnoch, 
Renfrewshire. 

AUCHENBLAE, village, 5£ miles north- 
north-east of Laurencekirk, Kincardine- 
shire. It has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Fordoun, a banking office, a hotel, a town 
hall, and a public school. 

AUCHENCAIRN, bay, village, and quoad 
sacra parish in Kirkcudbrightshire. The 
bay opens at 7 miles east of Kirkcudbright ; 
is about 2| miles long and 1 mile wide ; has 
Heston Isle across its mouth, causing it to 
look like a lake ; and possesses both harbour 
for small craft and shelter for vessels of bur- 
den. — The village stands at the bay's head, 
is a sea-bathing resort, and has beautiful 
environs, a post office, with money order 
department, under Castle-Douglas, 2 inns, 
Established and Free churches, and mixed 
and infant public schools, with about 173 
and 157 scholars. Pop. 441. — The quoad 
sacra parish is part of Rerrick, and was 
constituted prior to 1870. Pop. 1037. 

AUCHENCRUIVE, seat and railway 
station in St. Quivox parish, near 
Ayr. 

AUCHENDAVY, hamlet on site of a fort 
of Antoninus' Wall, 2 miles east of Kirk- 
intilloch, Dumbartonshire. 

AUCHENDRANE, seat of Sir Peter Coats, 
and quondam castle, the scene of Sir 
"Walter Scott's Ayrshire Tragedy, on left 
bank of the Doon, near the Ayr and 
Girvan Railway, Ayrshire. 

AUCHENDRYNE, suburb of Castleton- 
Braemar, Aberdeenshire. Pop. 269. 

AUCHENGEAN, hamlet in Falkirk 
parish, Stirlingshire. It has a public 
school with about 84 scholars. 

AUCHENGELLOCH, wild tract, notable 
for conventicles of the Covenanters, in 
Avondale parish, Lanarkshire. 



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23 



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AUCHENGOOL, estate in Eerrick parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

AUCHENGRAY, place, 5| miles north of 
Carstairs Junction, Lanarkshire. It has 
a post office under Lanark, and a railwaj 7 
station. 

AUCHENHEATH, village, 9J miles south 
of Larkhall, Lanarkshire. It has a railway- 
station, and a public school with about 
152 scholars. Pop. 612. 

AUCHENLOCH, small village in Cadder 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

AUCHENREOCH, seat in Strickathrow 
parish, Forfarshire. 

AUCHENREOCH, lake in Urr parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

AUCHENROATH, seat near Rothes 
village, Elginshire. 

AUCHENSAUGH, hill, 2\ miles south of 
Douglas, Lanarkshire. It was the scene 
of a notable swearing of Solemn League 
and Covenant by a body of Cameronians. 

AUCHENTORLIE, seat, near Paisley, 
Renfrewshire. 

AUCHENTORLIE, seat and vestiges of 
ancient hill-fort, in Old Kilpatrick parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

AUCHERNACH, seat in Strathdon 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

AUCHINBLAE. See AuCHENBLAE. 

AUCHINCASS, ruined ancient castle on 
Evan river, near Beattock, Dumfries- 
shire. 

AUCHINCHEW, cliff-walled amphi- 
theatre, vale, and cascades, on south coast 
of Arran Island, Buteshire. 

AUCHINCLOACH, burn, and lands with 
traditions of the battle of 1645, in Kilsyth 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

AUCHINCLOICH, hamlet in Ochiltree 
parish, Ayrshire. It has a post office 
under Kilmarnock. 

AUCHINCRAW, village, 3 miles north- 
north-west of Chirnside, Berwickshire. 
It has a post office under Ayton. 

AUCHINDACHY, railway station, 3\ 
miles south-west of Keith, Banffshire. 

AUCHINDINNY, village on the North 
Esk, with railway station, 8 miles by road, 
but 12 by railway, south of Edinburgh. 
Pop. 405. 

AUCHINDOIR, parish, averagely 7 miles 
north-west of Alford, Aberdeenshire. It 
contains Lumsden village, with post office 
under Aberdeen, and it measures about 7 
miles in both length and breadth. Acres, 
15,310. Eeal property in 1880-81, £6405. 
Pop. 1514. The surface includes part of 
Buck of Cabrach Mountain ; comprises 
hill-ridges of very various height, and 
intervening vales of very various width ; 
and is traversed by Bogie river. The seats 
are Clova, Craig, and Druminnor; and 
the chief antiquity is the ruin of an 
ancient church with Saxon doorway. The 
churches are Established, 2 Free, United 
Presbyterian, and Episcopalian, and there 
are 2 public schools for 200 scholars. 

AUCHINDUNE, ruined old castle in 
Mortlach parish, Banffshire. 



AUCHINFLOWER, place, with public 
school, in Ballantrae parish, Ayrshire. 

AUCHINGRAMONT, suburb of Hamil- 
ton, Lanarkshire. It has a United Presby- 
terian church. 

AUCHINHALRIG, village in Bellie parish, 
Banffshire. 

AUCHINLECK — vulgarly AFFLECK,— 
town and parish in east of Kyle district, 
Ayrshire. The town stands on Lugar 
water, 13f miles south-south-east of Kil- 
marnock, and has a post office, with money 
order department, under Cumnock ; a rail- 
way station, a parochial church, a United 
Original Secession church, and a public 
school with about 303 scholars. Pop. 1528. 
— The parish contains also the villages of 
Common - Dyke, Cronberry, and Dern- 
conner, most of the town of Lugar, and 
small part of the town of Cumnock. Its 
length is 16 miles, its mean breadth not 
more than 2. Acres, 24,129. Real 
property in 1880-81, £31,330. Pop. 6681. 
The eastern section is hilly and wild, and 
includes some lofty summits ; the western 
section, low, fertile, and embellished ; and 
the middle section is of medium character. 
About one-third of the entire area is in 
tillage. Auchinleck House, 3 miles west 
of the town, was erected by the judge 
Lord Auchinleck, father of the biographer 
of Dr. Johnson. A ruined baronial 
fortalice, the residence of the early Bos- 
wells from the time of James IV., stands 
in that mansion's neighbourhood, and 
remains of another old fortalice are in the 
eastern district. There are 6 schools for 
1248 scholars, and 1 of them and an 
enlargement for 250 are new. 

AUCHINLECK, lofty hill, 4 miles west of 
Queensberry, Dumfriesshire. 

AUCHINLILLY, cascade on the Carron, 
west of Denny, Stirlingshire. 

AUCHINLOCHAN, village in Kilfinan 
parish, Argyleshire. Pop. 340. 

AUCHINMULLY, village in east side of 
Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire. 

AUCHINRAITH, village in Blantyre 
parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 687. 

AUCHINSTARRY, seat in Kilsyth 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

AUCHINSTARRY, village in Cumber- 
nauld parish, Dumbartonshire. Pop. 626. 

AUCHINTIBBER, village in Blantyre 
parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 435. 

AUCHINTOUL, seat in Marnock parish, 
Banffshire. 

AUCHIRIES, hamlet in Cruden parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a public school 
with about 167 scholars. 

AUCHLEE, estate, with two well-pre- 
served ancient Caledonian stone circles, in 
Banchory -De venick parish, Kincardine- 
shire. 

AUCHLEEKS, hamlet and seat in Blair- 
Athole parish, Perthshire. The hamlet 
has a post office under Blair- Athole. 

AUCHLEVEN, village in Premnay 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Insch. 



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24 



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AUCHLOCHAN, seat near Lesmahagow, 
Lanarkshire. 

AUCHLOSSEN, lake in Lumphanan and 
Aboyne parishes, Aberdeenshire. 

AUCHLUNIES, seat in Maryculter parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

AUCHLUNEART, seat in Boharm parish, 
Banffshire. 

AUCHMEDDEN, estate, with public 
school, and with reach of bold coast, in 
Aberdonr parish, Aberdeenshire. 

AUCHMILL, town, with large quarries 
of fine granite, 3 miles north-west of 
Aberdeen. It has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Aberdeen. Pop. 1319. 

AUCHMILLAN, village, 2 miles north of 
Mauchline, Ayrshire. 

AUCHMITHIE, fishing village, 3| miles 
north-east of Arbroath, Forfarshire. It has 
a post office under Arbroath, a chapel-of- 
ease, and an ingenious water supply pro- 
vided in 1880. A range of bold cliffs pierced 
with caves is contiguous, and figures as 
the scene of the escape of Sir Arthur and 
Miss "VVardour in Sir Walter Scott's 
Antiquary. A large quantity of old coins 
and metal tokens was discovered in the 
neighbouring beach in 1877. Pop. of the 
village, 359. 

AUCHMORE, a seat of the Earl of 
Breadalbane, at the head of Loch Tay, 
Perthshire. 

AUCHMORE, place, with public school, 
in Lochalsh parish, Ross-shire. 

AUCHMUTY, hamlet in Markinch parish, 
Fife. 
AUCHNACARRY. See Achnacarry. 
AUCHNACRAIG. See Achnaceaig. 
AUCHNAGATT, place, 1\ miles north 
of Ellon, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Ellon, and a railway station. 

AUCHNASHEEN, place, 28| miles west 
of Dingwall, Ross-shire. It has a post 
office, designated Auchnasheen, Ross-shire ; 
a railway station, and a hotel. 

AUCHNASHELLACH, place, 12£ miles 
south-west of Auchnasheen, Ross-shire. 
It has a post office under Lochcarron, and 
a railway station. 

AUCHRY, seat in Monquhitter parish, 
A.Tdg r< 1 g 6 nsliirs. 

AUCHTERARDER, town and parish in 
south-east of Perthshire. The town stands 
about a mile from a railway station of its 
own name, 14 miles south-west of Perth ; 
dates from ancient times, and was once a 
royal burgh ; passed through long declension 
and much disaster, but eventually became 
a prosperous seat of manufacture ; figured 
in the first and not the least of the church 
conflicts which led to the Disruption of 
1843 ; comprises a main street upwards of 
a mile long, and has a head post office 
with all departments, 2 banking offices, 
2 hotels, a towered town-hall of 1872, 
Established, Free, United Presbyterian, 
and Evangelical Union churches, and 2 
public schools. Pop. 2666. — The parish 
contains also Aberuthven, Smithyhaugh, 



and Borland-Park villages, and mea- 
sures nearly 8 miles in length and about 3 
miles in breadth. Acres, 11,181. Real 
property in 1880-81, £19,452. Pop. 3648. 
The northern section undulates or de- 
clines to the river Earn, and is nearly all 
arable ; and the southern section rises 
toward the summit line of the Ochil Hills. 
Chief seats are Auchterarder Castle and 
Auchterarder House ; and a chief antiquity 
is the fragment of a strong castle of 
Malcolm Canmore. There are 5 schools for 
671 scholars, and2of them, for 360,are new. 
AUCHTERDERRAN, parish, containing 
most of Lochgelly town, and part of 
Cardenden village, in south-west of Fife. 
It measures about 5 miles by 3, and com- 
prises 7818 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £19,295. Pop., quoad civilia, 
4332 ; quoad sacra, 1747. The surface is 
beautified by Lochgelly Lake, and about 
500 acres of wood, and includes variously 
flat ground, valley, and hill. The churches 
are Established, Free, and United Presby- 
terian. There are 3 public schools for 
1067 scholars, and 1 of them and an 
enlargement for 510 are new. 

AUCHTERGAVEN,— vulgarly OCHTER- 
GAEN, — village and parish in Strathtay 
district, Perthshire. The village stands 
about 3 miles north-west of Stanley rail- 
way station, and 9 north-north-west of 
Perth, and is a straggling place. The 
parish contains also the post office village 
of Bankfoot, the villages of Cairniehill 
and "Waterloo, and most of the post office 
village of Stanley. Its length is 10 miles ; 
its mean breadth is about 3 miles ; and 
its area is 12,941 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £15,048. Pop. 2195. The surface 
rises from the Tay, up Strathardie, to the 
summit of a low range of the Grampians, 
and consists chiefly of swelling knolls and 
sloping ridges. The seats are Stanley 
House, Airleywight, and Tullybelton. The 
poet Nicol was a native, and sang the 
beauties of the landscape in his ' Bonnie 
Ordie Braes.' The churches are the 
parochial, with nearly 1200 sittings, 2 
Free, and a United Presbyterian. There are 
2 public schools for 550 scholars, and 1 of 
them and an enlargement for 450 are new. 
AUCHTERHOUSE, village and parish on 
south-west border of Forfarshire. The 
village stands 7 miles by road, but much 
farther by railway, north-west of Dundee, 
and has a post office, with telegraph, under 
Dundee, and a railway station. The parish 
measures about 4J by Z\ miles, and com- 
prises 5708 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £10,366. Pop. 661. The sur- 
face rises from the narrow vale of Dighty 
water, northward to summits of the Sidlaw 
Hills, is diversified by undulating heights, 
and becomes steep and precipitous in the 
north. The chief residences are Auchter- 
house and Balbouchly, the former an old 
seat of the Earl of Airlie ; and the chief 
antiquity is the fragment of a strong 
baronial fortalice, said to have been visited 



AUC 



25 



AUL 



by Sir William "Wallace. There are 2 
public schools, male and female, -with 
about 77 and 53 scholars. 

AUCHTERLESS, hamlet and parish on 
north-west border of Aberdeenshire. The 
hamlet lies 6 miles south-by- west of Turriff, 
and has a post office, with telegraph, under 
Turriff, and a railway station. The parish 
contains also the village of Gordonstown, 
and is about 8 miles long. Acres, 16,826. 
Real property in 1879-80, £14,772. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 2144 ; quoad sacra, 1948. 
The surface comprises the upper part of 
the Ythan's basin, all north-eastward from 
a line within about a mile from that 
river's source. Chief antiquities are traces 
of a Roman camp, and remains of numerous 
ancient Caledonian stone circles. The 
churches are Established and Free. There 
are 4 schools, with accommodation for 365 
scholars 

AUCHTERMAIRNIE, seat in Kennoway 
parish, Fife. 

AUCHTERMUCHTY, town and parish 
on north-west border of Fife. The town 
stands adjacent to the Kinross and Perth 
Railway, 4f miles west of Ladybank 
Junction ; dates from ancient times, and 
was once a royal burgh ; figures in the 
humorous poem ascribed to James ¥., and 
entitled, ' The Wife of Auchtermuchty ; ' 
comprises streets and lanes of irregular 
construction ; has a head post office with 
all departments, a railway station, 2 bank- 
ing offices, 2 chief inns, a public hall, an 
Established church, a Free church, 2 
United Presbyterian churches, and 2 
public schools. Pop. 1673. — The parish 
contains also most of Dunshelt village. 
Acres, 3530. Real property in 1880-81, 
£S498. Pop. 4332. The limits include a 
portion of the rich strath of the Eden, and 
a portion of the Ochil Hills. The seats 
are Myres Castle, Bellevue, and Southfield. 
There are 5 schools for 498 scholars, and 
1 of them, for 70, is new. 

AUCHTERNEED, small village at head 
of Strathpeffer, and skirt of Benwyvis, 
Ross-shire. 

AUCHTERTOOL, village and parish in 
south-west of Fife. The village stands 2f 
miles east of Cowdenbeath railway station, 
and 4J west of Kirkcaldy, and has a post 
office under Kirkcaldy. Pop., with New- 
bigging, about 240. — The parish comprises 
2738 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£7789. Pop. 706. The Cullalo Hills, 
with very steep acclivity, are in the west ; 
and a deep, narrow ravine, with cascade, 
is in _ the east. Other chief features are 
Camilla Loch, and ruined Hallyards House. 
There are 2 schools for 169 scholars. 

AUCHTERTYRE, village in Newtyle 
parish, Forfarshire. 

AUCHTON, hamlet in Balquhidder 
parish, Perthshire. 

AUCHTYFARDLE, seat near Lesmaha- 
gow, Lanarkshire. 

AUCHVISH, place, with public school, 
in South Knapdale parish, Argyleshire. 



AUGMUND'S HOW, ruined ancient fort 
on Elsness promontory, Sunday Island, 
Orkney. 

AUGUSTUS(FORT). See Fort-Augustus. 

AULDBAR, railway station, and modern- 
ized ancient castle, 5 miles east-north-east 
of Forfar. 

AULD DAVIE, head-stream of the Ythan, 
Aberdeenshire. 

AULDEARN, village and parish in north- 
east of Nairnshire. The village stands 
1\ miles south-east of Nairn, dates from 
remote times, and has a post office under 
Nairn. Pop. 363. — The parish measures 
about 7 miles by 5, and comprises 14,035 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £10,082. 
Pop. 1292. The surface skirts the Moray 
Firth, is low, yet diversified for 3 miles 
thence, and rises afterwards into con- 
siderable hills. The battle of 1645, 
between the Marquis of Montrose and 
General Hurry, was fought in the vicinity 
of the village. The seats are Boath and 
Lethen ; and the chief antiquities are the 
old fortalice of Inshoch Castle, vestiges of 
Moyness Castle, and remains of 2 ancient 
Caledonian stone circles. The churches 
are Established, Free, and United Presby- 
terian ; and the public schools are 2, with 
about 123 scholars. 

AULDFIELD. See Pollockshaws. 

AULDGIRTH, place on the Nith, near 
Glasgow and South-Western Railway, 8 
miles north-north-west of Dumfries. It 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Dumfries, 
a railway station, an inn, and a 
bridge. 

AULDHOUSE, bum, entering the White 
Cart at Pollockshaws, Renfrewshire. 

AULDNACHUIRN, burn, entering the 
Lossie in Dallas parish, Elginshire. 

AULDWICK, dismantled ancient baro- 
nial stronghold, on coast of Wick parish, 
Caithness. 

AULD WIFE'S LIFT, cromlech, 18 feet 
long and 11 feet broad, in Baldernock 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

AULTDINNY, burn in Aboyne parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

AULTGRANDE, small river, entering 
Cromarty Firth about 10 miles north-east 
of Dingwall, Ross-shire. It issues from 
Loch Glass, runs about 7 miles north-east- 
ward, traverses a profound long chasm, 
and makes a series of cascades. 

AULTGUISH, rivulet, traversing moun- 
tain forest of Rinsky, to north-west side 
of Loch Ness, nearly opposite the Falls 
of Foyers, Inverness-shire. It makes one 
leap of at least 100 feet, and is elsewhere 
a continuous cataract. 

AULTKOLLIE, deep tortuous ravine in 
Loth parish, Sutherland. 

AULTNACAILLICH, birth-place of the 
famous Gaelic poet Donn, in Durness 
parish, Sutherland. 

AULTNAHARRA. See Altnahabba. 

AULTNANCOORACH, affluent of the 
Aultgrande, Ross-shire. 



AUL 



26 



AWE 



AULTROY, burn in Aboyne parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

AULTSIGH, rivulet, issuing from tarn 
on a shoulder of Mealf ourvounie Mountain, 
and descending in cataracts and leaps to 
north-west side of Loch Ness, Inverness- 
shire. 

AUQUHIBIE, seat in Dunnottar parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

AUSDALE, hamlet, 4 miles south-west 
of Berriedale, Caithness ; and rivulet 
passing that hamlet and leaping into the 
sea over a lofty cliff. 

AUSKERRY, small island, 2J miles south 
of Stronsay, Orkney. A lighthouse is on 
it, with fixed light visible at the distance 
of 16 nautical miles. Pop. 8. 

AVEN, lake and river in south-west 
extremity of Banffshire. The lake has an 
elevation of about 1800 feet above sea-level, 
and is immediately overhung by Cairngorm 
Mountains. The river issues from the 
lake, traverses for some distance an alpine 
glen, and runs altogether about 30 miles, 
chiefly northward, to the Spey at Ballin- 
dalloch. 

AVICH, lake and stream in Dalavich 
old parish, Argyleshire. The lake com- 
mences 4 miles east of head of Loch 
Melfort ; measures about 3J miles in 
length and 7 furlongs in width ; has fine 
ornature of outline, banks, and islets ; and 
is associated with 2 notable old Celtic 
poems. The stream issues from the lake, 
and runs about 2 miles to Loch Awe. 

AVIEMORE, place, adjacent to Highland 
Railway, llf miles north-east of Kingussie, 
Inverness-shire. It has a station on the 
railway, and a post office designated of 
Inverness-shire, with money order and 
telegraph departments. 

AVOCH, fishing town and parish in 
Ardmeanach district, Ross-shire. The 
town stands on a small bay of its own 
name, If mile south-west of Fortrose, 
and has- pleasant environs, a post office, 
with money order department, under 
Inverness, an inn, a good pier, Established, 
Free, and Congregational churches, and 
a public school with about 105 scholars. 
Pop. 905. — The parish is about 4 miles 
long and 2\ miles broad. Real property 
in 1880-81, £7395. Pop. 1691. The 
surface is partly a gentle slope, partly a 
diversity of hill and dale, partly a portion of 
the Mullbuy. The seats are Avoch House 
and Rosehaugh ; and the antiquities are 
the ruined fortalice of Arkendeith, and 
the site of Avoch Castle, which belonged 
to successively the Earls of Ross and 
the Crown. There are 3 schools for 382 
scholars, and 1 of them, for 160, is new. 

AVOCHY, seat near Huntly, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

AVON, river, running about 18 miles 
eastward and north-eastward, partly be- 
tween Stirlingshire and Linlithgowshire, 
to Firth of Forth, at 2£ miles west of 
Borrowstounness. 

AVON, river, running about 16 miles 



north-eastward and 5| north-westward to 
the Clyde, in vicinity of Hamilton, Lanark- 
shire. It traverses first a moorish tract, 
next a beautiful diversified lowland tract, 
next a richly romantic dell. 
AVONBANK, seat near Larkhall, Lan- 

AVONBRIDGE, village on the Avon, 3£ 
miles west - south - west of Slamannan, 
Stirlingshire. It has a railway station 
and a United Presbyterian church. 

AVONDALE, parish, containing Strath- 
aven town, on west border of Lanarkshire. 
Its length is about 14 miles, its breadth 
about 8 miles, its area 37,533 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £39,948. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 5466 ; quoad sacra, 3216. The 
area is pretty equally bisected by the 
Avon, and the lands comprise flat tracts 
on that river, rising grounds from both 
sides of these flats, and moorish eminences 
and mosses in the west. Several mansions 
are near Strathavon, and the ruined famous 
castle of Avondale is in it. There are 

2 Established churches, a Free church, 

3 United Presbyterian churches, and 6 
schools for 855 scholars. 

AVONDHU, head- stream of the river 
Forth. 

AVONHEAD, village in New Monkland 
parish, Lanarkshire. It has a public 
school, with about 130 scholars. Pop. 435. 

AVONHOLM, seat in Glassford parish, 

AVONSUIDH, a seat of the Earl of Dun- 
more, in Harris, Outer Hebrides. 

AVONTON, seat near Linlithgow. 

AWE, small lake, 3 miles south of head 
of Loch Assynt, Sutherland. It lies 
among massive mountains, and contains 
wooded islets. 

AWE, lake, river, and pass in central 
part of mainland of Argyleshire. The 
lake extends 24 miles north -north-east- 
ward to base of Bencruachan, has a mean 
breadth of not more than a mile, but ex- 
pands towards the foot to a mean breadth 
of about 2 miles ; forms there 2 off- 
sets or horns, the one receiving the river 
Orchy, the other discharging the river 
Awe ; exhibits great variety of scenery, 
passing from plainness at the head to gor- 
geous grandeur at the foot ; looks, in its 
broadest parts, to be remarkably small, as 
compared with the magnitude and loftiness 
of the mountains overhanging it ; has 
everywhere, but especially toward the 
foot, much intricacy and ornature of shore 
line ; possesses much diversity and wealth 
of trout-fishing, all open to the public ; 
began, in the summer of 1876, to be tra- 
versed by a screw-steamer, in communica- 
tion with public conveyances to its shores ; 
is now crossed near its foot by the Callan- 
der and Oban Railway, sweeping round to 
the gorge of Awe river; and has at its 
foot a railway station, a steamboat pier, 
and a new hotel. — The river leaves the 
lake in calm current, enters a narrow, 
deep, stupendous gorge, traverses there a 



AYL 



27 



AYR 



wildly broken, rocky bottom, and goes 4 
miles north-westward, mostly in tumultu- 
ous rush, to Loch Etive at Bunawe. — The 
pass occurs in the river's gorge ; is flanked 
at one part by a precipice 1308 feet high ; 
was formerly traversable there only by an 
almost mural ascent, commanded at the 
top by a fortalice, but is now facilitated 
by a bridge ; and was the scene of an 
exploit by Sir William Wallace, and a 
skirmish between Bang Kobert Bruce and 
Macdougal of Lorn. 

AYLORT, sea-loch, between Moydart 
and Arasaig districts, Inverness-shire. It 
is 4 miles wide at the mouth, divides 
into 2 parts, Loch Aylort proper on the 
south, Loch-na-Nua on the north, and has 
a total length from west to east of 9 
miles. 

AYR, river, bay, and headlands in Ayr- 
shire. The river rises on the eastern 
border of the widest part of the county ; 
traverses, first, bleak moors and hill pas- 
tures, nest, an ornate plain, next, a low 
narrow dell ; is subject to such freshets as 
make it, in Burns' phrase, ' just one long 
lengthened tumbling sea ; ' and runs alto- 
gether about 33 miles westward to Ayr 
bay at Ayr town. — The bay is a lateral 
expansion of the Firth of Clyde ; has a 
land-line in nearly the form of a segment 
of a circle, with prevailingly low shores ; 
and measures 20 miles south-south-east- 
ward from Fail-lie Head to Ayr Heads, 
and nearly 7 miles in mean breadth. — The 
headland, or Ayr Heads, are rocky, pre- 
cipitous projections from the skirt of 
Brown Carrick Hill, and have a height of 
about 200 feet. 

AYR, town and parish on coast of Ayr- 
shire. The town stands at mouth of Ayr 
river, and is bisected by it into nearly 
equal parts; comprises, on the left side, 
Ayr proper, on the right side, Newton- 
upon-Ayr, Wallacetown, and Content ; 
forms, nevertheless, one strictly compact 
town ; commands charming views around 
the bay and across to Arran ; ranks as a 
royal and parliamentary burgh, a seat of 
county and judiciary courts, and a head 
port ; consists partly of handsome square 
and streets, partly of neat but plain 
thoroughfares, partly of poor or antiquated 
quarters ; includes a new suburb, com- 
pleted to the extent of about 60 cottages 
in May 1880 ; carries on a variety and 
large aggregate of manufacture and com- 
merce ; publishes 3 newspapers ; and has 
a head post office with all departments, 
2 railway stations, 7 banking offices, 5 
hotels, several ornamental public build- 
ings, 3 Established churches, 4 Free 
churches, 2 United Presbyterian churches, 
Original Secession, Congregational, Evan- 
gelical Union, Episcopalian, Methodist, 
Moravian, and Eoman Catholic churches, 
and a number of educational and miscel- 
laneous institutions. The Town Buildings 
and Assembly Booms, at corner of High 
Street and Sandgate, are an elegant edifice, 



with tower and spire 226 feet high. The 
Municipal Court-rooms and Public Hall, 
contiguous to those buildings, were com- 
pleted in September 1881, at a cost of 
about £30,000 ; and the hall in them has 
accommodation for about 1500 persons. 
The County Buildings, in Wellington 
Square, are on the model of an ancient 
temple in Rome, and cost upwards of 
£30,000. Wallace Tower, in High Street, 
is a Gothic structure of 1830, with a statue 
of Wallace in its front, and with the 
' dungeon clock ' removed to it from an 
old demolished steeple. The ' Twa Brigs ' 
of Burns' dialogue stand within 500 yards 
of each other; and the new one showed 
signs of giving way in January 1877, and 
was replaced by a five-arched structure, at 
a cost of £16,300. One of the Established 
churches is a cruciform edifice of the 17th 
century, and was erected in lieu of a very 
ancient one which Cromwell environed 
with a large fort, and converted into an 
armoury. The new Academy was opened 
in September 1880, cost about £8000, and 
has accommodation for about 550 scholars. 
2 new public schools were erected in 
1875, at a cost of £8672, and have accom- 
modation for 1000 scholars ; and a new 
industrial school was erected in 1876, at a 
cost of £5500. A new hospital, measuring 
240 by 120 feet, was founded in 1881. 
The harbour was formerly shallow and 
inconvenient, but underwent great im- 
provement and extension in 1874-78, at a 
cost of about £200,000. A new dock was 
then formed, measuring 650 feet by 400, 
comprising 7J acres of water area, rising 
in its quay walls 33 feet from foundation 
to coping, and having a water depth on 
the sill of 22 feet at high water of spring 
tides. Three hydraulic hoists also were 
then erected, at a further cost of £9700. 
A new slip dock and a fine esplanade were 
contracted for in May 1880, to cost £13,036. 
The shipping in the year 1879 comprised 
2392 British vessels, of 251,303 tons, and 
16 foreign vessels, of 4665 tons, inward ; 
and 2367 British vessels, of 236,858 tons, 
and 15 foreign vessels, of 4480 tons, out- 
ward. The parliamentary burgh unites 
with Irvine, Campbelton, Inverary, and 
Oban in sending a member to Parliament. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £94,078. Pop. 
20,987. 

The parish includes the royal burgh, 
extends from the river Ayr to the river 
Doon, and measures about 5^ miles by 4. 
Acres, 6935. Real property of landward 
part in 1880-81, £17,204. Pop. of the 
whole, quoad civilia, 10,086 ; quoad sacra, 
9582! The western section is low, flat, and 
fertile ; but the eastern section rises 
gradually to the boundary, and is com- 
paratively unproductive. The chief seats 
are Castlehill, Rozelle, Newark, Cambus- 
doon, Doonholm, Bellisle, and Mount 
Charles. The parochial charge is double ; 
and there is a church at Alloway. The 
burgh has 17 schools, with accom- 



AYR 



28 



BAC 



modation for about 4226 scholars, and 
Alloway has 1 with accommodation for 
148. 

AYR ROAD, railway station, 1£ miles 
south-east of Larkhall, Lanarkshire. 

AYRSHIRE, maritime county on east 
side of Firth of Clyde, bounded inland by 
Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, 
Kirkcudbrightshire, and Wigtonshire. Its 
length, from north to south, is 60 miles ; 
its breadth varies from a few miles to 30 ; 
and its area is 1149 square miles. Its form 
is proximately that of a half-moon, with 
the concavity to the west, but curved much 
more in the north than in the south. Its 
natural features and popular nomenclature 
divide it into Cunningham, north of the 
river Irvine ; Kyle, betweentheriver Irvine 
and the river Doon ; and Carrick, south of 
the river Doon. Custom also sub-divides 
Kyle, by the river Ayr, into Kyle Stewart 
and King's Kyle. Cunningham and Kyle 
are mostly low country, with low coast, 
but have interior diversities and a hilly 
border ; and Carrick, though containing 
considerable aggregate of arable land, is 
largely occupied by the western end of the 
Southern Highlands, and consists mostly 
of a broken assemblage of hill, moor, and 
mountain. A large proportion of the 
■entire county, together with the flanking 
reaches of Firth of Clyde and th e mountains 
on the western horizon, forms one con- 
tinuous landscape, as seen from thousands 
of vantage-grounds within its own limits. 
The chief rivers, besides the Irvine, the 
Ayr, and the Doon, are the Garnock, the 
Girvan, and the Stinchar; and the chief 
lake is Doon. Sandstone, limestone, coal, 
and ironstone abound, and are extensively 
worked. The soils range from rich loam 
to barren moor, or from best to worst, but 
may be characterized as sandy on the coast, 
clayey in the interior low tracts, and 
heathy or mossy on the uplands. Agri- 
culture in all departments, but specially 
in the dairy husbandry, is skilful and 
flourishing. Principal industries are iron- 
working, engine - making, coal - mining, 
woollen manufacture, cotton manufacture, 
and pottery work. The chief towns are Ayr 
and Kilmarnock ; the other towns, with each 
more than 3000 inhabitants, are Ardrossan, 
Beith, Dairy, Galston, Girvan, Hurl- 
ford, Irvine, Kilbirnie, Kilwinning, May- 
bole, Saltcoats, Stevenston, and Stewar- 
ton ; the others, with each more than 2000 
inhabitants, are Catrine, Cumnock, Largs, 
Muirkirk, Newmilns, and Troon ; the 
others, with each more than 1000 inhabi- 
tants, are Annbank, Auchinleck, Bank- 
head, Burnfoothill, Dalmellington, Darvel, 
Eglinton, Kilmaurs, Lugar, Mauchline, 
Waterside, and West Kilbride ; and the 
villages, with each more than 300 in- 
habitants, amount to 48. Ayrshire 
belonged anciently to the Damnii and the 
Novantes ; passed to successively the 
Romans, the Cambrians, and the North- 
umbrians ; was the scene of many of 



Wallace's and Bruce's conflicts with the 
English ; and figured prominently in the 
suff erings and struggles of the Covenanters. 
It contains many monuments of all times, 
from the Caledonian downward, and is 
noted for the abbey ruins of Kilwinning 
and Crossraguel. It is now divided ad- 
ministratively into the districts of Ayr 
and Kilmarnock, and representatively into 
the divisions of north and south, each 
division sending a member to Parliament. 
Real property in 1880-81, £1,085,710. Pop. 
in 1871, 200,809 ; in 1881, 217,504. 

AYTON, village and parish on coast of 
Berwickshire. The village stands on Eye 
water, 21 miles south-east of Dunbar, and 
has a head post office with all departments, 
a railway station, 2 banking offices, 
3 inns, a fine parochial church of 
1865, 2 United Presbyterian churches, 
and 2 public schools with about 233 
scholars. Pop. 771. — The parish con- 
tains also part of Burnmouth vil- 
lage, and small part of Eyemouth town, 
and measures about 4^ miles by 3J. 
Acres, 6699. Real property in 1880-81, 
£15,897. _ Pop. 2040. The coast is rocky 
and precipitous ; the southern part of the 
interior is hilly, and the northern part is 
undulating. The seats are Ayton Castle, 
Gunsgreen, Netherbyres, Prenderguest, 
Peelwalls, and Whiterig ; and the first of 
them stands near the village, was rebuilt 
in 1851, and occupies the site of an ancient 
fortalice which figured in the Border war- 
fare. A public school is at Burnmouth. 



BA, island in Applecross parish, Ross- 
shire. 

BA, lake and rivulet in Torosay parish, 
Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

BA, hill in Drumblade parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BAADS, estate in West Calder parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BAADS, battlefield in 960, between the 
Scots and the Danes, near Cullen, Banff- 
shire. 

BABERTNESS, headland, 6 miles east- 
by-south of St. Andrews, Fife. 

BABERTON, seat in Currie parish, Edin- 
burghshire. It is said to have belonged to 
James VI., and it was occupied for some 
time by Charles x. of France. 

BABYLON, quondam Owenite establish- 
ment, near Bellshill, Lanarkshire. It cost 
about £48,000, and went to utter ruin. 

BACHBEG and BACHMORE, two of the 
Treshinish isles, near north-west coast of 
Mull, Argyleshire. 

BACK, village inStornoway parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. It has a post office under 
Stornoway, and a Free church. Pop. 582. 

BACKBURN, place, with public school, in 
Beith parish, Ayrshire. 

BACKIES, village and ruined Pictish 
tower in Golspie parish, Sutherland. The 
village has a public school, with about 64 
scholars. 



BAC 



29 



BAL 



BACKIES, hunting-lodge in Glenbucket 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BACKLESS, hill in Watten parish, Caith- 
ness. 

BACKMUIR, village in Liff parish, south- 
west border of Forfarshire. 

BACKMUIR, village in Largo parish, 
Fife. 

BACKWATER, hamlet, and affluent of 
the Isla, in Lintrathen parish, Forfarshire. 
The hamlet has a public school. 

BADCALL, rivulet, bay, and hamlet, 
in Edderachyllis parish, Sutherland. The 
rivulet receives the outflow of a chain of 
small trouting lakes, and runs 6 miles 
westward to the bay ; the bay extends 
about 1| mile to the sea, and is sheltered 
at its mouth by a group of islets ; and the 
hamlet lies at the bay's head, and has the 
parochial church, and a public school with 
about 69 scholars. 

BADDAGYIE, lake in Coigach district, 
Cromartyshire. 

BADEN, lake in upper part of Kildonan 
parish, Sutherland. 

BADENOCH, district in south-east of 
Inverness-shire. It comprises the basin of 
the Spey, from the sources of that river to 
vicinity of Upper Craigellachie ; measures 
about 35 miles in length and 28 miles in 
breadth ; is bounded on one side by sum- 
mits of the Central Grampians, on the other 
side by the summits of the Monadhleadh 
Mountains ; and, excepting tracts adjacent 
to the river, exhibits everywhere a wildly 
Highland character. It belonged anciently 
to the Comyns, and passed, in the time of 
Robert n., to the ' Wolf of Badenoch,' the 
Earl of Buchan. 

BADENSCOTH, village in Auchterless 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a post office 
under Aberdeen, a banking office, and 2 
public schools, male and female, with 
about 79 and 76 scholars. 

BADENTOY, place, with public school, in 
Banchory-Devenick parish, Kincardine- 
shire. 

BADENYON, quondam old castle, cele- 
brated in the song of 'John o' Badenyon,' 
in Glenbucket parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BAH. See Ba. 

BAHIA, sea-loch in north-east of Barra 
Island, Outer Hebrides. 

BAIDLAND, hill in Dairy parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

BAIKIE, quondam noble castle in Airlie 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BAILEUR, place on south-east side, near 
mouth of Loch Killisport, Argyleshire. 

BAILLIESTON, town and quoad sacra 
parish in the north of Lanarkshire. The 
town stands 6| miles east of Glasgow, and 
has a post office under Glasgow, a railway 
station, and Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, and Episcopalian churches. 
Pop. 2927. The quoad sacra parish bears 
the alternative name of Crosshill. Pop. 
3477. 

BAINSFORD, suburb of Falkirk, Stirling- 
shire. It stands on the Forth and Clyde 



canal, about a mile north of Falkirk 
proper ; connects, in street continuity, 
with Grahamstown ; and has a Free 
church of 1880, and industrial connection 
with Carron ironworks. 

BALADO, railway station, 3 miles east of 
Crook of Devon, Kinross-shire. 

BALAKLAVA, village a little west of 
Johnstone, Renfrewshire. It was founded 
in 1856 in connection with ironstone mines. 

BALALLAN, village in Lochs parish, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. Pop. 535. 

BALAS, seat in Cupar parish, Fife. 

BALBARDIE, seat and lake near Bath- 
gate, Linlithgowshire. 

BALBEGGIE, village, 4J miles north-east 
of Perth. It has a post office under Perth, 
a United Presbyterian church, and a public 
school with about 51 scholars. 

BALBEGNO, castle of 1509, near Fetter- 
cairn, Kincardineshire. 

BALBEUCHLY, estate in Auchterhouse 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BALBIRNIE, village and seat near Mark- 
inch, Fife. The village is called Balbirnie 
Mills. 

BALBIRNIE, village in Ruthven parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALBITHAN, old seat inKeithhall parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It figures in the history 
of the Marquis of Montrose, and in that of 
the fugitives from Culloden field. 

BALBLAIR, place in Kilmorack parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a public school with 
about 105 scholars. 

BALBLAIR, place in Fodderty parish, 
Ross-shire. 

BALBLAIR, lofty terrace, about a mile 
west of Nairn. It was the camping-place 
of the royal army on the eve of the battle 
of Culloden. 

BALBROGIE, village in Coupar-Angus 
parish, Perthshire. 

BALBUNNOCK, village in Longforgan 
parish, Perthshire. 

BALCARRES, seat of Sir Coutts T. 
Lindsay, Bart., in Kilconquhar parish, 
Fife. It is a renovated Tudor edifice, and 
it belonged to the ancestors of the Earl of 
Crawford, and gives him the titles of 
baron and earl. 

BALCARRY, seat and headland in 
Rerrick parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BALCASKIE, seat of Sir Robert An- 
struther, Bart., 2 miles north-west of 
Pittenweem, Fife. 

BALCASTLE, hamlet in Slamannan 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

BALCASTLE, ancient Caledonian fort,, 
near Kilsyth, Stirlingshire. 

BALCHRISTIE, seat on site of ancient 
Culdee cell, near Colinsburgh, Fife. 

BALCLADDICH, bay, 6J miles north- 
west of Lochinver, Sutherland. 

BALCLUTHA, place mentioned in Ossian, 
supposed to be Dumbarton rock or castle. 

BALCOMIE, quondam seat of the Earls 
of Kellie, near Crail, Fife. It was once 
very large, but became curtailed into a 
farmhouse. 



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30 



BAL 



BALCONY, castellated mansion, formerly 
a seat of the Earls of Ross, near Evanton, 
Ross-shire. 

BALCRUVIE, ruined ancient castle in 
Largo parish, Fife. 

BALCURVIE, village in Markinch parish, 
Fife. It has a public school with about 
83 scholars. 

BALDERNOCK, parish on south border 
of Stirlingshire, averagely 1\ miles north 
of Glasgow. Post town, Glasgow. Acres, 
4322. Real property in 1880-81, £3868. 
Pop. 569. The surface rises from the 
river Kelvin to the skirt of Campsie Fells, 
and comprises successively alluvial flat, 
swelling knolls, and moorish hill. The 
minerals include coal, lime, ironstone, fire- 
clay, pyrites, and alum-ore ; and an in- 
teresting antiquity is the large cromlech, 
called Auld Wife's Lift. The churches 
are Established and Free. The public 
school has accommodation for 105 scholars. 

BALDOON, estate, with ruined castle, \\ 
miles south-south-west of Wigton. The 
castle was the scene of the incident which 
suggested to Sir "Walter Scott the tragic 
end of his Bride of Lammermoor , 

BALDOVAN, village, with railway sta- 
tion, 7f miles north-north-west of Dundee. 
Baldovan House is the seat of Sir John 
Ogilvie, Bart. 

BALDOVTE, hamlet and seat near Kirrie- 
muir, Forfarshire. The hamlet has a post 
office under Dundee. 

BALDOWRIE, seat on south-west border 
of Forfarshire, near Coupar- Angus. 

BALDRAGON, railway station, 8f miles 
north-north-west of Dundee. 

BALDRIDGE, estate and suburb on north- 
west side of Dunfermline, Fife. The 
suburb has a public school with about 240 

BALERNO, village on Water of Leith, 7 
miles south-west of Edinburgh. It has a 
post office, with money order department, 
under Currie, a railway station, a United 
Presbyterian church, and a rjublic school 
with about 112 scholars. Pop. 474. 

BALFIELD, hamlet in Lethnot parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALFOUR, remnant of castle built by 
Cardinal Beaton, in Kingoldrum parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALFOUR, seat on the Leven, in Mark- 
inch parish, Fife. 

BALFOUR, seat near Kincardine O'Neil, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BALFOUR, hamlet and splendid modern 
.nansion in Shapinshay Island, Orkney. 
The hamlet has a post office under Kirk- 
wall. 

BALFRISHEL, village in Boleskine 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

BALFRON, town and parish in Strath- 
endrick district, Stirlingshire. The town 
stands on Endrick river, 1^ mile east of a 
railway station of its own name, 19f miles 
west-south-west of Stirling ; is a neat 
modern seat of manufacture, and has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 



departments, under Glasgow, a banking 
office, a parochial church, a United Pres- 
byterian church, and a public school with 
about 147 scholars. Pop. 970. — The parish 
contains also Holm of Balfron hamlet, and 
is about 11 miles long and 3 miles broad. 
Acres, 7820. Real property in 1880-81, 
£7767. Pop. 1327. _ The surface includes 
a fine tract of 6 miles along the Endrick, 
and rises thence northward to Balgair 
Moor. There are a Free church for Kill- 
earn and Balfron, a United Presbyterian 
church at Holm of Balfron, and 2 public 
schools for 288 scholars. 

BALGAIR, estate in Balfron parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

BALGARVIE, seat in Monimail parish, 
Fife. 

BALGAVIES, seat and lake near Auld- 
bar railway station, Forfarshire. 

BALGAY, wooded hill, with public park, 
in north-western outskirts of Dundee. 

BALGEDDIE, hamlet in Portmoak parish, 
Kinross-shire. It has a United Presby- 
terian church. 

BALGIE, rivulet in Applecross parish, 
Ross-shire. 

BALGLASS, estate in Killearn parish, 
Stirlingshire. An ancient fortalice on it 
is believed to have been a retreat of Sir 
William Wallace. 

BALGONAR, seat in Saline parish, Fife. 

BALGONE, seat of Sir George Suttie, 
Bart. , in North Berwick parish, Hadding- 
tonshire. 

BALGONIE, or MILTON OF BALGONIE, 
quoad sacra parish with village on river 
Leven, 2 miles south-east of Markinch, 
Fife. It has a post office under Markinch, 
an Established church with 650 sittings, 
and a public school with about 80 scholars. 
Pop. 1394. Coalton, or Coalton of Bal- 
gonie, village is in the vicinity. Pop. 419. 
Balgonie House and Balgonie Castle are 
also in the vicinity, and the latter is a large 
ancient baronial fortalice, and was once a 
seat of the Earls of Leven. 

BALGOWAN, railway station, estate, 
and public school, 9 miles west of Perth. 
The school has about 87 scholars. 

BALGOWN, bay in Kirkmaiden parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

BALGOWNIE, seat and bridge in Old 
Machar parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BALGRAY, hamlet on the Kelvin, about 
3 miles north-north-west of Glasgow. 
Nearly 30 fossil trees were discovered 
in a quarry here, about 1828, all exogenous, 
standing close to one another in their 
natural position. 

BALGRAY, hamlet in Tealing parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALGREGGAN, seat in Stoneykirk 
parish, Wigtonshire. 

BALHADDIE, hamlet in Ardoch parish, 
Perthshire. 

BALHARY, seat in Alyth parish, Perth- 
shire. 

BALIGARVE, place, with public school, 
in Lismore parish, Argyleshire. 



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31 



BAL 



BALIGIL, burn on east boundary of 
Fair parish, Sutherland. 

BALIGRUNDLE, place, with public 
school, in Lismore parish, Argyleshire. 

BALINTORE. See Ballintore. 

BALINTRAID, harbour with pier in 
Kilmuir-Easter parish, Ross-shire. 

BALISHEAR, island, about 3^ miles long, 
near south-west coast of North Uist, Outer 
Hebrides. Pop. 197. 

BALKAIL, seat adjacent to Glenluce, 
Wigtonshire. 

BALKELLO, hamlet in Tealing parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALLACHULISH, town on northern 
verge of Argyleshire, and quoad sacra 
parish, partly also in Inverness-shire. 
The town comprises Ballachulish Ferry on 
Loch Leven, 11J miles south-south-west 
of Fort-William, and Ballachulish quarries, 
in mouth of Glencoe, a short distance to 
the east ; is a centre of business, and of 
tourist routes for an extensive surround- 
ing country ; and has a post office, with 
telegraph, under Fort-William, a banking 
office, a hotel, an Established church, 
enlarged in 1880, a Free church, and 
a notable Episcopalian church. Slate 
quarries here began to be worked in 1697, 
underwent great stimulation in 1863, 
and yield about 15,000,000 of slates a 
year. Pop. of the town, 1075. — The quoad 
sacra parish excludes the town, and is 
called either North Ballachulish or Balla- 
chulish and Ardgour, and has Established, 
Free, and Episcopalian churches. Pop. 749. 

BALLAGAN, cascade of 70 feet on 
Blane river, at its emergence from Lennox 
Hills, in Strathblane, Stirlingshire. 

BALLANBREICH (popularly BAM- 
BREICH), barony on the Tay, in Flisk 
parish, Fife. It gives the title of baroness 
to the Countess of Rothes, and it retains 
ruins of a magnificent ancient castle. 

BALLANDARG, seat in Kirriemuir 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BALLANGEICH, ancient footway from 
north side of Stirling Castle, Stirling. It 
was James v.'s line of exit on his eccentric 
incognito expeditions, and gave him the 
popular soubriquet of 'Gudeman o' Ballan- 
geich.' 

BALLANREE, cliff at Berigonium on 
Ardchattan coast, Argyleshire. Its name 
signifies 'King's town,' and aids the 
traditional fancy that Berigonium was a 
capital or royal city of Dalriada. 

BALLANTRAE, village and parish in 
south-western extremity of Ayrshire. 
The village stands on Stinchar river, near 
the sea, 12J miles south-south-west of 
Girvan, and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Girvan, a banking office, an inn, an 
artificial tidal harbour, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
about 201 scholars. Pop. 424. — The 
parish contains also Glenapp hamlet, and 
is about 10 miles long and nearly 10 miles 
broad. Acres, 33,561. Heal property in 



1880-81, £15,214. Pop. 1442. The land 
is much diversified, and rises from low 
ground on the shore to mountains on 
the flank of the Southern Highlands. 
There are 4 schools for 366 scholars, and 2 
of them and a class-room for 170 are new. 

BALLAT, bog in Drymen parish, Stir- 
lingshire. It lies at the watershed between 
the Clyde and the Forth, yet is only 222 
feet above sea-level. 

BALLATER, village on the Dee, 43J 
miles west-by-south of Aberdeen. It 
presents a pleasant appearance, amid 
charming environs ; is a favourite summer 
resort, both for its own sake and for the 
sake of its vicinity to Pannanich wells ; 
and has a post office, with money order 
and telegraph departments, under Aber- 
deen, a railway station, 2 banking offices, 
a hotel, an Albert Memorial Hall of 1875, 
barracks for soldiers in summer attendance 
on the Queen, a fine bridge in lieu of 2 
previous bridges swept away by floods, a 
water supply of 1873, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
about 87 scholars. Pop. 759. — Ballater 
Pass, beyond a hill in the north-western 
vicinity, is a precipitous wooded gorge ; 
and Ballater or Monaltrie House stands 
near the pass's south-east end. 

BALLATRICH, farmhouse, where Lord 
Byron lived when a boy, near Ballater, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BALLECHIN, seat in Logierait parish, 
Perthshire. 

BALLEDGARNO, or BALLERNO, village 
and seat in Inchture parish, Perthshire. 

BALLENACH, place near west end of 
Crinan Canal, Argyleshire. 

BALLENCRIEFF, a seat of Lord Elibank, 
in Aberlady parish, Haddingtonshire. 

BALLENCRIEFF, stream, running north- 
westward to the Avon, in Torphichen 
parish, Linlithgowshire. 

BALLENDRICK, seat in Dunbarny par- 
ish, Perthshire. 

BALLENDRUM, place in Glenmoristcn, 
Inverness-shire. 

BALLESHARE. See Balisheak. 

BALLEYAIRD, place, 3 miles north of 
Grantown, Elginshire. 

BALLLANLAY, place in North Bute 
parish, Buteshire. It has a public school 
with about 46 scholars. 

BALLIGROGAN, place, 6J miles west- 
south-west of Campbelton, Argyleshire. 

BALLIKINRAIN, seat near Killearn, 
Stirlingshire. 

BALLIMORE, seat in Kilfinan parish, 
Argyleshire. 

BALLINDALLOCH, hamlet and mansion 
on the Spey, 9f miles south-west of Aber- 
lour, Banffshire. The hamlet has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Craigellachie, and a 
railway station. The mansion is a 
seat of Sir George Macpherson - Grant, 
Bart. 

BALLINDALLOCH, estate and factory in 
Balfron parish, Stirlingshire. 



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32 



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BALLINDEAN, hamlet, mansion, and 
hill, in Inchture parish, Perthshire. 

BALLINGRY (popularly BINGRY) , parish, 
containing small part of Lochgelly post 
town, Fife. Acres, 4621. Real property 
in 1880-81, £8036. Pop., quoad civilia, 
1065 ; quoad sacra, 460. About one- 
third is under the plough. Binarty Hill, 
screening south end of Loch Leven, is 
partly within the northern border. The 
drained bed of Loch Ore, once a consider- 
able lake, lies in the northern section. 
Lochore House, between that and Binarty, 
is a prominent feature. The site of a 
Roman camp, thought to have been the 
scene of a victory over the ninth Roman 
Legion by the Caledonians, lies to the 
west of that mansion. The church was 
renovated in 1876, and the public school is 
new, and has capacity for 250 scholars. 

BALLINLUIG, village, 8J miles north- 
north-west of Dunkeld, Perthshire. It 
stands adjacent to deflection of branch 
railway to Aberfeldy, and has a station 
there and a head post office. 

BALLINTORE, fishing village, about 7 
miles south - east of Tain, Ross-shire. 
Pop. 435. 

BALLINTUIM, hamlet in Kirkmichael 
parish, Perthshire. It has a post office 
under Blairgowrie, and a public school 
with about 63 scholars. 

BALLO, one of the Sidlaw Hills, in Long- 
forgan parish, Perthshire. 

BALLOCH, village on Leven river, near 
foot of Loch Lomond, 4tj miles north of 
Dumbarton. It adjoins the junction of 
Vale of Leven and Forth and Clyde Rail- 
ways ; communicates by a railway of about 
7 furlongs with a steamboat pier on Loch 
Lomond ; and has a railway station, an 
excellent hotel, and a fine suspension 
bridge. Pop. 159. Balloch Castle, in 
its vicinity, is a modern seat ; and a pre- 
vious Balloch Castle, now extinct, was a 
fortified seat of the Earls of Lennox. 

BALLOCH, village in Inverness parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BALLOCH, small lake at foot of Torlum, 
Muthil parish, Perthshire. 

BALLOCH, original pile of Taymouth 
Castle, Perthshire. 

BALLOCH, hill, 1199 feet high, near 
Keith, Banffshire. 

BALLOCH. hill on north-west boundary 
of Kildonan parish, Sutherland. 

BALLOCHLEAM, battle-field between 
the Grahams and the Leckies, near 
boundary between Gargunnock and Kip- 
pen parishes, Stirlingshire. 

BALLOCHMORIE, seat in Colmonell 
parish, Ayrshire. 

BALLOCHMYLE, seat and grounds, sung 
by the poet Burns, on the river Ayr, 1J 
miles south - east of Mauchline, Ayr- 
shire. 

BALLOCHNEY, suburb of Airdrie, and 
part of Monkland railway system, Lanark- 
shire. 

BALLOCHVOY, village, about 4 miles 



west - south - west of Tobermory, Mull 
Island, Argyleshire. 

BALLOGIE, seat, small Roman Catholic 
chapel, and public school with about 73 
scholars, in Birse parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BALLONE, dilapidated, large, ancient 
castle of the Earls of Ross, in Tarbat 
parish, Ross-shire. 

BALLUMBIE, seat and remains of old 
castle in Murroes parish, Forfarshire. 

BALLYGRANT, place in south-east of 
Islay Island, Argyleshire. It has a post 
office under Greenock. 

BALLYOUKIN, seat near Pitlochrie, 
Perthshire. 

BALLYPHUILL, hamlet in Kincardine 
parish, Ross-shire. 

BALLYSHEAR, seat in Southend parish, 
Argyleshire. 

BALMACAAN, seat of the Earl of Sea- 
field, in lower valley of Urquhart, near 
Loch Ness, Inverness-shire. 

BALMACARRA, seat and hotel on north 
side of Loch Alsh, Ross- shire. 

BALMACLELLAN, village and parish in 
north of Kirkcudbrightshire. The village 
stands on Ken river, 1^ mile north of 
New Galloway, and has a post office under 
New Galloway. The parish extends from 
the Ken to the boundary with Dumfries- 
shire at Loch Urr, and is about 14 miles 
long and 10 miles broad. Acres, 23,019. 
Real property in 1880-81, £11,565. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 937; quoad sacra, 787. 
The tract, for 2 or 3 miles from the 
Ken, is low ground, diversified by ' drums,' 
and the rest of the surface is chiefly an 
assemblage of moors, mosses, and rugged 
hills. There are 3 public schools, with 
about 168 scholars. 

BALMADIES, estate, with Ochterlony 
mansion, in Rescobie parish, Forfarshire. 

BALMAE, seat near Kirkcudbright, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BALMAGHIE, parish on right side of 
the Dee, near Castle-Douglas, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. It is about 9 miles long and 
7 miles broad, and comprises 21,069 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £11,920. Pop. 
924. Much of the land adjacent to the 
Dee is meadow, most in the south-east is 
level, and the rest is a mixture of hills, 
hollows, lakes, and morasses. 3 of the 
lakes have much attraction for anglers, 
and one of them adjoins a hotel and a spa. 
The chief seats are Balmaghie House 
and Duchrae ; the chief antiquity is 
Thrieve Castle, and a chief association is 
with the histoiy of the Covenanters. The 
churches are Established and Free ; and 
there are 3 public schools, with about 180 
scholars. 

BALMAHA, village on east shore of 
Loch Lomond, about 11 miles north-by- 
east of Dumbarton. It has a pier and a 
large chemical work, and it adjoins a 
mountain pass by which the Highland 
caterans made descents into the Lowlands. 

BALMAKEWAN, seat in Marykirk parish, 
Kincardineshire. 



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33 



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BALMALCOLM, village in Kettle parish, 
Fife. 

BALMANGAN, small harbour, and ruined 
ancient tower, at mouth of the Dee's 
estuary, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BALMANNO, fine old baronial fortalice, 
converted into farmhouse, 2f miles west of 
Abernethy, Perthshire. 

BALMANNO, seat in Marykirk parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

BALMAODAN, old parish, now called 
Ardchattan, Argyleshire. Remains of old 
church, bearing the old name, still exist. 

BALMASHANNAR, hill, with quarry, 
near Forfar. 

BALMBRAE, village in Falkland parish, 
Fife. 

BALMEDIE, hamlet in Belhelvie parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a public school 
with about 141 scholars. 

BALMEECHY, place in Fearn parish, 
Ross-shire. It has a public school with 
about 57 scholars. 

BALMERINO (popularly BALMIRNIE), 
village and parish on Firth of Tay, Fife. 
The village stands 4j miles west-south-west 
of Newport, is near remains of an abbey 
founded in 1229, and gave the peerage title 
of baron to the family of Elphinstone, 
attainted in 1746. — The j)arish contains 
also the villages of Galdry and Coultry ; 
and its post town is Newport. Acres, 
3431. Real property in 1880-81, £6926. 
Pop. 664. The shore is bold and rocky, 
and the interior includes a fertile valley be- 
tween two hill-ridges. Birkhill, Naughton 
House, and Naughton Castle are chief 
objects ; and the last is a vestige of a struc- 
ture said to have been built by a natural son 
of "William the Lion. The public school 
has about 97 scholars. 

BALMORAL, royal castle on the Dee, 7 
miles west-south-west of Ballater, Aber- 
deenshire. It occupies a charming site, 
with splendid views ; it has grounds ex- 
tending, jointly with those of Abergeldie 
and Birkhall, about 11 miles along the 
Dee ; it superseded a previous edifice, 
which belonged to the Earl of Fife, and 
was purchased and occupied by the royal 
family ; it was erected in 1853, after designs 
by Smith of Aberdeen, under direction of 
the Prince Consort ; it is in modified form 
of the old Scottish baronial style, and it 
comprises 2 blocks, connecting wings, and a 
projecting tower 35 feet square and 80 feet 
high. 

BALMORE, village and haughs in Balder- 
nock parish, Stirlingshire. 

BALMULE, seat in Dunfermline parish, 
Fife. 

BALMULLO, village, 3 miles south-south- 
east of Newport, Fife. It has a post office 
under Leuchars, a United Original Seces- 
sion church, and a public school with 
about 95 scholars. Pop. 258. 

BALMUNGO, seat, 1J mile south of St. 
Andrews, Fife. 

BALMURE, seat in Mains parish, Forfar- 
shire. 



BALMUTO, seat, with ancient tower, in 
Kinghorn parish, Fife. 

BALNABOTH, seat near Kirriemuir, 
Forfarshire. 

BALNABRUACH, fishing village in Nigg 
parish, Ross-shire. 

BALNACRAIG, estate, with old mansion 
and Carlogie House, in Aboyne parish, 

BALNAGOWAN, seat in Kilmuir-Easter 
parish, Ross-shire. It belonged once to 
the Earls of Ross, and belongs now to Sir 
Charles W. F. A. Ross, Bart. 

BALNAGUARD, village in Little Dun- 
keld parish, Perthshire. 

BALNAHUA, island midway between 
Lunga and Easdale, Argyleshire. It mea- 
sures only about a mile in circuit, but is 
all one slate quarry. Pop. 108. 

BALNAKIEL, old seat, first of the 
Bishops of Sutherland, next of Lords 
Reay, in Durness parish, Sutherland. 

BALNAMOON, seat in Menmuir parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALNAPALING, fishing village in Nigg 
parish, Ross-shire. 

BALNASUIN, hamlet in Weem parish, 
Perthshire. 

BALQUHAIN, seat and ruined ancient 
castle in Chapel of Garioch parish, Aber- 
deenshire. The castle was occupied by 
Queen Mary on the eve of the battle of 
Corrachie, and was burnt by the Duke of 
Cumberland in 1746. 

BALQUHAPPLE, old chapelry, now part 
of Kincardine parish, Perthshire. 

BALQUHATSON, estate, with rich coal 
mines, in Slamannan parish, Stirling- 
shire. 

BALQUHIDDER, village and parish in 
south-west of Perthshire. The village 
stands near foot of Loch Voil, If mile 
west of King's House railway station, and 
12J, north-west of Callander, and has a 
post office under Crieff, a handsome 
parochial church of 1855, a Free church, a 
public school with about 61 scholars, and 
a churchyard, containing the grave and 
rude monument of Rob Roy. — The parish 
contains also the villages of Lochearn- 
head and Strathyre, and is about 18 miles 
long and Qh miles broad. Acres, 54,675. 
Real property in 1880-81, £8832. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 759 ; quoad sacra, 627. 
The outline is somewhat triangular, and 
projects a long acute angle to the west. 
The borders, except at head of Loch Earn 
and at upper part of Loch Lubnaig, consist 
of portions of the Grampians, the song- 
celebrated ' Braes o' Balquhidder.' The 
chief part of the interior is a strath, 
watered by Loch Doine, Loch Voil, and the 
stream running thence to Loch Lubnaig. 
The seats are Stronvar, Edinchip, and 
Edinample. 

BALQUHOLLY. ancient castle, mostly 
superseded by Hatton Castle, in Turriff 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BALRUDDERY, seat in Liff parish, For- 
farshire. 





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BAN 



BALRYMONTH (East and West), two 
lulls in St. Andrews parish, Fife. 

BALSHANDIE, lake in Lundie parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BALTA, islet near east side of Unst 
Island, Shetland. 

BALTA SOUND, land-locked bay and 
hamlet on east side of Unst Island, Shet- 
land. The bay is 2 miles long, and 
looks like a lake ; and the hamlet has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Lerwick, and a public 
school with about 57 scholars. 

BALTHAYOCK, section of Kiimoul 
parish, with modern mansion, and ruined 
ancient strong fortalice, in eastern vicinity 
of Perth. 

BALVAIG, stream, traversing Lochs 
Doine and Voil, and entering Loch Lub- 
naig, Perthshire. 

BALVAIRD, a seat of the Earl of Mans- 
field, in Fife section of Abernetby parish. 

BALVAIRD, seat near Eutherglen, 

BALVENNY, dilapidated seat of the Earl 
of Fife, in Mortlach parish, Banffshire. 

BALVICAR, village on Seil Island, 
Argyleshire. 

BALVRAID, place, with public school, in 
Dornoch parish, Sutherland. 

BALWAHANAID, hamlet in ^Yeem par- 
ish, Perthshire. 

BALWEARIE, remains of strong ancient 
baronial fortalice, in Abbotshall parish, 
Fife. The fortalice belonged to a branch 
of the family of Scott ; was the residence, 
in the 13th century, of the famous reputed 
wizard, Sir Michael Scott ; passed to the 
Melvilles ; and gives the title of baron to 
the Earl of Leven. 

BALWHERNE, village in Methven 
parish, Perthshire. 

BAMBREICH. See Ballanbreich. 

BAMFF, seat of Sir James H. Bamsay, 
Bart., in Alyth parish, Perthshire. 

BAMIRNIE. See Balmerino. 

BANAVIE, place on Caledonian Canal, 
1£ mile from the canal's end near Fort- 
AVilliam, Inverness-shire. It occurs im- 
mediately above the grand ascending series 
of 8 locks, and has a post office, with tele- 
graph, under Fort- William, and. a hotel. 

BANCHORY, village on the Dee, 17 miles 
west-south-west of Aberdeen. It is modern 
and neatly built, attracts many summer 
visitors, and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Aberdeen, a railway station, 3 bank- 
ing offices, a hotel, a town hall of 1873, an 
Established church with nearly 1200 
sittings, a Free church of 1880, an 
Episcopalian church, and a public school 
with about 123 scholars. Pop. 681. 

BANCHORY-DEVENICK, parish on lower 
reach of the Dee, in Aberdeenshire and 
Kincardineshire. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen. The Aberdeenshire section 
comprises only 33 acres, and is within 
Aberdeen parliamentary burgh ; but it 
formerly comprised also other 2268 acres, 



transferred in 1867 to Peterculter. Pop. 
1216. The Kincardineshire section con- 
tains Findon and Portlethen villages, 
includes 3 miles of coast, and is 5 miles 
long and 2f miles broad. Acres, 7739. 
Beal property in 1880-81, £14,412. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 8101 ; quoad sacra, 1707. The 
coast is bold and rocky, and the interior is 
mostly rugged and stony. Chief things 
of interest are the reach of the Dee, and 
2 ancient Caledonian stone circles. 
The churches are Established and Free. 
There are 2 public schools for 590 
scholars, and 1 of them and class-rooms 
for 240 are new. 

BANCHORY-TERNAN, parish on the 
Dee, in Aberdeenshire and Kincardine- 
shire. It contains Banchory village, and 
is 8Jj miles long and 1\ miles broad. 
Acres of the Aberdeenshire part, 1058. 
Beal property in 18S0-81 not reported. 
Acres of the Kincardineshire part, 19,021. 
Beal property in 1880-81, £19,659. Pop. 
3066. The northern section begins with 
the lofty isolated hill of Fare, but is 
elsewhere comparatively low ; the middle 
section is part of the valley of the 
Dee ; and the southern section includes a 
lofty hill-ridge, and terminates in one of 
the Grampians. Chief features are the 
mansions of Crathes Castle and Tilwhilly 
Castle, and the bed of the large drained 
lake of Leys. The churches and a central 
school are in Banchory village ; and there 
are altogether 5 public schools, with about 
442 scholars. 

BANCLEROCHE, seat at mouth of Kirk- 
ton Glen, Campsie parish, Stirlingshire. 

BANDIRRAN, seat in Kettins parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BANDIRRAN (SOUTH), detached section 
of Caputh parish, surrounded by Collace, 
Perthshire. 

BANDRUM, seat in Saline parish, Fife. 

BANETON, village in Kennoway parish, 
Fife. 

BANFF, town and parish on coast of 
Banffshire. The town stands at mouth of 
river Deveron, 50 miles north of Aberdeen, 
and is a parliamentary burgh and a head 
port ; but as such comprises 2 towns, 
Banff proper and Macduff, about \ mile 
distant from each other, on opposite sides 
of the river, there spanned by an elegant 
seven-arched bridge. Banff proper is on 
the left bank, occupies a diversified hill 
slope, presents exteriorly a picturesque 
appearance, commands fine views, and 
has charming environs, including the 
noble park of Duff House. It sprang 
from a strong royal castle, as early as at 
least the time of Malcolm IV. ; it very 
soon became a royal burgh ; it now com- 
prises several well-built streets ; it was 
destined in 1877 to undergo handsome 
extension ; and it has a head post office 
with all departments, a railway station, 
5 banking offices, 5 hotels, a steepled 
town hall, a recently erected court-house, 
an interesting museum, a large library, a 



BAN 



35 



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fine recent bath-house, Established, Free, 
United Presbyterian, and Episcopalian 
churches ; Congregational, Wesleyan, 
United Brethren, and Roman Catholic 
chapels ; a burgh public school and a 
number of other public schools ; publishes 
a weekly newspaper ; and carries on 
woollen manufacture, iron-founding, and 
other industries. The ancient castle 
figured much in history, and is now repre- 
sented by a plain modern structure. The 
Established church is conspicuous, and 
contains 1500 sittings. The United Pres- 
byterian church was erected in 1880, and 
superseded an old one. The Episcopalian 
church is small but elegant. The commerce 
of the port in 1879 comprised 459 British 
vessels, of 34,379 tons, and 34 foreign 
vessels, of '2788 tons, inward; and 441 
British vessels, of 33,196 tons, and 26 
foreign vessels, of 2029 tons, outward. 
Real property of the parliamentary burgh 
in 1880-81, £12,192. Pop. of the royal burgh, 
4185 ; of the parliamentary burgh, 7871. 

The parish is about 6tj miles long south- 
westward, but not more than about 2 
miles broad. Acres, 6073. Real property 
of landward part in 1SS0-S1, £6351. Pop. , 
quoad civilia, 5200 ; quoad sacra, 4810. 
The northern section rises nowhere higher 
than about 250 feet above sea-level, yet is 
picturesquely diversified ; and the southern 
section contains considerably higher ground, 
yet presents a very tame appearance. A 
prominent feature is the Earl of Fife's 
seat of Duff House, and a chief antiquity 
is Inchdrewer Castle. There are, for the 
burgh, the landward districts, and the 
quoad sacra parish of Ord, 13 schools, 
with accommodation for 1698 scholars. 

BANFFSHIRE, seaboard county in north- 
east of Scotland. It includes St. Fergus 
parish and Straloch estate, surrounded by 
distant parts of Aberdeenshire, but consists 
chiefly of continuous country, extending 
from Moray Firth south-south-westward to 
Cairngorm Mountains. This main body 
measures 32 miles along the coast and 50 
miles inward, but is averagely not more 
than about 12 miles broad, and the entire 
county has an area of 686 square miles. 
The southern section, to the extent of not 
more than one-half of the entire length, 
but with an average breadth of only about 
8 miles, is wildly mountainous, partly 
alpine, with intersections of glen and vale ; 
and the northern section is a diversity of 
pastoral hills, many-shaped eminences, 
and rich tracts of small plain and long 
valley. The principal rivers are the Spey, 
on reaches of the western boundary ; the 
Deveron, mostly near or on the eastern 
boundary ; the Aven and the Fiddich, run- 
ning to the Spey ; the Isla, running to the 
Deveron ; and the Boyne, entering the sea 
between Banff and Portsoy. Serpentine 
and marble are near Portsoy ; good slate 
is near Banff and Keith ; and limestone 
abounds throughout extensive tracts. The 
arable land forms a comparatively small 



portion of the entire area ; and its soil for 
the most part is either a stiff deep clay, 
a deep black loam, or a mixture of moss 
or gravel. The fisheries are extensive, 
but the manufactures are of small value. 
The towns with each more than 3000 
inhabitants are Banff, Macduff, Buckie, 
and Keith ; the towns with each more 
than 1000 inhabitants are Cullen, Portsoy, 
Aberchirder, Dufftown, and Portnockie; 
the villages with each more than 600 
inhabitants are Port Gordon, Porteasy, 
Whitehills, Gardenstown, Findochty, and 
Newmills ; and the villages with each 
more than 300 inhabitants are Charles- 
town, Tomintoul, Fetterangus, and For- 
dyce. Real property in 1880-81, £239,298. 
Pop. in 1871, 62,023 ; in 1881, 62,751. 

BANGOUR, estate in Uphall parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

BANK, place in Old Deer parish, Aber- 
deenshire. It has a public school with 
about 114 scholars. 

BANKEND, village in Caerlaverock par- 
ish, Dumfriesshire. It has a post office 
under Dumfries. 

BANKEND, hamlet in Kirkgunzeon 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BANKFOOT, village, 3 miles west-north- 
west of Stanley Junction, Perthshire. It 
is modern, was the birth-place of the poet 
Nicol, and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Perth, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a public school with about 40 scholars. 
Pop. 627. 

BANKFOOT, hamlet in Coylton parish, 
Ayrshire. 

BANKHEAD, suburb of Wick, Caithness. 

BANKHEAD, village and colliery in 
Dreghorn and Kilmarnock parishes, Ayr- 
shire. 

BANKHEAD, village in Newhills parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BANKHEAD, hamlet in Monikie parish, 
Forfarshire. It has a x^ublic school with 
about 65 scholars. 

BANKHEAD, seat in Rutherglen parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

BANKHEAD, railway station, 2 miles 
east-north-east of Carstairs Junction, 
Lanarkshire. 

BANKS, hamlet in Mouswald parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BANKTON, quondam seat near Tranent, 
Haddingtonshire. It was the residence of 
Colonel Gardiner, who fell adjacent to it 
in the battle of Prestonpans, and it was 
destroyed by fire about 1854. 

BANKTON - PARK, village in Kettle 
parish, Fife. 

BANNACHRA, ruined old fortalice in 
Glenfruin, Dumbartonshire. 

BANNAVIE. See Banavie. 

BANNISKIRK, quondam old chapel in 
Halkirk parish, Caithness. 

BANNOCK, rivulet, running 9 miles east- 
north-eastward to the Forth, at 2i miles 
below Stirling. 

BANNOCKBURN, town, quoad sacra 



BAN 



36 



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parish, and battle-field, in St. Ninians 
parish, Stirlingshire. The town stands 
on Bannock rivulet, 2f nriles south-south- 
east of Stirling, is a seat of flourishing 
woollen manufacture, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Stirling, a railway 
station, Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches, and a public 
school with about 323 scholars. Pop. of 
the town, 2549 ; of the quoad sacra parish, 
3281. — The battle-field, the scene of Bruce's 
famous victory in 1314, lies on Bannock 
rivulet, adjacent to the south end of St. 
Ninians town, and retains, under an iron 
grating, with surmounting flag-staff, frag- 
ments of the large block of stone in which 
Bruce planted his standard. 

BANNOCKBURN - MUIR, suburb of 
Bannockburn town, Stirlingshire. It has 
a public school with about 136 scholars. 

BANTASKINE, seat near Falkirk, Stir- 
lingshire. 

BANTON, quoad sacra parish, with 
village, Itj mile north-east of Kilsyth, 
Stirlingshire. It has a post office under 
Denny. Pop. of the village, 461 ; of the 
parish, 793. 

BARACHNIE, village in Crossbill 
section of Old Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire. Pop. 279. 

BARASSIE, railway station, 1 mile from 
Troon, Ayrshire. 

BARBARAVTLLE, village in Kilmuir- 
Easter parish, Ross-shire. 

BARBASWALLS, vUlage in Ruthven 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BARBER, hamlet in Roseneath parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

BARBIESTON, modernized old baronial 
fortalice near Dalrymple, Ayrshire. 

BARBRECK, seat and vale in Craignish 
parish, Argyleshire. The vale is believed 
to have been the scene of a battle between 
the Dalriadans and the Norsemen. 

BARCALDINE, estate, with modern 
mansion and ancient castle, on Loch 
Creran, Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

BARCAPLE, seat in Tongland parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BARCLOSH, ruined ancient seat of Lord 
Herries, in Kirkgunzeon parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

BARD, bold headland at south end of 
Bressay Island, Shetland. 

BARDOWIE, lake, 5 miles north-north- 
west of Glasgow. 

BARGALLY, seat in Minnigaff parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BARGANY, seat in Dailly parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

BARGARRAN, place associated with a 
notable trial for witchcraft, in Erskine 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

BARGATON, lake, 7 miles north-east of 
Gatehouse, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BARGEDDIE, village and quoad sacra 
parish in north of Lanarkshire. The 
village stands 2\ miles west of Coatbridge, 
was mostly built after 1871, and has a 



post office under Glasgow, and flourishing 
ironworks. The parish was constituted 
in 1876 ; and the church was opened near 
the end of that year, and cost, with the 
manse, about £9000. Pop. of the village, 
659 ; of the parish, 2889. 

BARGRENNAN, quoad sacra parish, 
comprising part of Minnigaff in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, and part of Penningham in 
"Wigtonshire. It has a post office under 
Newton-Stewart, and a public school. 
Pop. 203 and 163. 

BARHEAD. See Barrhead. 

BARHILL, eminence, with vestiges of 
Roman fort, in Kirkintilloch parish, 
Dumbartonshrie. 

BARHILL, Ayrshire. See Barrhill. 

BARHOLM, seat near Creetown, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

BARHULLION, hill in Glasserton parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

BARJARG, village and estate in Keir 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BARLEYSIDE, village in Falkirk parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

BARLOCCO, seat in Rerrick parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BARMEKIN, lofty hill, with ancient cir- 
cular f ortification,in Echt parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BARMORE, peninsula and seat on west 
side of Loch Fyne, 2^ miles north of 
Tarbert, Argyleshire. 

BARNBARROCH, place in Colvend 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. It has a 
public school with about 66 scholars. 

BARNBARROCH, seat in Kirkinner 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BARNBOUGLE, splendid edifice of 1880- 
82, with fragment of ancient castle, on 
the Firth of Forth, in Dalmeny parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

BARNCLUITH, curious suite of old build- 
ings and gardens, on bold bank of Avon 
river, between Cadzow Castle and Hamd- 
ton, Lanarkshire. 

BARNHILL, eastern suburb of Glasgow. 
The Barony poorhouse is here, and has 
accommodation for 1500 inmates ; and a 
new hospital in connection with it was 
opened in 1880, and has accommodation 
for 300 patients. 

BARNHILL, village in Blantyre parish, 
Lanarkshire. Pop. 455. 

BARNHILL, village in Monifieth parish, 
Forfarshire. Pop. 396. 

BARNHILL, seat in Kinnoul parish, 
Perthshire. 

BARNIEL, place on west side of Loch 
Eck, Argyleshire. 

BARNKIRK, small hill in Annan parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BARNOCK, place, with public school, in 
Avondale parish, Lanarkshire. 

BARNS, a seat of the Earl of Wemyss, 
on the Tweed, near influx of the Manor, 
Peeblesshire. 

BARNS, estate in Cleish parish, Kinross- 
shire. 

BARNS, ruined mansion in Crail parish, 



BAR 



37 



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Fife. Drummond of Hawthornden wrote 
here his ' Battle of the Dunghill.' 

BARNSDALE, extinct ancient castle in 
Rescobie parish, Forfarshire. 

BARNS (EAST), village, 2f miles south- 
east of Dunbar, Haddingtonshire. It has 
a public school with about 115 scholars. 

BARNSHEAN, lake, 5 miles east-north- 
east of Maybole, Ayrshire. 

BARNS (WEST), village, 2 miles west of 
Dunbar, Haddingtonshire. It has a post 
office under Dunbar, and a public school 
with about 162 scholars. Pop. 529. 

BARNTALLOCH, extinct old castle in 
Langholm parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BARNTON, seat in Cramond parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BARNWELL, old parish, divided between 
Craigie and Tarbolton. Ayrshire. 

BARNYARDS, village in Kilconquhar 
parish, Fife. Pop. 350. 

BAROCHAN, seat in Houston parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

BARONALD, seat near Lanark. 

BARONY, parish, comprising large por- 
tion of city and suburbs of Glasgow. It 
was constituted a separate parish in 1595, 
and it is now divided into numerous quoad 
sacra parishes. Acres, 1789. Peal pro- 
perty of landward part in 1880-81, £151,416. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 236,622 ; quoad sacra, 
6590. The parochial church stands near 
the Cathedral, was built in 1801, and 
is a spacious but tasteless and towerless 
structure. The Barony Free church stands 
a little west of that, and is a recent Norman 
edifice with lofty tower. Most of the 
public schools are within the city ; the 
parochial poorhouse is in Barnhill suburb ; 
and the parochial lunatic asylum is at 
AVoodielee, near Lenzie. 

BARONY, headland between Mull Sound 
and Loch Linnhe, Argyleshire. 

BARR, village and parish in south-east 
of Carrick, Ayrshire. The village stands 
on Stinchar river, 7 miles east-south-east 
of Girvan, and has a post office under 
Girvan, a railway station, a parochial 
church, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 81 scholars. — The parish 
measures about 20 miles by 8, and com- 
prises 54,876 acres. Peal property in 
1880-81, £15,104. Pop. 600. Most of 
the surface is either hilly, moorish, or 
mountainous ; and the arable land is only 
about 1200 acres. There are 3 public 
schools for 148 scholars. 

BARR, place in Galston parish, Ayr- 
shire. It has a public school with about 
244 scholars. 

BARR, glen in Killean parish, Kintyre, 
Argyleshire. 

BARR, estate, with roofless old castle, 
in Lochwinnoch parish, Renfrewshire. 

BARR, hill in St. Mungo parish, Dum- 
friesshire. 

BARRA, island and parish in south end of 
Outer Hebrides. The island lies about 45 
miles south-south-west of Lochmaddy ; 
measures 9 miles in length and 5f miles 



in breadth ; is screened along the west by 
vast, cavernous, shattered rocks ; rises into 
roundish pastoral hills ; belonged for many 
ages to the Macneils ; contains the modern 
mansion of Barra Castle ; and has a post 
office under Lochmaddy, a parochial church, 
a Roman Catholic chapel, and a public 
school with about 56 scholars. Pop. 1864. 
— The parish includes 8 other inhabited 
islands, and upwards of 12 uninhabited 
ones ; and it measures about 26 miles in 
length, and terminates at Barrahead. Real 
property in 18S0-81, £2098. Pop. 2161. 

BARRA, hill in Bourtie parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BARRAHEAD, headland at southern 
extremity of Outer Hebrides. A light- 
house was erected on it in 1833, and shows 
an intermittent light visible at the distance 
of 32 nautical miles. 

BARRAS, suburb of Lochmaben, Dum- 
friesshire. 

BARRAS, section of Kinneff parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

BARREL OF BUTTER, small skerry in 
Orphir parish, Orkney. 

BARRHEAD, town and quoad sacra 
parish in east of Renfrewshire. The town 
stands on Levern river, 6^ miles south- 
west of Glasgow, is a prosperous seat of 
manufacture, and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Glasgow, a railway station, 2 
banking offices, a public hall, Established, 
Free, United Presbyterian, Evangelical 
Union, and Roman Catholic churches, and 
2 public schools. All the churches are 
modern, 1 of the schools is recent, and 
the number of scholars is about 624. Pop. 
of the town, 9429 ; of the parish, 6728. 

BARRHILL, village on Dusk rivulet, in 
centre of Colmonell parish, Ayrshire. It 
has a post office, with money order depart- 
ment, under Girvan, a railway station, 
a banking office, a Free church, and a 
public school with about 101 scholars. 

BARRIE. See Baeet. 

BARRISDALE, seat in Glenelg parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BARRMILL, village in Beith parish, 
Ayrshire. It has a station on branch rail- 
way, and a public school with about 95 
scholars. Pop. 279. 

BARROCH, seat of Sir John R. G. 
Sinclair, Bart., 10 miles north-north-west 
of "Wick, Caithness. 

BARROGILL, seat of the Earl of Caith- 
ness, on north coast of Canisbay parish, 
Caithness. 

BARROWFIELD, eastern suburb of Glas- 
gow, on quondam Borough Moor, where 
Regent Moray's army encamped on eve of 
battle of Langside. It has a quoad sacra 
parish church, and a Free church. Pop. 
of the quoad sacra parish, 8087. 

BARRSCHOL, section of Rogart parish, 
Sutherland. 

BARRY, village and parish in south-east 
extremity of Forfarshire. The village 
stands 9 miles east-north-east of Dundee, 



BAR 



38 



BAY 



and has a railway station, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
about 91 scholars. The parish contains 
also most of the post town of Carnoustie, 
and is about 4 miles long and 3 miles 
broad. Acres, 5328. Eeal property in 
1880-81, £16,596. Pop., quoad civilia, 
3233 ; quoad sacra, 1229. The coast is 
flat and sandy, and includes Buddonness 
at entrance of the Firth of Tay. The 
interior commences with a verdant bank, 
and forms a fertile flat, elevated about 50 
feet above the coast. Churches and a 
public school are in Carnoustie. 

BARRY, hill in Alyth parish, Perth- 
shire. 

BARSCOBE, lake, 3 miles east of Dairy, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BARSHAW, seat near Paisley, Renfrew- 
shire. 

BARSKIMMING, seat of Sir "William F. 
Miller, Bart., on the river Ayr, 2\ miles 
south - west of Mauchline, Ayrshire. It 
was destroyed by fire in March 1882. 

BARTHOL, place in Tarves parish, Aber- 
deenshire. It has a quoad sacra parish 
church for a pop. of 797, and a public 
school with about 121 scholars. 

BARVAS, village and parish in north of 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. The village stands 
on west coast, at mouth of rivulet of 
its own name, about 15 miles north-north- 
west of Stornoway ; and has a post office 
under Stornoway, a parochial church, a 
Free church, and 2 public schools with 
about 89 scholars. Pop. 561. — The parish 
contains also the villages of Bragar, 
Knockard, Erropie, and Swainbost ; and 
measures about 22 miles by 8. Acres, 
89,654. Eeal property in 1880-81, £3109. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 5325; quoad sacra, 
2600. The coast is bold and rocky, and 
includes the terminating promontory called 
the Butt. A tract of less than a mile in 
mean breadth along the shore is the only 
cultivated land, and all the rest of the 
interior is mossy moor. There are 6 
schools for 955 scholars, and 3 of these 
and 2 enlargements for 784 are new. 

BARVICK, rivulet entering the Turret 
near Crieff, Perthshire. 

BARWHINNOCK, seat in Tvvynholm 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BASHAW, place, with limestone and 
petrifying springs, in Carluke parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

BASKET, place, with ironstone mines, in 
Blantyre parish, Lanarkshire. 

BASS, insulated basaltic crag, 3;j miles 
north-east of North Berwick, Haddington- 
shire. It measures 350 feet in height, and 
fully a mile in circumference ; is accessible 
at only one point ; and was successively a 
retreat of the Culdee St. Baldred, a strong- 
hold of the Lauder family, a state prison 
of distinguished Covenanters, and the last 
place in Scotland which resisted the Revolu- 
tion. 

BASS, mound adjacent to Inverury, Aber- 
deenshire. It was long the subject of 



curious traditions, and a puzzle to anti- 
quaries, but is simply an accumulation of 
diluvial drift. 

BASSENDEAN, old parish, now part of 
Westruther, Berwickshire. 

BASTA, voe or bay on east side of Yell 
Island, Shetland. 

BASTLERIDGE, estate in Ayton parish, 
Berwickshire. 

BATHA, lake in Fortingal parish, Perth- 
shire. 

BATHGATE, town and parish in west of 
Linlithgowshire. The town stands at a 
convergence of railways, 18i miles west- 
south-west of Edinburgh ; is partly old 
and irregular on an acclivity, partly new 
and regular on low ground ; carries on 
much business in connection with rich, 
extensive, surrounding mineral field ; and 
has a head post office with all departments, 
4 banking offices, Established, Free, 
United Presbyterian, Evangelical Union, 
and Roman Catholic churches, a handsome 
free academy, and a large public school. 
Pop. 4S87. — The parish contains also the 
town of Armadale and the village of Dur- 
hamton, and is about 7f miles long and 4 
miles broad. Acres, 10,876. Real property 
in 1880-81, £45,234. Pop. 9450. The 
north-eastern section is hilly, and the rest 
is almost level. Bituminous minerals, 
ironstone, and limestone are extensively 
worked. Chief seats are Balbardie and 
Boghead. There are 8 schools for 2367 
scholars, and 3 of these, for 1250, are new. 
A resolution was taken in August 1881 
to erect a new parochial church. 

BATHGATE AND EDINBURGH RAIL- 
WAY, about 10ij miles long, from Bathgate 
to a junction with the Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow line of the North British system near 
Ratho station. It was leased for 999 years 
to the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and passed 
with that to the North British. 

BATTLEDYKES, farm, with remains of 
Roman camp, in Oathlaw parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

BATTLEHILL, scene of ancient sanguin- 
ary fight between the Scotch and the 
English, in Annan parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BATTLEHILL, scene of ancient conflict 
between the Comyns and the Gordons, 
near Huntly, Aberdeenshire. 

BATTLEKNOWES, place, with traces of 
Roman camp, in Whitsome rjarish, Ber- 
wickshire. 

BATTLELAW, scene of ancient conflict 
between the Scotch and the Danes, in 
Balmerino parish, Fife. 

BATTOCK (MOUNT), summit, 2554 feet 
high, at meeting-point of Aberdeenshire, 
Kincardineshire, and Forfarshire. 

BAUCHRAN, lake in Glenstrathfarrar, 
Inverness-shire. 

BAWKIE, bay at south end of Dunoon, 
Argyleshire. 

BAYBLE, 2 villages, Lower and Upper, in 
Stornoway parish, Outer Hebrides. Pop. 
431 and 481. 
BAYFIELD,seatinNiggparish, Ross-shire. 



BAY 



39 



BEL 



BAYHEAD, suburb of Stornoway, Outer 
Hebrides. 

BEACON, conical hill in Bressay Island, 
Shetland. 

BEALACH-NAMBO, natural terrace, on 
north shoulder of Benvenue, about 800 
feet above Loch Katrine, Perthshire. 

BEANOCH, lake, 3 miles north-east of 
Lochinver, Sutherland. 

BEARSDEN, village, 5 miles north- 
north-west of Glasgow. It has a post 
office, with telegraph, under Glasgow, and 
a railway station. Pop. 764. 

BEATH, parish, containing the post office 
village of Cowdenbeath, the villages of 
Hill of Beath and Oakfield, and most of 
the village of Kelty, in west of Fife. Its 
length is about 4 miles, its breadth about 

3 miles, its area 6345 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £21,493. Pop. 5442. 
The surface is hilly, rugged, and diver- 
sified. Beath Hill, on the south-western 
boundary, has a beautiful appearance, 
and commands an extensive view. Coal 
abounds, and is largely worked. The 
churches are Established and Free, the 
latter at Kelty. There are 3 public 
schools, all new, for 1150 scholars. 

BEATTOCK, railway station, 2 miles 
south-south-west of Moffat, and 61J south- 
by-west of Edinburgh. It has neat offices 
and a hotel, and is adjacent to the post 
office village of Craigielands. A railway 
from it to Moffat was begun to be formed 
in December 1881. 

BEAUFORT CASTLE, seat of Lord Lovat, 

4 miles south-west of Beauly, Inverness- 
shire. A previous castle on its site was 
besieged by the English in 1303, seized and 
injured by Oliver Cromwell, and utterly 
destroyed after the battle of Culloden. 

BEAULY, river, sea-loch, and village, 
on north-west border of Inverr.ess-shire. 
The river is formed by union of the Glass 
and the Farrar ; runs windingly about 10 
miles north-eastward to head of the sea- 
loch, and is notable for its falls of Kilmo- 
rack. — The sea-loch forms part of the 
boundary between Inverness-shire and 
Boss-shire ; extends 7 miles eastward, 
with maximum breadth of 2 miles ; and 
connects, by strait of Kessock ferry, 
with head of Moray Firth. — Tb^ village 
stands on the river near influx to the loch, 
10 miles west of Inverness ; is old, 
modernized, and well-built, and has a head 
post office with all departments, a railway 
station, 2 banking offices, a harbour, 2 
hotels, ruins of a priory of 1230, an Estab- 
lished church, a Free church, a Roman 
Catholic chapel, and a public school with 
about 143 scholars. Pop. 903. 

BEAUMONT, rivulet of east border of 
Roxburghshire, running 10 miles northward 
there, and rjassing into England to the Till. 

BEDLAY, old fortalice, quondam seat 
of the Earls of Kilmarnock, near Chryston, 
Lanarkshire. 

BEDLORMIE, old fortalice in Torphichen 
parish, Linlithgowshire. 



BEDRULE, hamlet and parish in centre 
of Roxburghshire. The hamlet lies on 
Rule river, 3J miles south-west of Jed- 
burgh, and includes the parochial church, 
and remains of the old castle of the 
Turnbulls. The parish contains 2 other 
small hamlets, and its post town is 
Jedburgh. Acres, 3917. Real property 
in 1880-81, £4459. Pop. 269. The surface 
includes part of Dunian Mountain, and 
part of alluvial tracts on the Teviot. 
The public school has about 58 scholars. 

BEE, large irregular sea-loch in north of 
South Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

BEECHFIELD, place near Meikle Gar- 
nock, Hamilton parish , Lanarkshire. It has 
a public school of 1876 for 150 scholars. 

BEECHWOOD, a seat of Sir Sidney 
Dundas, Bart., in Corstorphine parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BEECHWOOD, seat in St. Vigeans 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BEECHWOOD, seat in Kettins parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BEESWING, place near Killywhan rail- 
way station, Kirkcudbrightshire. It has 
a post office under Dumfries. 

BEG, sea-loch, branching from Loch 
Bracadale, Isle of Skye. 

BEGLIE (WICKS OF), hill-pass, witli 
grand view, 3J miles west of Abernethy, 
Perthshire. 

BEIL, seat and village in Stenton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

BEITH, town in Ayrshire, and parish 
partly also in Renfrewshire. The town 
stands on an" eminence near a railway 
junction, 11 miles south-west-by-south of 
Paisley ; dates, with slight exception, from 
times subsequent to the Revolution ; 
carries on a variety of manufactures ; and 
has a head post office with all departments, 
a railway station, 3 banking offices, a 
hotel, a town hall, a parochial church, a 
Free church, 2 United Presbyterian 
churches, an Evangelical Union chapel, an 
industrial school, and 2 public schools. 
Pop. 4037. — The parish contains also the 
villages of Barrmill, Gateside, and Burn- 
house, and part of the village of Langbar. 
Acres in Ayrshire, 10,678 ; in Renfrew- 
shire, 544. Real property in 1880-81, 
£31,034, and £637. Pop. 6555. A hill- 
ridge, with summits of from 500 to 600 
feet above sea-level, extends along the 
north-east border ; the land declines and 
undulates thence to the west and south- 
west ; and the narrow strath traversed by 
Glasgow and Ayr Railway, from Paisley 
to Kilwinning, attains its highest point 
in the west, at only about 95 feet above 
sea-level. Caldwell and Woodside are 
chief seats, and Giffen Castle was long 
conspicuous, but fell in 1838. There are 
8 schools for 1069 scholars, and 1 of them 
and class-rooms for 459 are new. 

BELCHESTER, seat in Eccles parish, 
Berwickshire. 

BELDCRAIG, dell, 3 miles east-nortl.« 
east of Moffat, Dumfriesshire. 



BEL 



40 



BEL 



BELFORD, hill, 1092 feet high, in Hou- 
nam parish, Roxburghshire. 

BELHAVEN, village and quoad sacra 
parish on east coast of Haddingtonshire. 
The village stands at head of small bay 
about a mile west of Dunbar, has a public 
school with about 66 scholars, and gives the 
peerage title of baron to a branch of the 
family of Hamilton. Pop. of the village, 
434 : of the quoad sacra parish, 1351. 

BELHELVIE, parish on east coast of 
Aberdeenshire, averagely 7 miles north of 
Aberdeen. It contains the hamlets of 
Calmedie, Craigie, Wester Hatton, Menie, 
and Shiels, and has a post office of its own 
name under Aberdeen. It measures about 
6 miles by 5, and comprises 12,148 acres. 
Real property in 1880-S1, £13,622. Pop. 
1850. The coast is low and sandy ; the 
interior rises gradually, but is diversified 
with hillocks and low hill-ridges, and the 
western boundary is a continuous ridge 
about 800 feet high. The churches are 
Established, Free, and United Presby- 
terian. There are 5 schools for 399 
scholars, and 3 of them, for 240, are new. 
BELLA, head-stream of the Lugar, Ayr- 
shire. 

BELLABEG, seat in Strathdon parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BELLADRUM, seat in Kiltarlity parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BELLAHOUSTON, quoad sacra parish, 
within Go van parish, in south-western 
outskirts of Glasgow. Pop. 6002. A 
handsome academy here, on Paisley Road, 
was erected in 1876. 

BELLANOCH, place in North Knapdale 
parish, Argyleshire. It has a public 
school with about 80 scholars. 

BELLEISLE, seatin Ayrparish, Ayrshire. 
BELLEVILLE, seat in Alvie parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BELLEVUE, seat near Auchtermuchty, 
Fife. 

BELLFIELD, suburban village between 
Stirling and St. Ninians, Stirlingshire. 

BELLFIELD, seat near Kirknewton, 
Edinburghshire. 

BELLFIELD, seat near Kilmarnock, 
Ayrshire. 

BELLFIELD, seat near Cupar, Fife. 
BELLIE, parish, containing the post 
town of Fochabers, in Elginshire, and the 
villages of Auchinhalrig, Dallachy, Bog- 
moor, and Tugnet, in Banffshire. Its 
length is nearly 6 miles, its greatest 
breadth nearly 4 miles. Acres in Elgin- 
shire, 4875; in Banffshire, 8337. Real 
property in 18S0-81, £3848 and £5631. 
Pop. , quoad civilia, 2365 ; quoad sacra, 
2047. The river Spey bounds the west, 
and the Moray Firth bounds the north. 
The Spey here has, at different periods, 
shifted much westward from its original 
channel, and the land over which it has 
receded forms a considerable portion of 
the parochial area. Gordon Castle, a seat 
of the Duke of Richmond, is a chief 
feature. The old parochial church stood, 



till 1797, about a mile north of Gordon 
Castle, but the present parochial church, 
and other places of worship, are in 
Fochabers. A very fine free school, 
erected in 1846, also is in Fochabers ; and 
Bellie public school has about 176 scholars. 
BELL ROCK, reef, with lighthouse, 12 
miles south-by-east of Arbroath, Forfar- 
shire. The lighthouse was erected in 
1807-11, at a cost of £60,000, and shows a 
revolving light visible at the distance of 
15tj nautical miles. 

BELLRORY, hill in Glentanner section 
of Aboyne parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BELLSHILL, town, 9 miles byroad south- 
east of Glasgow. It prospers in connection 
with the working of rich neighbouring 
mines ; and it has a post office, with 
money order department, under Glasgow, 
a railway station, a banking office, a new 
quoad sacra parish church, a Free church, 
a United Presbyterian church, an Evangeli- 
cal Union chapel, and a public school with 
about 173 scholars. Pop. of the town, 2760 ; 
of the quoad sacra parish, 3334. 

BELLSHILL, MOTHERWELL, AND 
WISHAW RAILWAY. This was projected 
by an independent company ; it received 
the sanction of the Standing Orders Com- 
mittee in Jan. 1880, and it was designed to 
strike from the North British at Bellshill 
station, to traverse a rich mineral district 
by way of Motherwell to "Wishaw, and to 
give direct communication thence with the 
east of Glasgow. 

BELLSIDE, station for Omoa, on Cleland 
branch of Caledonian Railway, Lanark- 
shire. An Established church near it was 
projected in 1877. 

BELLSMAINS, hamlet in Borthwick 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

BELLSQUARRY, village in Midcalder 
parish, Edinburghshire. It has a public 
school with about 96 scholars. 

BELLSTOWN, hamlet in Methven parish, 
Perthshire. 

BELLWOOD, seat in Glencorse vale, 
Edinburghshire. 

BELLWOOD, seat on face of Kinnoul 
Hill, fronting Perth. 

BELLYCONE, village in Madderty parish, 
Perthshire. 

BELMADUTHY, seat of Sir Evan 
Mackenzie, Bart., in Knockbain parish, 
Ross-shire. 

BELMONT, seat near Corstorphine, 
Edinburghshire. 

BELMONT, seat near Uyeasound, Unst 
Island, Shetland. 

BELMONT CASTLE, seat of the Earl of 
Wharncliffe, near Meikle, Perthshire. 

BELNABOTH, place, with ruined ancient 
chapel, in Towie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BELNAGOAK, hill in Methlick parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BELRETIRO, seat on west side near 
foot of Loch Lomond, Dumbartonshire. 

BELSES, village, with railway station, 
1\ miles north-north-east of Hawick, 
Roxburghshire. 



BEL 



41 



BEN 



BELTON, old parish, now part of Dunbar 
parish, Haddingtonshire. 

BELTONFORD, hamlet in Dunbar parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

BELTREES, hamlet in Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

BELTY, rivulet, running to the Dee, in 
Banchory - Ternan parish, Kincardine- 
shire. 

BELVIDERE, seat on the Clyde in 
eastern outskirts of Glasgow. 

BEMERSYDE, estate, with old baronial 
mansion, on the Tweed near Dryburgh, 
on south-west verge of Berwickshire. 

BENABOURD, alpine mountain, 3924. 
feet high, one of the Cairngorms, Aber- 
deenshire and Banffshire. 

BENABOURD, lofty mountain in Glen- 
orchy parish, Argyleshire. 

BENACHALLY, mountain, 1694feet high, 
with magnificent view, 5 miles north-north- 
east of Dunkeld, Perthshire. 

BENACHASTLE, mountain, 2897 feet 
high, 14 miles west of Killin, Perthshire. 

BENACLEIDH, grand mountain on east 
flank of Loch Awe, Argyleshire. 

BENAGHARLAGAN, isolated mountain 
in Fortingal parish, Perthshire. 

BENAIGAN, bulky mountain, 1500 feet 
high, flanking the Spey about 7 miles 
south of Fochabers. 

BENALDER, wild, precipitous moun- 
tain-range, 3757 feet high, overhanging 
Loch Ericht, on south-east border of 
Inverness-shire. 

BENALLIGIN, mountain, 3015 feet high, 
overhanging Loch Torridon, in Ross- 
shire. 

BENANOIR, peaked mountain, 2566 feet 
high, one of the ' Paps of Jura,' in Jura 
Island, Argyleshire. 

BENARMINE, mountain, 2306 feet high, 
at head of Strathnaver, Sutherland. 

BENARTHUR, or COBBLER, mountain, 
with fantastically outlined peak, 2863 feet 
high, overhanging head of Loch Long, 
Argyleshire. 

BENATTOW, alpine mountain, 3383 feet 
high, at head of Strathaffrick, on mutual 
border of Inverness-shire and Ross-shire. 

BENAVEALLICH, mountain, 1936 feet 
high, in Loth parish, Sutherland. 

BENAVEN, alpine mountain, 3843 feet 
high, one of the Cairngorms, Aberdeen- 
shire and Banffshire. 

BENAW, mountain in Glenbucket parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BENAWN, bare, bold, rocky mountain, 
1800 feet high, overhanging north side of 
foot of Loch Katrine, Perthshire. 

BENBECULA, island, between North Uist 
and South Uist, Outer Hebrides. It mea- 
sures about 8 miles by 7 ; is all a low, flat, 
intricate mixture of lands, marshes, lakes, 
and bays, and has a Free church and a 
Roman Catholic church. Pop. 1661. 

BENBEOCH, mountain, with cave and 
basaltic colonnades, in Dalmellington 
parish, Ayrshire. 

BENBLAVEN. See Blabhein. 



BENBREAC, mountain, 2338 feet high, 
in Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

BENBREAC, summit, 1482 feet high, in 
north of Jura, Argyleshire. 

BENBREAC, hill, 946 feet high, 5 miles 
north-west of Poolewe, Ross-shire. 

BENBUI, summit, 1797 feet high, on 
east side of Strathnairn, Inverness-shire. 

BENBUY, mountain, 2352 feet high, in 
south-east of Mull, Argyleshire. 

BENBUY, lofty mountain near head of 
Glenshira, Argyleshire. 

BENCAILLIACH, mountain, 23S7 feet 
high, adjacent to Kyle-Rhea, Isle of Skye. 

BENCAIRN, hill, 1200 feet high, in 
Rerrick parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BENCARRICK, mountain, 2848 feet high, 
north of Glenstrae, Argyleshire. 

BENCHALUIM, mountain, 3354 feet 
high, 12 miles west-by-south of Killin, 
Perthshire. 

BENCHAPULL, mountain in Kilninver 
parish, Arsyleshire. 

BENCHEILT, hill, 940 feet high, 4 
miles north-west of Lybster, Caithness. 

BENCHINNAN, mountain - range, 24 
miles long and from 9 to 15 miles broad, 
bordered by peaks 3180 and 3250 feet high, 
cut by ravines and glens, and comprising 
the section of Grampians within Forfar- 
shire. 

BENCHOAN, mountain, 3101 feet high, 
4J miles north of head of Loch Katrine, 
Perthshire. 

BENCHOCHAN, mountain on east side 
of Loch Chon, Perthshire. 

BENCHONZIE, mountain, 3048 feet 
high, at head of Glenturret, Perthshire. 

BENCLACHAN, mountain, 2028 feet 
high, near Applecross village, Ross-shire. 

BENCLEUGH, summit of the Ochils, 2352 
feet high, 8 miles north-east of Stirling. 

BENCLYBRIC, alpine conical mountain, 
3164 feet high, with very extensive view, 
in almost exact centre of Sutherland. 

BENCRUACHAN, peninsulated, massive 
alpine mountain, 3070 feet high, with 
magnificent view, between Loch Awe and 
Loch Etive, Argyleshire. 

BENCRUBEN, mountain, 1932 feet high, 
on west side of Glentruim, Inverness-shire. 

BENDEANAVAIG, lofty, remarkably- 
outlined mountain, overhanging Loch 
Portree, Isle of Skye. 

BENDEARG, alpine mountain, 3304 feet 
high, 8 miles north-by-west of Blair- 
Athole village, Perthshire. 

BENDEARG, alpine mountain, 3551 feet 
high, near head of Loch Broom, Ross-shire. 

BENDEARG, mountain -range on west 
coast of Durness parish, Sutherland. 

BENDHEICEACH, alpine mountain, 3074 
feet high, 8jr miles west of Killin, Perth- 
shire. 

BENDOCHY, parish, with church, 2 miles 
north-west of Coupar-Angus, Perthshire. 
Its post town is Coupar-Angus. Acres, 
9368. Real property in 1880-81, £12,075. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 715; quoad sacra, 499. 
The southern section, around the church, 



BEN 



42 



BEN 



is variously level, undulating, and hilly ; 
and the northern one lies detached at from 
8 to 13 miles to the north-west, is partly 
arable, and includes skirts of the Grampians. 
The public school has about 52 scholars. 

BENDONICH, mountain, 2774 feet high, 
2J miles north-by-east of Lochgoilhead, 
Argyleshire. 

BENDORAN, mountain on east side of 
Loch Tolla, Argyleshire. 

BENDUAN, mountain on north side of 
Strathdonan, Sutherland. 

BENEADDAN, or BENYATTAN, moun- 
tain, 2308 feet high, on south side of Loch 
Sunart, Argyleshire. 

BENEAGACH, mountain, 2259 feet high, 
3 miles south of foot of Loch Tummel, 
Perthshire. 

BENEAGEEN. See Benaigan. 

BENEAY, mountain, 6| miles south-west 
of Kinlochewe, Ross-shire. 

BENEIGEN, mountain on south side of 
Loch Fannich, Ross-shire. 

BENERAIRD, hill, 1435 feet high, in 
Ballantrae parish, Ayrshire. 

BENETHRA, mountain, 2003 feet high, 
3 miles south-by-west of Stenscholl, Isle 
of Skye. 

BENEUNAICH, alpine mountain, 3242 
feet high, on west side of Glenstrae, 
Argyleshire. 

BENEVACHART, mountain, about 3000 
feet high, 10 miles west of Beauly, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

BENFAD, alpine mountain-range, with 
pyramidal summits, in Glenshiel parish, 
Ross-shire. 

BENFHIONNLAIDH, alpine summit, 3149 
feet high, on south side of upper part of 
Glencreran, Argyleshire. 

BENFILE, massive lofty mountain, with 
white quartz peaks, on left side of head 
of Loch Maree, Ross-shire. 

BENFIN, summit of alpine range on 
north side of Loch Fannich, Ross-shire. 

BENGAIRN. See Bencairn. 

BENGAL, village in Dryfesdale parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BENGLAMAIG, mountain on south side 
of Loch Sligachan, Isle of Skye. 

BENGLASS, mountain, overhanging 
Glendouglas, near middle of west side of 
Loch Lomond. 

BENGLOE. See Benygloe. 

BENGNUIS, mountain, 2597 feet high, 
with tarn, on south side of Gleniorsa, 
Arran Island, Buteshire. 

BENGOBHLACH, mountain, 2074 feet 
high, 4 miles west of Ullapool, Ross-shire. 

BENGRIAM, mountain, 1935 feet high, 
at meeting-point of Farr, Reay, and 
Kildonan parishes, Sutherland. 

BENHALLIVAL, mountain, with two 
tabular summits, 1583 and 1527 feet high, 
called Macleod's Tables, in Bracadale 
parish, Isle of Skye. 

BENHAR, village in Whitburn parish, 
Linlithgowshire. Pop. 763. A church 
for it and Harthill was erected in 1877, 
and contains 6G0 sittings. 



BENHEE, mountain, 2858 feet high, on 
mutual border of Farr and Edderachyllis- 
parishes, Sutherland. 

BENHEINISH, loftiest ground in Tyree 
Island, Argyleshire. 

BENHESKERNICH, alpine mountain, 
3530 feet high, at head of south side of 
Glenlyon, Perthshire. 

BENHIANT, mountain, 1759 feet high, 
on south side of Ardnamurchan peninsula, 
Argyleshire. 

BENHIEL, mountain on west side of 
Loch Loyal, Sutherland. 

BENHILL, hill-range, with extensive 
view, in Ruthven parish, Banffshire. 

BENHOLM, seaside parish, containing 
Johnshaven town, in Kincardineshire. 
Acres, 4891. Real property in 1880-81, 
£8521. A belt of low, flat land lies along 
the shore ; an ancient sea-beach bounds 
that belt ; and a series of eminences, 
with intervening dales, rises thence to 
the inland boundary. Benholm Castle is 
a well-preserved, ancient, strong baronial 
fortalice. The churches are Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian ; and 
there are 2 public schools, with about 
155 scholars. 

BENHOPE, massive alpine mountain, 
3040 feet high, at east side of head of Loch 
Hope, in Sutherland. 

BENHORN, mountain, 1712 feet high, on 
north side of Dunrobin glen, in Sutherland. 

BENHUTIG, hill, 1340 feet high, adjacent 
to "Whitenhead, in Sutherland. 

BENIMA, mountain, 3250 feet high, 
in northern vicinity of Benarthur, at head 
of Loch Long, Argyleshire. 

BENINTURK, or BENTORC, mountain, 
1491 feet high, near centre of Kintyre, 
Argyleshire. 

BENKETLAN, beautifully outlined lofty 
mountain, in Ardchattan parish, Argyle- 
shire. 

BENKILLY, mountain, 2152 feet high, 
on north-west side of Loch Linnhe, Argyle- 
shire. 

BENKLIBRECK. See Benclybric. 

BENLAGA, mountain on north of Loch 
Sunart, Argyleshire. 

BENLAIR, massive lofty mountain over- 
hanging north side of lower part of Loch 
Maree, in Ross-shire. 

BENLAOGHILL. See Benloyal. 

BENLAOIDH, or BENLOY, alpine 
mountain, with peaked summit 3708 feet 
high, 6 miles east-south-east of Dalmally, 
Argyleshire. 

BENLAWERS, broad-based, grandly out- 
lined, cone-capped, alpine mountain, 3984 
feet high, with magnificent extensive view, 
on north-west side of Loch Tay, Perth- 
shire. 

BENLEATHAN, mountain, 2312 feet 
high, 3 miles south of Killin, Perthshire. 

BENLEDI, broad-based mountain, 2875 
feet high, with tarn, and with gorgeous 
view, in west-north-western vicinity of 
Callander, Perthshire. 

BENLEVEN, peninsulated district, 



BEN 



43 



BEN 



between Loch Lomond and river Leven 
on the one side, and Loch Long and 
Gareloch on the other, Dumbartonshire. 

BENLIGA, mountain in Stobo parish, 
l^ocblcssliirc 

BENLOCHAIN, mountain, 2306 feet high, 
21 miles west-by-south of Lochgoilhead, 
Argyleshire. 

BENLOMOND, massive alpine mountain, 
ascending slowly from the south, breaking 
down precipitously on the north, culmi- 
nating at 3912 feet above sea-level, and 
commanding a most extensive and 
magnificent view, on east side of upper 
part of Loch Lomond, Stirlingshire. 

BENLOY. See Benlaoidh. 

BENLOYAL, picturesque mountain, with 
splintered summit 2505 feet high, on west 
side of Loch Loyal, in Sutherland. 

BENLUNDIE, hill, 1154 feet high, near 
Golspie, in Sutherland. 

BENMACDHU, loftiest of the Cairngorm 
Mountains, with summit 4296 feet high, 
at 12 miles north-west of Castleton- 
Braemar, Aberdeenshire. 

BENMAIGH. See Benbut, Mull Island. 

BENMEAN, mountain in Morvern parish, 
Argyleshire. 

BENMORE, alpine double-coned moun- 
tain, 3843 feet high, on south side of upper 
part of Glendochart, Perthshire. 

BENMORE, massive alpine mountain, 
extending from Loch - na - Keal to Loch 
Scriden, and culminating at 3172 feet 
above sea-level, in Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

BENMORE, grand alpine mountain, with 
summit 3281 feet high, at 4^ miles east- 
south-east of head of Loch Assynt, Suther- 
land. 

BENMORE, alpine mountain-range, with 
pyramidal summits, in Glenshiel parish, 
Ross-shire. 

BENMORE, mountain, 2038 feet high, 
in middle of east coast of South Uist 
Island, Outer Hebrides. 

BENMORE, remarkably outlined moun- 
tain, 6J miles north-west of Ullarjool, 
Ross-shire. 

BENMORE, steep, lofty mountain, over- 
hanging Glenmassan, Gleneachaig, and 
Loch Eck, in Cowal, Argyleshire. 

BENMORE, notable mountain in Lochs 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

BENMORE, mountain, 2367 feet high, in 
Rum Island, Inner Hebrides. 

BENNABUIRD. See Benabourd. 

BENNACALLIOCH, peaked mountain, 
near Broadford, Isle of Skye. 

BENNACHIE, summit, 1619 feet high, 
with Caledonian stone circle, 3 miles 
south of Oyne, Aberdeenshire. 

BENNAMAIN, one of the Cairngorms, in 
north-eastern vicinity of Benmacdhu. 

BENNAN, hill, 920 feet high, 64 miles 
south-east of Maybole, Ayrshire. 

BENNAN, headland terminating Struey 
cliffs, Arran Island, Buteshire. 

BENNAVROCHAN. one of the Cairn- 
gorms, 3795 feet high, in southern vicinity 
of Cairntoul. 



BENNETSTON, village in Polmont parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

BENNEVIS, loftiest mountain in Great 
Britain. It rises abruptly from low ground 
adjacent to Fort-William, Inverness-shire ; 
attains an altitude of 4406 feet ; com- 
mands a sublime extensive view ; 
discharges into Nevis river a waterfall 
thought by many persons to be finer than 
the Falls of Foyers ; and is skirted round 
the base, up Glennevis, by a public 
carriage drive formed in 1880. 

BENNEWE, flat-topped mountain, with 
extensive view, in Strathdon parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BENNUIS. See Bengnuis. 

BENOCHY, seat near Kirkcaldy, Fife. 

BENOCHY, Aberdeenshire. See Ben- 

NACHIE. 

BENRAH, hill, 780 feet high, 11 miles 
west-south-west of Thurso, Caithness. 

BENREITHE, summit of Argyle's Bowl- 
ing-green, Argyleshire. Its height is 2141 
feet. 

BENRESIPOL, mountain, 2792 feet high, 
5 miles west-north-west of Strontian, 
Argyleshire. 

BENRINNES, massive mountain, 2747 
feet high, with extensive view, in 
southern vicinity of Aberlour, Banffshire. 

BENROSSAL, mountain on east side of 
upper part of Strathnaver, Sutherland. 

BENRUADH, mountain, 2178 feet high, 
on east side of lower part of Lock Eck, 
Argyleshire. 

BENSCARBA, summit, 1490 feet high, 
in Scarba Island, Argyleshire. 

BENSCARRACH, mountain, 8 miles 
west-north -west of Lairg, in Sutherland. 

BENSCREEL, mountain, 3196 feet high, 
on north side of Loch Hourn, Inverness- 
shire. 

BENSHALGS, small lake in Knockando 
parish, Elginshire. 

BENSLEY. village in Kilwinning parish, 
Ayrshire. Pop. 318. 

BENSMEORALE, mountain, 6 miles 
north-north-west of Brora, in Sutherland. 

BENSPIONNA, mountain. 2535 feet high, 
on west side of upper part of Loch Eriboll, 
in Sutherland. 

BENSTACK, pyramidal mountain, 2364 
feet high, overhanging Loch Stack, in 
Edderachyllis parish, Sutherland. 

BENSTARIVE, stern, massive mountain, 
3541 feet high, on east side of upper part 
of Loch Etive, Argyleshire. 

BENSTOMINO, mountain on east side of 
Loch Loyal, in Sutherland. 

BENSTROME, mountain, 3 miles south 
of Benstack, in Sutherland. 

BENT, place in Lesmahagow parish, 
Lanarkshire. It has a public school with 
about 105 scholars. 

BENTARSEN, mountain, 2149 feet high, 
on north side of head of Glenfruin, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

BENTOAIG, mountain, 2712 feet high, 2 
miles north-west of Loch Tolla, Glenorchy, 
Argyleshire. 



BEN 



44 



BER 



BENTORC. See Benintukk. 

BENTRILLEACHAN, mountain, 2752 
feet high, on west side of upper part of 
Loch Etive, Argyllshire. 

BENTS, railway station, 4§ miles south 
of Bathgate, Linlithgowshire. 

BENTS, seat in West Calder parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BENTS, affluent of the Don, at eastern 
boundary of Alford parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BENUAIG, hill, 1320 feet high, at head 
of Loch-na-Keal, in Mull Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

BENUAISH. See Benwyvis. 

BENUARIE, mountain, 1923 feet high, 
8 miles west of Helmsdale, in Sutherland. 

BENULAR, mountain, 4;? miles south- 
west of Lochgoilhead, Argyleshire. 

BENULAY, alpine mountain in Kintail 
parish, Boss-shire. 

BENUNA, mountain on south-west side 
of Glencroe, Argyleshire. 

BENURANMORE and BENURANBEG, 
mountains, 3427 and 3011 feet high, on 
north-east verge of Blair-Athole parish, 
contiguous to Aberdeenshire. 

BENUSHINISH, mountain in Lochs 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

BENVADDA, mountain in north-western 
vicinity of Bengriam, Sutherland. 

BENVALLA, mountain in Stobo parish, 
Peeblesshire. 

BENVAN, mountain, with fine view, in 
Kilmartin parish, Argyleshire. 

BENVAREN, mountain, 2345 feet high, 
in north-west of Arran Island, Buteshire. 

BENVEEDAN, massive alpine mountain, 
in Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

BENVENUE, mountain, 2386 feet high, 
overhanging south side of Loch Katrine, 
Perthshire. 

BENVIE, village and old parish, an- 
nexed to Liff, on south-west border of For- 
farshire. 

BENVIGORY, hill, scene of sanguinary 
fight between the Macdonalds and the 
Macleans, on east side of Islay Island, 
Argyleshire. 

BENVOIRLICH, mountain, 3224 feet 
high, with extensive magnificent view, 
3 miles south of middle of Loch Earn, 
Perthshire. 

BENVOIRLICH, mountain, 3091 feet 
high, overhanging Loch Sloy, near head of 
Loch Lomond, Dumbartonshire. 

BENVOLLICH, mountain, 5 miles north 
of middle of Loch Bannoch, Perthshire. 

BENVRACKY, mountain, 2757 feet high, 
with splendid view, adjacent to east side 
of Killiecrankie Pass, Perthshire. 

BENVRAGIE, hill, 1384 feet high, 
crowned by colossal statue, near Golspie, 
Sutherland. 

BENVRAICK, summit, 1922 feet high, 
5 miles north-north-west of Drymen, 
Stirlingshire. 

BENVUI, hill in Eigg Island, Inner 
Hebrides. 

BENVUROCK, mountain, 2961 feet high, 



in east-south-eastern vicinity of Benygloe, 
Perthshire. 

BENWHAT, hill and village, 3 miles north 
of Dalmellington, Ayrshire. Pop. 772. 

BENWYVIS, huge-based, broad-shoul- 
dered, lumpish mountain, culminating at 
3426 feet, 8 miles north-west of Dingwall, 
in Boss-shire, and commanding a sublime 
view. 

BENYASH, lofty hill, in north-west of 
Ardnamurchan peninsula, Argyleshire. 

BENYATTAN. See Beneadden. 

BENYGLOE, huge-based, four-summited 
mountain, with extreme altitude of 3671 
feet, on left flank of Glentilt, Perth- 
shire. 

BEOCH, place on east side of Loch Byan, 
4 miles north-north-east of Stranraer, 
Wigtonshire. 

BEORAIK, lake in east of Arasaig dis- 
trict, Inverness-shire. 

BERBETH, seat on the Doon, 2 miles 
south of Dalmellington, Ayrshire. 

BERIGONIUM, site of alleged ancient 
capital of Dalriada, on the coast, 6 miles 
north-north-east of Oban, Argyleshire. 
The place is now called Dunmacsniachan, 
and contains only such vestiges as seem to 
indicate its having been the site of a small 
Scandinavian settlement. 

BERNARDS (ST.), quoad sacra parish, 
■with Established and Free churches, in 
north of New Town, Edinburgh. Pop. 5682. 

BERNARDS (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Glasgow. Pop. 11,176. 

BERNERA, island in south side of Loch 
Boag, west coast of Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 
It measures about 8 miles by 2, is sur- 
rounded by numerous islets, one of them 
called Little Bernera, and contains the 
largest group of ancient standing stones in 
Great Britain. Pop. 590. 

BERNERA, island in Harris Sound, near 
northern extremity of North TJist, Outer 
Hebrides. It measures about 3J miles by 
2, and has a quoad sacra parochial church. 
Pop. 452. 

BERNERA, island at southern extremity 
of Outer Hebrides. It measures about 1 
mile by f , and rises from cliffs to a height 
of about 500 feet. Pop. 57. 

BERNISDALE, place in Snizort parish, 
Isle of Skye. It has a public school -with 
about 117 scholars. 

BERNORY, coast rock, with 3 caves, in 
Orphir parish, Orkney. 

BERRIEDALE, rivulet, village, castle, 
and quoad sacra parish on south border of 
Caithness. The rivulet rises among Mor- 
vern Mountains, and runs about 16 miles 
eastward and south-eastward to the sea, 
near north base of the Ord. — The village 
stands in a gorge at the rivulet's mouth, 
9h miles north-east of Helmsdale ; has a 
post office under Golspie, an Established 
church, and a Free church, and gives the 
title of baron to the Earl of Caithness. — 
The castle stands adjacent to the village, 
and is a ruined old baronial fortalice. 
Pop. of the parish, 1184. 



BER 



45 



BIG 



BERRYHEAD, grand rocky promontory 
at south end of Walls, Orkney. 

BERRYHILL, place in Cambusnethan 
parish, Lanarkshire. It has a public 
school with about 256 scholars. 

BERRYHILL, seat, 2 miles west of Peter- 
head, Aberdeenshire. 

BERRYHILL, estate in Kilsyth parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

BERRYKNOWE, seat near south-western 
outskirts of Glasgow. 

BERTHA, site of ancient town, on 
quondam Roman road, at influx of the 
Almond to the Tay, 2 miles north of Perth. 

BERTRAM-SHOTTS. See Shotts. 

BERVIE, rivulet, town, and parish in 
Kincardineshire. The rivulet runs curv- 
ingly about 12 miles eastward to the sea. 
— The town stands on the right side of the 
rivulet's mouth, at terminus of Montrose 
and Bervie Railway ; ranks as a royal and 
parliamentary burgh, grouped with Mon- 
trose, Arbroath, Brechin, and Forfar ; and 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Fordoun, 
2 banking offices, a modern town hall, a 
public hall of 1876, Established, Free, and 
United Presbyterian churches, and a 
public school with about 79 scholars. 
Real property in 1880-81, £2877. Pop. 
1095. — The parish contains also the 
village of Gourdon, and comprises 2332 
acres. Real property of landward part in 
1880-81, £3746. Pop. 2107. The surface 
ascends gradually inland, but has two 
nearly parallel hill-ridges. There are 2 
public schools for 354 scholars, and 1 of 
them, for 170, is new. 

BERVIE BROW, bold promontory at left 
side of mouth of Bervie rivulet, Kincar- 
dineshire. 

BERWICK (NORTH), town and parish on 
north coast of Haddingtonshire. The 
town stands at terminus of branch railway 
amid charming environs, adjacent to fine 
beach and golfing links, 22| miles east- 
north-east of Edinburgh ; is a royal burgh, 
a nominal seaport, and a fashionable 
watering-place ; unites with Haddington, 
Dunbar, Jedburgh, and Lauder in sending 
a member to Parliament ; consists chiefly 
of 2 streets, at nearly right angles with 
each other ; and has a head post office 
with all departments, 2 banking offices, 2 
hotels, 2 private hotels, a town hall x>ro- 
jected in 1872, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, and Episcopalian churches, 
a public school with about 266 scholars, 
and some remains of an ancient nunnery, 
celebrated in Sir Walter Scott's Marmion. 
R^eal property in 1880-81, £9271. Pop. 
1398. — The parish includes Tantallon 
Castle and the Bass, and measures on the 
mainland about 3g miles by 3. Acres, 
5067. Real property of landward part in 
1880-81, £17,511. Pop. of the whole, 
26S8. North Berwick Law, in southern 
vicinity of the town, is an embellished, 
conical hill, 612 feet high, and commands 
an exquisite panoramic view. North 



Berwick or Leucine House, east-south-east 
of the Law, is the seat of Sir Hew H. 
Dalrymple, Bart. The coast of the parish 
is rocky and indented, the interior is 
richly cultivated, and the southern dis- 
trict is crossed by a picturesque range of 
trap rocks. There are 4 schools for 482 
scholars, and 1 of them, for 400, is new. 

BERWICKSHIRE, county in extreme 
south-east of Scotland. Its boundary, on 
the north, is a line through the centre of 
the Lammermoor Hills ; on the east, the 
German Ocean ; on the south, an artificial 
line of 4ij miles, and the river Tweed, 
dividing it from England ; on the west, 
partly the river Leader, and partly an 
artificial line dividing it from Roxburgh- 
shire and Edinburghshire. Its greatest 
length is 34 miles ; its greatest breadth, 
21 miles ; its coast line, about 22 miles ; 
its area, 464 square miles. The Lammer- 
moor Hills, to the average breadth of 
about 7 miles, occupy all the north ; a 
diversified tract of hill, dale, and ravine, 
about 5^ miles in mean breadth, faced 
mostly with high, rocky, precipitous 
coast, forms all the east ; the Merse, a 
diversified luxuriant champaign, occupies 
all the south ; and Lauderdale, partly vale 
and partly hilly, forms the west. The 
rocks are chiefly silurian and devonian, 
and the soils are exceedingly various. 
The chief rivers, besides the Tweed and 
the Leader, are the Whitadder and the 
Blackadder ; and the smaller streams of 
any note are the Eye, the Dye, the Ale, 
and the Leet. Agriculture is in prime 
condition, and fisheries are important, but 
manufactures are of small amount. The 
towns with each between 2000 and 3000 
inhabitants are Dunse and Eyemouth ; 
the towns with each between 1000 and 
2000 inhabitants are Coldstream, Earlston, 
and Lauder ; and the towns or villages 
with each between 300 and 900 inhabitants 
are Greenlaw, Chirnside, Ayton, Colding- 
ham, Gordon, Leitholm, Paxton, Swinton, 
andBurnmouth. Real property in 1880-81, 
£355,123. Pop. in 1871, 36,486; in 1881, 
35,383. 

BETHELNIE, hill, with traces of Roman 
camp, 4 miles north-west of Old Meldrum, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BETTYHILL, place at foot of Strath- 
naver, Sutherland. 

BEVELAW, water - reservoir and old 
royal hunting-seat on the Pentlands, 5 
miles north-west of Penicuick, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

BIEL. See Beil. 

BIELDSIDE, seat in Peterculter parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BIGGA, island, about 2J miles long, in 
Yell Sound, Shetland. 

BIGGAR, rivulet of Lanarkshire and 
Peeblesshire, and town and parish on 
south-east border of Lanarkshire. The 
rivulet runs about 4 mdes southward, and 
5 miles eastward to the Tweed, at 8i miles 
south-west of Peebles. — The town standa 



BIG 



46 



BIR 



on the rivulet, 15f miles west-south-west 
of Peebles ; consists of 2 parts, ancient 
and modern ; was the scene of a battle 
between Sir William Wallace and the 
English ; and has a head post office with all 
departments, a railway station, 3 banking 
offices, 3 chief inns, a large ancient moat, 
a good bridge of 1873, a cruciform parochial 
church of 1545. a handsome United Presby- 
terian church of 1S78, and 3 public schools 
with about 343 scholars. Pop. 1556. — 
The parish is 6J miles long, and comprises 
7272 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£14,445. Pop. 2128. The surface is partly 
hilly, and partly portion of a dingle 
extending from the Clyde to the Tweed. 
The seats are Biggar Park, Cambus- 
Wallace, Edmonston, and Carwood. 

BIGHOUSE, seat on Halladale water, 
near Melvich village, Sutherland. 

BIGHOUSE, seat in Edrom parish, Ber- 
wickshire. 

BILBSTER, burn and seat in Wick 
parish, Caithness. 

BILLHOLM, seat in Westerkirk parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BILLY CASTLE, fragment of strong 
ancient fortress, which figured much in 
the Border wars, 2 miles north of Chirn- 
side, Berwickshire. Billy Mire, around it, 
was a morass which afforded it great 
defence, and gave name to an international 
truce, but is now drained and cultivated. 

BILLYNESS, headland at Anstruther 
Bay, Fife. 

BILSDEAN, hamlet in Oldhamstocks 
parish, Haddingtonshire. 

BIMAR, skerry, with beacon, £ mile 
south-west of North Queensferry, Fife. 

BINCHINNAN. See Benchinnan. 

BINEND, small lake in Eaglesham parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

BINGHILL, seat in Peterculter parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BINGRY. See Balltngrt. 

BINN, abrupt, bare, lofty hill, over- 
looking Firth of Forth, in Burntisland 
parish, Fife. 

BINN, conical, conspicuous hill, 1048 
feet high, 2 miles south-west of Cullen, 
Banffshire. 

BINNANS, hill, with precipitous face 
and grand view, on the coast between 
Greenock and Gourock, Renfrewshire. 

BINNIE, place, with famous sandstone 
quarry, in Uphall parish, Linlithgow- 
shire. 

BINNIEHILL, village in Slamannan 
parish, Stirlingshire. Pop. 434. 

BINNING, old parish, now part of 
Linlithgow parish, Linlithgowshire. It 
gives the title of baron to the Earl of 
Haddington. 

BINNS, seat of Sir Robert A. O. Dalyell, 
Bart., in Abercorn parish, Linlithgow- 
shire. 

BINRAM'S CROSS, small stone - capped 
mound, alleged to be the tomb of a 
notorious clerical necromancer, on west side 
•of St. Mary's Loch, Selkirkshire. 



BINSNESS, estate in Dyke parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

BIRD, headland at south side of mouth 
of Loch Goil, Argyleshire. 

BIRDSTONE, village in Campsie parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

BIRGHAM, village on the Tweed, 3J 
miles west - by - south of Coldstream, 
Berwickshire. It has a post office under 
Coldstream, and a public school with 
about 67 scholars. 

BIRKHALL, royal seat within Balmoral 
demesne, Aberdeenshire. 

BIRKHILL, village in Liif parish, Forfar- 
shire. Pop. 177. 

BIRKHILL, seat in Balmerino parish, 
Fife. 

BIRKHILL, small inn, amid high moors, 
notable in the history of the Covenanters, 
4^ miles south-south-west of the head of 
St. Mary's Loch, Selkirkshire. 

BIRKHILLSIDE, seat in Legerwood 
parish, Berwickshire. 

BIRKWOOD, seat near Lesmahagow, 
Lanarkshire. 

BIRLEYHILL, place in Durrisdeer parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a public school with 
about 90 scholars. 

BIRNAM, hill, pass, and village, near 
Dunkeld, Perthshire. The hill adjoins 
right bank of the Tay, 2^ miles south of 
Dunkeld ; is traversed, on a terrace-line 
round its east skirts, by the Highland 
Railway ; has a height of 1324 feet above 
sea-level ; commands a very striking view ; 
figures notably in Shakespeare's story of 
Macbeth ; and retains vestiges of King 
Duncan's residence, and of a vitrified fort. 
— The pass is a gorge traversed by the Tay 
at east end of the hill, and is frequently 
called the Mouth of the Highlands. — The 
village stands at Dunkeld railway station, 
15J miles north-north-west of Perth ; is 
recent, well-edificed, and picturesque ; and 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Dunkeld, a 
very large and ornate hotel, and a Gothic 
Episcopalian church. Pop. 268. 

BIRNESS, place, 6 miles from Ellon, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Ellon. 

BIRNIE, parish on the Lossie, averagely 
4 miles south-south-west of Elgin. Post 
town, Elgin. Length, 7 miles. Acres, 
6777. Real property in 1880-81, £2770. 
Pop. 367. The surface is uneven, and 
rises from about 50 to 1000 feet above sea- 
level. A spot, formerly called Castlehill, 
was probably the site of the residence of 
the earliest Bishops of Moray. The public 
school has about 85 scholars. 

BIRNS, affluent of the Tyne, between 
Pencaitland and Salton parishes, Hadding- 
tonshire. 

BIRRENS, large well-preserved Roman 
camp, 1£ mile east-north-east of Eccle- 
fechan, Dumfriesshire. 

BIRSAY and HARRAY, united parish 
in north-west of Pomona, Orkney. Birsay 
includes about 8 miles of coast, mostly 



BIR 



47 



BLA 



bold and rocky ; measures about 8 miles by 
5 ; is partly hilly, partly rich arable land ; 
and has a post office under Kirkwall. 
Harray extends inland and southwards 
from the south-east of Birsay ; measures 
about 6 miles by 4 ; is mostly flat, and 
somewhat swampy ; and has a post office 
under Stromness. Keal property of the 
(united parish in 1880-81, £3651. Pop. 
2326. Birsay contains a ruined magni- 
ficent palace of the Earls and Bishops of 
Orkney ; contains also many ancient stand- 
ing stones and Picts' houses ; includes a 
peninsulated tract, with traces of ancient 
fortification ; and in 1876 was constituted a 
separate parish quoad sacra. Its church 
was renovated in 1S67, and contains 500 
sittings. Other churches are Harray 
parochial, Birsay Free, and Harray and 
Sandwick Free. There are 4 schools 
for 384 scholars, and 3 of them and 
class-room for 324 are new. 

BIRSE, parish immediately south-east of 
Aboyne, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Aberdeen. Its length is fully 
9 miles ; its breadth fully 7 miles ; its area, 
51,219 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£7005. Pop. 1093. The surface extends 
from the Dee to a watershed of the Gram- 
pians ; is hilly and mountainous, and 
comprises only about 3360 acres of arable 
land. The chief residences are Finzean 
and Ballogie. The parochial church con- 
tains about 500 sittings, and a Roman 
Catholic chapel at Ballogie is small. There 
are 3 schools, with accommodation for 
196 scholars. 

BIRSLEY, historical place, with coal 
mines, in Tranent parish, Haddingtonshire. 

BIRTHWOOD, seat in Culter parish, 

BISHOPBRIGGS, village, 3J miles north- 
east of Glasgow. It has a post office under 
Glasgow, a railway station, a Free church, 
and a public school with about 94 scholars. 
Pop. 832. 

BISHOPMILL, suburb of Elgin. Pop. 1196. 

BISHOP'S LOCH, small lake in Cadder 
and Old Monkland parishes, Lanarkshire. 

BISHOP'S LOCH, small lake in the south 
of New Machar parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BISHOPTON, village, mansion, and hill- 
ridge in Renfrewshire. The village stands 
•5§ miles north-west of Paisley, and has 
a post office under Glasgow, a railway 
station, and a public school with about 
50 scholars. Pop. 280. — The mansion 
stands on the adjacent hill-side, commands 
a charming view, and was once the rural 
seat of the Archbishop of Glasgow. — The 
hill-ridge separates the Clyde from the 
low land of Gryfesdale, and is pierced by 
a long tunnel of the Glasgow and Greenock 
Railway. 

BIXTER, voe or bay in Sandsting parish, 
Shetland. 

BIZZYBERRY, lofty hill in Biggar parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

BLABHEIN, wild, fissured, pinnacled 
.mountain-ridge, with extreme height of 



3019 feet, and with sublime view, between 
Loch Slappin and Loch Scavaig, in south- 
east of Isle of Skye. 

BLACKADDER, river, running about 20 
miles eastward to the Whitadder, near 
Allanton, Berwickshire. 

BLACKADDER HOUSE, seat of Sir 
George A. F. H. Boswell, Bart. , in Edrom 
parish, Berwickshire. 

BLACKBRAES, village in Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire. It has a public school 
with about 226 scholars. Pop. 387. 

BLACKBURN, village, 2\ miles south of 
Bathgate, Linlithgowshire. It has a post 
office under Bathgate, and a public school 
with about 159 scholars. Pop. 790. 

BLACKBURN, village about 2 miles 
south-east of Kintore, Aberdeenshire. It 
has a post office under Aberdeen, and a 
Free church. 

BLACK BURN, rivulet, making 3 great 
cascades, and entering the Liddul near 
Newcastleton, Roxburghshire. 

BLACK BURN, rivulet, running to the 
North Esk, in Mary kirk parish, Kincar- 
dineshire. 

BLACK BURN, rivulet, running to Loch 
of Drum, Aberdeenshire. 

BLACK CART, rivulet, running 9 miles 
north - eastward into confluence with 
White Cart, 2\ miles north of Paisley, 
Renfrewshire. 

BLACK CAVE, great cavern in Struey 
rocks, on south coast of Arran Island, 
Buteshire. 

BLACKCRAIG, village in Minnigaff 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BLACK CRAIG, mountain, 2298 feet 
high, in New Cumnock parish, Ayrshire. 

BLACK CRAIG, mountain in Port of 
Menteith parish, Perthshire. 

BLACK CRAIG, hill, with grand view, 
in Creich parish, Fife. 

BLACKDEAN, hill, 1642 feet high, i\ 
miles south-east of Morebattle, Roxburgh- 
shire. 

BLACK DEE, river, running about 18 
miles south-eastward into confluence with 
the Ken, to form the Dee, in Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

BLACK ESK, head-stream of the Esk, 
in Eskdalemuir parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BLACKFAULDS, seat near Rutherglen, 
Lanarkshire. 

BLACKFORD, village and parish in 
south-east of Perthshire. The village 
stands 10 miles north-east of Dunblane, 
and has a post office, with money order 
department, under Braco, a railway station, 
a banking office, a hotel, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
about 116 scholars. Pop. 679. — The parish 
is about 10 miles long and 5 broad, and 
comprises 21,453 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £17,588. Pop. 1595. The river 
Earn bounds the north, Devon water the 
south, and the Madrany, the Ruthven, 
and the Allan traverse parts of the 
interior. The northern district is rich, 
well-cultivated strath ; the middle district 



BLA 



48 



BLA 



comprises Tullibardine glen and moor ; 
and the southern district is part of the 
Ochil Hills. There are 3 public schools 
for 231 scholars. 

BLACKFORD, hill in southern environs 
of Edinburgh, with fine view of that city. 

BLACKFRIARS. See Andrews (St.), 
Aye, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth, 
Stirling, and Wigton. 

BLACKHALL, village, 2\ miles west-by- 
north of Edinburgh. It has a post office 
under Edinburgh. 

BLACKHALL, railway station, 3f miles 
north-east of Morningside, Lanarkshire. 

BLACKHALL, roofless, strong, ancient 
baronial mansion, in the south-east en- 
virons of Paisley, Renfrewshire. 

BLACKHALL, seat near Banchory, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

BLACKHILL, quoad sacra parish near 
Peterhead, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Peterhead, a recently erected 
church, and extensive granite quarries. 
Pop. 867. 

BLACKHILL, place on Monkland Canal, 
2 miles east-north-east of Glasgow. The 
canal here descends 96 feet by means of 
double locks and an inclined plane. 

BLACKHILLOCK, place in Keith parish, 
Banffshire. It has a post office under 
Keith. 

BLACKHILLS, place in Skene parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BLACKHOPE, summit, 2136 feet high, 
of Moorfoot Hills, on mutual border of 
Edinburghshire and Peeblesshire. 

BLACKHOUSE, ruined ancient fortalice, 
the scene of the Douglas tragedy, in the 
glen of Douglas Burn, a>nd group of stern, 
high mountains at head of that glen, in 
Yarrow parish, Selkirkshire. 

BLACK ISLE, peninsula between Cro- 
marty Firth, Moray Firth, and Beauly 
Loch, Ross-shire. 

BLACK KNOWE, each of 3 mountains in 
south-west of Selkirkshire. 

BLACKLARG, mountain, 2231 feet high, 
at meeting point of Ayrshire, Dumfries- 
shire, and Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BLACKLAW, place in Marnoch parish, 
Banffshire. It has a public school with 
about 159 scholars. 

BLACKLAW, small hill, with rich, exten- 
sive view, in Fowlis section of Lundie 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BLACK LOCH, small lake in Dumfries 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BLACK LOCH, small lake in Mearns 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

BLACK LOCH, small lake in Dunferm- 
line parish, Fife. 

BLACK LOCH, marshy lake in Blair- 
gowrie parish, Perthshire. 

BLACK LOCHS, 2 lakes, Great and 
Little, in Slamannan parish, Stirlingshire. 

BLACKMILL, bay in Luing Island, 
Argyleshire. 

BLACKMORE, hill, 1639 feet high, near 
Dolphinton village, Lanarkshire. 

BLACKNESS, village and castle on Firth. 



of Forth, 3| miles north-east of Linlithgow. 
The village was long the port of Linlithgow, 
and had considerable commerce, but 
eventually became a merely nominal port 
and little else than a hamlet. —The castle 
dates from ancient times, and succeeded a 
previous pile ; was long regarded as one of 
the government forts of Scotland ; passed 
latterly into a state of desuetude ; 
underwent transmutation, along with 
erection of adjacent buildings, in 1871-73, 
at a cost of about £10,000, in order to 
become the central ammunition depot 
of Scotland ; and was afterwards to be 
adapted and enlarged by other alterations 
and additional buildings. 

BLACKPOTS, place in Boyndie parish, 
Banffshire. 

BLACK QUARTER, part of Inch parish, 
formed in 1628 into Portpatrick parish, 
"VVigtonshire. 

BLACKRIDGE, village, 5J miles west- 
by-south of Bathgate, Linlithgowshire. It 
has a post office under Bathgate, a Free 
church preaching-station, and a public 
school with about 46 scholars. 

BLACK ROCK, lion-shaped hill, with 
vitrified fort, overhanging head of Glen- 
farigag, Inverness-shire. 

BLACKROOT, hill, 4 miles south-east of 
Galston, Ayrshire. 

BLACKSBOAT, place, SJ miles south- 
south-west of Aberlour, Banffshire. It 
has a post office under Craigellachie, and 
a railway station. 

BLACKSHAW, village in Caerlaverock 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BLACKSHIELS, village near north base 
of Soutra Hill, 15 miles south-east of 
Edinburgh. It has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Edinburgh. 

BLACKSIDE-END, hill, 1342 feet high, 
with grand view, on north-east boundary 
of Sorn parish, Ayrshire. 

BLACK SPOUT, cascade of about 120 
feet, on Edradour burn, near Pitlochrie, 
Perthshire. 

BLACKSTON, railway junction station, 
11 miles north-east of Airdrie, Lanark- 
shire. 

BLACKSTOUN, seat in Kilbarchan 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

BLACKSTOWN, village in Erskine parish, 
Renfrewshire. Pop. 311. 

BLACKWATER, affluent of the Ken, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BLACKWATER, stream running to- 
Drimadown Bay, Arran Island, Buteshire. 

BLACKWATER, head - stream of the 
Ericht, Perthshire. 

BLACKWATER, head -stream of the 
Deveron, Banffshire. 

BLACKWATER, head - stream of the 
Conan, Ross-shire. 

BLACKWATER, rivulet, confluent with 
the Brora, Sutherland. 

BLACKWOOD, seat and railway station 
in Lesmahagow parish, Lanarkshire. See- 
also SOUTHFIELD. 



BLA 



49 



BLA 



BLACKWOOD, seat and hill, with 

delightful views, 5£ miles south-south- 
east of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 

BLADENOCH, river and village in north- 
east of Wigtonshire. The river runs 
about 24 miles south-south-eastward to 
Wigton Bay, in vicinity of Wigton 
town ; and the village stands on the 
river about a mile south-west of the town, 
and has a post office designated Bladenoch, 
Wigtonshire. 

BLAINSLEE. village on north-east verge 
of Melrose parish, Roxburghshire. It has 
a public school with about 58 scholars. 

BLAIR, any flat tract now or formerly 
moss or heath. The name occurs princi- 
pally as a prefix. 

BLAIR, suburb of Dairy, Ayrshire. It 
has public works, and is sometimes called 
Blair Works. 

BLAIR, seat in Carnock parish, Fife. 

BLAIRADAM, hamlet, 4J miles south- 
south-east of Kinross. It has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Kinross, and a railway 
station. Blairadam House stands about a 
mile to the west. 

BLAIR- ATHOLE, village and parish in 
Athole district, Perthshire. The village 
stands 35J miles north - north - west of 
Perth, and has a head post office with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
a railway station, a banking office, a 
large ornate hotel, Established, Free, 
and Baptist churches, and a public school 
with about 163 scholars. — The parish 
is about 27 miles long and 15 mdes 
broad, and comprises 181,114 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £21,051. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1742 ; quoad sacra, 1687. 
Strathgarry, from Struan Point to Killie- 
crankie Pass, is the mainly inhabited 
portion ; Glentilt, Glenfendar, Glenerich- 
kie, and part of Strathtummel include 
oiher portions of low ground ; nearly all 
the rest of the area is filled with the 
Grampians ; and the whole has been 
summarily noticed in our article on 
Athole. Blair Castle, the seat of the 
Duke of Athole, is a conspicuous feature ; 
and Lude and Auchleeks are the chief 
other residences. An Episcopalian church 
is at Bridge of Tilt. There are 6 schools, 
with accommodation for 358 scholars. 

BLAIRBEG, place in Urquhart parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a public school 
with about 105 scholars. 

BLAIRBETH, seat near Eutherglen, 
Lanarkshire. 

BLAIRBURN, village in Culross parish, 
Perthshire. 

BLAIR CASTLE, seat of the Duke of 
Athole, near Blair- Athole village, Perth- 
shire. It dates from old unrecorded time, 
served long as a strong military post, was 
garrisoned by the Marquis of Montrose, 
stormed by Cromwell, occupied by 
Claverhouse, and besieged by the rebels 
in 1745 ; underwent transmutation into 
the form of a mansion, in a manner to 



retain a very plain appearance, was 
inhabited for 3 weeks in 1845 by the 
royal family, and began in 1872 to 
undergo extensive architectural embellish- 
ment. 

BLAIR CASTLE, seat in Culross parish, 
Perthshire. 

BLAIRDAFF, place in Chapel of Garioch 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a chapel-of- 
ease and a Free church. 

BLAIRDERON, one of the Ochils, 2072 
feet high, 5^ miles east-by-north of Dun- 
blane, Perthshire. 

BLAIRDRUMMOND, estate, famous for 
remarkable georgical improvement, in Kin- 
cardine parish, Perthshire. It has a large 
mansion, a fine park, a post office under 
Stirling, and a public school. 

BLAIRESSAN, place, believed to have 
been a battle scene between the Romans 
and the Caledonians, a little north of Kil- 
learn village, Stirlingshire. 

BLAIRFINDY, estate, with ruined noble 
hunting-seat, in Inveraven parish, Banff- 
shire. 

BLAIRGOWRIE, town and parish in 
north-east of Perthshire. The town stands 
on river Ericht, at terminus of branch rail- 
way, amid charming environs, 24J miles 
north-east of Perth; was only a mean 
village at commencement of present cen- 
tury, is now a flourishing seat of textile 
manufactures ; publishes 2 weekly news- 
papers, has a head post office with 
all departments, 4 banking offices, 7 
hotels, a town hall, 2 Established 
churches, 2 Free churches, Congrega- 
tional, Episcopalian, and Roman Catholic 
churches, and a public school with about 
687 scholars, and includes practically the 
suburbs of New Rattray and Old Rattray. 
Pop. of the town proper, 4537 ; of the 
town and suburbs, 7070. — The parish 
contains also Lornty village ; is intersected 
for about 2 miles by other parishes, aD' 1 
measures, exclusive of the intersection, 
about 9 miles in length. Acres, 15,303. 
Real property in 1880-81, £26,378. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 5162 ; quoad sacra, 1624. 
The surface partly lies within Strathmore, 
partly extends northward thence to summits 
of the Grampians, and is diversified by 5 
water-courses and 6 lakes. The chief 
seats are Blairgowrie House, Newton, and 
Ardblair. There are 2 schools for 864 
scholars, and 1 of them, for 726, is 
new. 

BLAIRINGONE, quoad sacra parish, with 
village on the Devon, If mile east of 
Dollar, Clackmannanshire. It has a post 
office under Dollar, a small church, and a 
public school with about 105 scholars. 
Pop. 418. 

BLAIRLOGIE, village, 3 miles east- 
north-east of Stirling. It has a post office 
under Stirling, and a United Presbyterian 
church. Blairlogie Castle, in its vicinity, 
is an old structure transmuted into a farm- 
house. 

BLAIRMAND, place in Boyndie parish, 



BLA 



50 



BOA 



Banffshire. It has a public school with 
about 77 scholars. 

BLAIRMORE, village on west side of 
Loch Long, near the loch's mouth, Argyll- 
shire. It is recent and well built, and it 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Greenock, 
and a good steamboat pier. Pop. 244. 

BLAIRMORE, hamlet in Kenmore parish, 
Perthshire. 

BLAIRQUHAN, seat of Sir Edward H. 
Blair, Bart., in Kirkmichael parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

BLAIRS, estate, with Roman Catholic 
college, on the Dee, 6 miles south-west of 
Aberdeen. 

BLAIRS, lake in Eafford parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

BLAIRVOCKIE, seat on east side of Loch 
Lomond, Stirlingshire. 

BLALOWNE, seat near Cupar, Fife. 
BLANE, small river, making a series of 
cascades among the Lennox Hills, running 
thence north-westward to the Endrick, 
and giving the name of Strathblane to its 
basin in Stirlingshire. 

BLANEFIELD, village 3 miles south-east 
of Killearn, Stirlingshire. It has a post 
office, with money order department, under 
Glasgow, and a railway station. Pop. 
169. 

BLANE'S CHAPEL (ST.), ruined ancient 
church in Kingarth parish, Bute Island, 
Buteshire. 

BLANE VALLEY RAILWAY, Similes long, 
from North British system at Lennoxtown 
down the course of Blane river. It was 
opened for goods in 1866, for passengers in 
1867, and an extension of it, nearly 3 miles 
long, into junction with the Forth and 
Clyde Railway, was promoted in 1880. 

BLANTYRE, 2 villages, town, and par- 
ish, in north-west of Lanarkshire. Low 
Blantyre village stands about 1J mile from 
the Clyde, 8 miles south-east of Glasgow, 
and has a parochial church with 800 sittings, 
and a public school with about 259 scholars. 
Pop. 698. — High Blantyre village stands 
near the north-western environs of Hamil- 
ton, and has a post office, with money order 
department, under Glasgow, a station on 
the Hamilton and Strathaven Railway, and 
a public school with about 277 scholars. — 
Blantyre station is on Glasgow and Hamil- 
ton branch of Caledonian Railway, 8 miles 
from Glasgow, and has a post office under 
Glasgow. — Blantyre "Works town stands 
near that station, adjacent to the Clyde ; 
is a remarkably neat and clean seat of 
cotton manufacture ; has a banking office, 
a masonic hall of 1878, a United Presby- 
terian memorial church to the African 
explorer Dr. Livingstone, projected in 
1881, and a suspension bridge ; and was 
the place where Dr. Livingstone spent 
some years as a juvenile factory-worker. 
Pop. 1849. — The parish contains also the 
villages of Barnhill, Stonefield, Hunthill, 
Auchinraith, and Auchintibber ; gives the 
peerage title of baron to the family of 



Stuart ; and is about 6 miles long, but 
comparatively narrow. Acres, 3954. Real 
property in 1880-81, £38,081. Pop. 9760. 
The surface is low, and mostly level. 
Blantyre Priory, founded by Alexander II., 
and now a tottering ruin, crowns a lofty 
rock contiguous to the Clyde. The 
churches, besides the parochial, are Free 
and United Presbyterian. There are 2 
public schools for 800 scholars, and both 
of them are new. 

BLAROUR, place in Kilmonivaig parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a public school with 
about 95 scholars. 

BLAVALIG, hiUs, 5 miles north-east of 
Pitlochrie, Perthshire. 

BLAVEN. See Blabhein. 

BLEBO, village in Kemback parish, Fife. 
Pop. 217. 

BLELACK,seat in Logie-Colclstone parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BLERVIE, seat, with remains of old castle, 
in Rafford parish, Elginshire. 

BLINKBONNY, section of Slamannan 
village, in Slamannan parish, Stirling- 
shire. Pop. 255. 

BLINKBONNY, hill in Nenthorn parish, 
Berwickshire. 

BLOODY, bay, where was a sea fight in 
1480,near Tobermory, Mull Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

BLOODY, creek at south end of Iona 
Island, Argyleshire. 

BLOOMHILL, seat in Cardross parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

BLUE-MULL, or BLUMEL, sound between 
Yell and Unst Islands, Shetland. 

BLUE-ROW, hamlet in New Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire. 

BLUEVALE, quoad sacra parish in north- 
east of Glasgow. Pop. 3635. 

BLYTHE BRIDGE, place, 3 miles from 
Dolphinton, with post office under that 
village, Lanarkshire. 

BLYTHSWOOD, seat on peninsula be- 
tween the Clyde and the Cart, Renfrew- 
shire. 

BLYTHSWOOD, quoad sacra parish and 
registration district, with square, about ^ 
mile west of Royal Exchange, Glasgow. Pop. 
of the parish, 5950 ; of the district, 30,463. 

BOARHILLS, village on the coast, 4 
miles east-south-east of St. Andrews, 
Fife. It has a post office under St. 
Andrews. 

BOATGREEN, harbour of Gatehouse, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BOATH, place in Alness parish, Ross- 
shire. It has a public school with about 
43 scholars. 

BOATH, seat of Sir James A. Dunbar, 
Bart., near Auldearn, Nairnshire. 

BOATH, hill in Carmylie parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

BOAT OF BRIDGE, place on the Spey, 
in Boharm parish, Banffshire. 

BOAT OF GARTEN, place, 16f miles 
north-north-east of Kingussie, Inverness- 
shire. It has a post office under Carr 
Bridge, and a railway station. 



BOA 



51 



BON 



BOAT OF INCH, place, with railway 
station, 5| miles north-east of Kingussie, 
Inverness-shire. 

BOCHASTLE, ridge, about 300 feet high, 
in western vicinity of Callander, Perth- 
shire. It has remains of an ancient 
Caledonian fort, and it was assumed by 
Sir Walter Scott to be the site of a Roman 
camp. 

BOCHLE, high hill, bisecting Glenlivet 
Valley, Banffshire. 

BODDAM, fishing town, 3 miles south 
of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire. It has a 
post office under Peterhead, a chapel-of- 
ease, and a public school with about 280 
scholars. Pop. 1117. Boddam Castle, on 
a neighbouring headland, adjacent to 
Buchanness, is a ruined strong seat of the 
Earls Marischal. 

BODOTRIA, Firth of Forth, as known to 
the Romans. 

BODSBECK, farm, the scene of Hogg's 
' Brownie of Bodsbeck,' about 4 miles 
east-north-east of Moffat, Dumfriesshire. 

BOGANY, headland flanking east side 
of Rothesay Bay, Buteshire. 

BOGBRAE, place in Cruden parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a public school 
with about 149 scholars. 

BOGHALL. quondam strong castle of the 
Earls of Wigton, near Biggar, Lanarkshire. 

BOGHEAD, village in Lesmahagow 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

BOGHEAD, seat near Bathgate, Linlith- 
gowshire. 

BOGHOUSE, quondam castle in Craw- 
fordjohn parish, Lanarkshire. 

BOGIE, small river, running about 14 
miles northward to the Deveron, in 
north-west of Aberdeenshire. 

BOGIE, seat near Kirkcaldy, Fife. 

BOGMUCHALS, place in Fordyce parish, 
Banffshire. It has a public school with 
about 49 scholars. 

BOG OF GIGHT, original form of Gordon 
Castle, Bellie parish, Banffshire. 

BOGRIE, old tower, often a refuge of 
the Covenanters, in Dunscore parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BOGROY, place, 7 miles from Inver- 
ness. It has a post office under Inver- 
ness. 

BOGSIDE, station on Stirling and Dun- 
fermline Railway, 6 miles east of Alloa. 

BOGTON, lake, on the Doon, in Dal- 
mellington parish, Ayrshire. 

BOHALLY, place, 3 miles from Pit- 
lochrie, with post office under that village, 
Perthshire. 

BOHARM, parish in Banffshire and 
Elginshire, averagely 6 miles north-east of 
Aberlour. Its post town is Keith. Its 
length is about 13 miles; its breadth 
about 9 miles ; its area, 8906 acres in 
Banffshire, and 7835 in Elginshire. Real 
property in 1880-81, £4493 and £3102. 
Pop. 543 and 623. The Spey bounds 
the west, and the Fiddich bounds the 
south and south-west. Benagen Mountain 
occupies much of the area ; and a curved 



valley, overhung by that mountain, and 
ascending to about 400 feet above sea- 
level, comprises most of the arable land. 
The seats are Arndilly and Auchlunkart ; 
and the chief antiquity is Bucharin Castle. 
The churches are Established and Free. 
There are 4 schools for 272 scholars, and 
1 of them, for 80, is new. 

BOHESPICK, tract on the Tummel, in 
Blair- Athole parish, Perthshire. 

BOINDIE. See Botndie. 

BOISDALE, sea-loch on east side of 
South Uist, Outer Hebrides. 

BOLD, burn, running to the Tweed, in 
Traquair parish, Peeblesshire. 

BOLESKINE, parish, containing Fort- 
Augustus and Balfrischel villages, in 
Inverness-shire. Its length is about 21 
miles ; its mean breadth about 10 miles. 
Real property in 1880-81, £10,874. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1388 ; quoad sacra, 1314. 
The limits include parts of the Great 
Glen, Stratherrick, Corryarrick, and the 
Monadhleadh Mountains, numerous lakes, 
the Fall of Foyers, and part of both shores 
of Loch Ness. A chief residence is 
Boleskine House, and chief antiquities 
are vitrified forts. The parochial church 
contains 428 sittings, and other churches 
are in Fort-Augustus. The public school 
has about 84 scholars. 

BOLFRACKS, detached tract of Fortingal 
parish, with Bolfracks House, 3J miles 
east of Taymouth Castle, Perthshire. 

BOLSA, headland in north-west of 
Islay Island, Argyleshire. 

BOLSHAN, estate, with site of ancient 
castle, in Kinnell parish, Forfarshire. 

BOLTON, parish, with church, 2| miles 
south-by -west of Haddington. Post town, 
Haddington. Acres, 3106. Real property 
in 1880-81, £4339. Pop. 337. The 
surface is pleasantly undulated, and all 
arable. The churches are Bolton paro- 
chial, and Bolton and Salton Free. The 
public school has accommodation for 67 
scholars. 

BOMBIE, ruined ancient castle in 
Kirkcudbright parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BONA, ancient parish, now united to 
that of Inverness. 

BON -ACCORD, Aberdeen, fancifully 
called so in allusion to its ancient war 
cry. 

BONALLY, seat in Colinton parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BONAR, or BONAR BRIDGE, village on 
strait of Dornoch Firth, south verge of 
Sutherland, 13f miles west-north-west of 
Tain. It has a post office under Ardgay, 
a railway station, a banking office, an inn, 
an da strong costly bridge of 1812. Pop. 313. 

BONAW. See Bunawe. 

BONCASTLE, moundish site of ancient 
outpost of Douglas Castle, Douglas parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

BONCHESTER, verdant lofty hill, with 
remains of apparently Roman works, in 
Hobkirk parish, Roxburghshire. 

BONCHESTER BRIDGE, hamlet adjacent 



BON 



52 



BOR 



to Boncliester, Roxburghshire. It has a 
post office tinder Hawick. 

BONERBO, place in Carnbee parish, 
Fife. It has a public school with about 
60 scholars. 

BO'NESS. See Borrowstownness. 

BONESSAN, village at head of Loch 
Laich, near south-western extremity of 
Mull Island, Argyleshire. It has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Oban, an Established 
church with 350 sittings, and a public 
school with about 11 scholars. Pop. 214. 

BONGATE, village in Jedburgh parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

BONHARD, seat in Carriden parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

BONHARD, seat in Scone parish, Perth- 
shire. 

BONHILL, town and parish in Dum- 
bartonshire. The town is practically con- 
joint with Alexandria, divided from it 
only by the river Leven ; dates from 
ancient times, but is a seat and centre of 
modern industries ; and has a post office, 
with money order department, under 
Dumbarton, a banking office, Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian churches, a 
public school with about 379 scholars, and 
waterworks projected in 1880. Pop. 2940. 
— The parish contains also the towns of 
Alexandria and Jamestown, and the 
villages of Balloch, Dalvault, and Mill of 
Halden, and it comprises the upper half 
of the Vale of Leven, and extends about 
3 miles across the foot of Loch Lomond. 
Acres, 8373. Eeal property in 1880-81, 
£42,363. Pop., quoad civilia, 12,524 ; quoad 
sacra, 2983. The surface abounds in 
both natural beauty and artificial embel- 
lishment. 9 large print works are 
within its vale ; and Tillichewan Castle, 
Bonhill Place, Levenfield, Bromley, Bal- 
loch Castle, Cameron House, Belretiro, 
Arden, and other mansions are chief 
residences. Churches are in Alexandria 
and Jamestown. There are 2 public 
schools for 1481 scholars, and 1 of them 
and an enlargement for 967 are new. 

BONJEDWARD, village on site of Roman 
station, 2 miles north of Jedburgh, Rox- 
burghshire. Bonjedward House, in its 
vicinity, belongs to the Marquis of 
Lothian. 

BONKLE. village in central part of 
Cambusnethan parish, Lanarkshire. It 
has a United Presbyterian church. 

BONNETHILL, eastern suburb of Dun- 
dee. It has a Free church. 

BONNINGTON, suburb on Water of Leith, 
about a mile north of Edinburgh. It is 
chiefly modern, and well edificed ; and it 
has a railway station, a handsome United 
Presbyterian church of 1880, and a large 
public school. 

BONNINGTON, village and seat in Ratho 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

BONNINGTON, hamlet in Arbirlot parish, 
Forfarshire. It has a public school with 
about 58 scholars- 



BONNINGTON, seat and water-fall on 
the Clyde, in Lanarkshire. The seat is in 
south-eastern vicinity of Lanark, belongs 
to Sir Charles W. F. A. Ross, Bart., and 
has fine grounds, through which the fall 
is approached from Lanark. The fall is 
the uppermost of the Falls of Clyde, and 
forms a sheer leap of 30 feet, split by a 
projecting rock. 

BONNY, rivulet entering the Carron 3 
miles west of Falkirk, Stirlingshire. 

BONNYBRIDGE, town on Bonny 
rivulet, 4 miles west of Falkirk. It has a 
post office under Denny, a quoad sacra 
parish church, and a public school with 
about 255 scholars. Pop. of town, 1782 ; 
of quoad sacra parish, 1940. 

BONNYMOOR, tract noted for a skirmish 
in 1820 between Radicals and Royal troops, 
about a mile south of Bonnybridge. 

BONNYRIGG, town, 2 miles south-west 
of Dalkeith, Edinburghshire. It was 
formerly a collier village, but is now a 
genteel summer resort ; and it has a post 
office, with money order department, under 
Lasswade, a railway station, a banking 
office, a volunteer hall, a bowling-green, 
recently formed waterworks, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 
152 scholars. Pop. 2425. 

BONNYTON, suburb of Kilmarnock, 
Ayrshire. 

BONNYTOWN, part of Old Montrose 
estate, with vestige of ancient castle in 
Maryton parish, Forfarshire. 

BONSHAW, old tower near Kirtlebridge, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BONSKEID, seat amid rich wild scenery, 
largely covered with natural beechwood, 
about 4| miles north-west of Pitlochrie, 
Perthshire. 

BOON, round, massive hill, 1070 feet 
high, in Legerwood parish, Berwickshire. 

BOON-DREICH, small affluent of the 
Leader, near Lauder, Berwickshire. 

BOQUHAN, seat and glen near Gargun- 
nock, Stirlingshire. The glen somewhat 
resembles the Trossachs. 

BORA, pastoral islet in Rendall parish, 
Orkney. 

BORELAND, collier village, about \ 
mile south-east of Gallatown, Fife. It 
has a public school with about 68 scholars. 

BORELAND, seat in Hutton parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BORELAND PARK, village in Auch- 
terarder parish, Perthshire. 

BORENNICH, section of Blair-Athole 
parish, on the Tummel, Perthshire. 

BORERAY, islet near St. Kilda, Outer 
Hebrides. 

BORESTON, village in Dairy parish, 
Ayrshire. Pop. 401. 

BORGIE, rivulet running from Loch 
Loyal to Torrisdale Bay, Sutherland. 

BORGUE, village and parish on sea- 
board of Kirkcudbrightshire. The village 
stands 4^ miles south-west of Kirkcud- 
bright, and has a post office under Kirk- 
cudbright, a conspicuous Established 



BOR 



53 



BOR 



church, a Free church, and a public 
school with about 178 scholars. — The 
parish contains also Kirkandrews and 
Chapelton villages, includes Ardwell and 
Little lioss Islands, and is 10 miles long 
and 7 miles broad. Acres, 13,531. Real 
property in 1880-81, £13,997. Pop. 1129. 
The coast extends 3^ miles along Kirk- 
cudbright Bay and 5J miles along Sol- 
way Firth, and is considerably indented, 
and partly rocky and precipitous. The 
interior is mainly an intermixture of very 
numerous ancient lake bottoms, with great 
variety of rising grounds and little hills. 
Earlston, the seat of Sir William Gordon, 
Bart., is the chief residence, and Plumton 
Castle and Balmangan Tower are chief 
antiquities. 

BORLEY, small lake in Durness parish, 
Sutherland. 

BOROUGHHEAD, promontory at east 
side of mouth of Luce Bay, Wigtonshire. 

BOROUGHMOOR, quondam extensive 
common, now partly edificed with hand- 
some suburbs, adjacent to south side of 
Edinburgh. 

BORROBOL, railway station between 
Kildonan and Kinbrace, Sutherland. 
■ BORROLAN, lake, 7 miles south of 
Assynt church, in Sutherland. 

BORROWDALE, seat on Loch-na-Nuah, 
south-west coast of Inverness-shire. 

BORROWSTOWN, coast hamlet, near 
caves and natural arch, 6 miles west of 
Thurso, Caithness. 

BORROWSTOWN, village in Borrows- 
townness parish, Linlithgowshire. 

BORROWSTOWNNESS, or BO'NESS, 
town and parish on north west border of 
Linlithgowshire. The town stands on 
the Forth, 3 miles north of Linlithgow ; 
connects, by branch line, with the Scottish 
railway systems ; is a head port, and a seat of 
manufacture ; stands on peninsular ground, 
very slightly elevated above high-water 
level ; consists chiefly of narrow streets, 
and presents a murky appearance ; has 
a head post office with all departments, 
2 banking offices, a public hall of 1878, 
Established, Free, and United Presby- 
terian churches, and 2 public schools 
with about 365 scholars ; publishes a 
weekly newspaper, and conducts much 
business in connection with coal-mining, 
iron-working, shipbuilding, and other 
industries. The harbour formerly com- 
prised only a basin 240 feet broad and 2 
piers 566 feet long, with maximum water- 
depth of 20 feet at spring tides. New 
harbour works, preliminary to the for- 
mation of a great wet dock, and comprising 
seaward extension of the old piers, were 
constructed in 1878-79 at a cost of about 
£30,000. The new dock was begun to be 
formed in October 1879 ; is situated en- 
tirely on land reclaimed from the sea 
below high-water line ; has an outside 
barrier 3000 feet long, serving as a wharf 
for small vessels ; comprises 7^ acres of 
dock water, about 5 acres of timber pond, 



and about 17^ acres of other area ; has a 
depth of 23 feet on the sill at high-water ; 
was estimated to cost £181,750, and was 
opened in September 1881. The arrivals in 
1879 were 746 British vessels, of 67,007 tons, 
and 1445 foreign vessels, of 183,223 tons ; 
the departures, 749 British vessels, of 
67,856 tons, and 1432 foreign vessels, of 
176,570 tons. Pop. of the town, 5241. 
— The parish includes also Newtown and 
Kinneil villages, but excludes Grange- 
pans suburb. Area, 3141 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £24,073. Pop. 
6088. A hill 520 feet high is in the 
extreme south-east, and commands a very 
fine view. The surface slopes thence to 
the west and the north, but forms a steep 
bank at various distances from the shore, 
and includes a low, flat, alluvial tract in 
the north-west. The soil is mostly a deep 
rich loam. The rocks are carboniferous, 
and abound in coal and ironstone. Kin- 
neil House, a seat of the Duke of Hamilton, 
is the chief residence. Antoninus' "Wall 
traversed the parish, and had a station on 
its west border. There are 6 schools for 
742 scholars, and 3 of them and an en- 
largement for 494 are new. 

BORTHWICK, hamlet, castle, and parish 
in east of Edinburghshire. The hamlet 
lies near Fushiebridge railway station, 
13f miles south-east of Edinburgh, and 
has a steepled parochial church of 1865, 
and 2 public schools with about 168 
scholars. — The castle stands adjacent to 
the hamlet ; is a quadrangular baronial 
tower of the 15th century, the largest 
in Scotland, and in good preservation; 
was the retreat of Queen Mary and 
the Earl of Bothwell during four days 
of peril after marriage, and sustained a 
siege with some injury by Cromwell. — The 
parish contains also 9 other hamlets, and 
part of the villages of Gorebridge, Ford, 
and Stobb's Mills. Its length is nearly 6 
miles, its breadth about 4 miles, its area 
9806 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£16,529. Pop., quoad civilia, 1741 ; quoad 
sacra, 1374. The surface commences at a 
watershed of the Moorfoot Hills ; extends 
northward to the border of the great 
Lothian plain, and exhibits diversity of 
hill and vale. Coal and limestone abound, 
and are largely worked. The seats are 
Arniston, Middleton, Vogrie, Currie, and 
Harvieston, and the antiquities are Borth- 
wick Castle, Catcune Castle, and the old 
parochial church. 

BORTHWICK, rivulet, running about 13 
miles north-eastward and eastward to the 
Teviot, at 2 miles south-west of Hawick, 
Roxburghshire. 

BORTHWICKBRAE, seat in Roberton 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

BORTHWICKSHIELS, seat in Roberton 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

BORVE, rivulet, running to the sea, in 
Barvas parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

BORVE, ruined ancient castle on west 
side of Benbecula Island, Outer Hebrides. 



BOS 



54 



BOV 



BOSTON, church in Dunse, Berwickshire. 

BOSWELLS (ST.), village and parish 
on north border of Roxburghshire. The 
village is commonly called Lessudden ; 
succeeded an ancient village of St. 
Boswells about f mile to the south, dating 
from the Culdee times, possessing 16 
strong bastile houses in the feudal times, 
and destroyed by the English in 1544 ; 
stands near the Tweed, 4 miles south- 
east of Melrose ; adjoins a large common, 
flanked by a hunting establishment of the 
Duke of Buccleuch, and used for a famous 
annual sheep and cattle fair, and has a 
head post office with money order and 
telegraph departments, 2 good inns, 
Established and Free churches, and a 
public school with about 140 scholars. 
Pop. 438. The parish comprises 3155 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £10,395. 
Pop. 959. The surface, though overhung 
by the Eildon Hills, is nearly all low, and 
either flat or undulating. The seats are 
Lessudden House, Elliston, Benrig, Max- 
pome, and St. Boswell's Bank. 

BOTHKENNAR, parish, containing Skin- 
flats village, part of Grangemouth town, 
and parts of Carronshore and Kinnaird 
villages, in Carse district, Stirlingshire. 
Post town, Falkirk. Acres, 1774. Real 
property in 1880-81, £18,157. Pop. 3210. 
The surface is a dead flat, all rich alluvium. 
The public school has about 269 scholars. 

BOTHWELL, town, park, and parish in 
middle ward of Lanarkshire. The town 
stands amid delightful environs, 2h miles 
north-west of Hamilton ; is a favourite 
summer resort of wealthy Glasgow citizens ; 
and has a post office, with all departments, 
under Hamilton, a railway station, a 
banking office, a hotel, a water scheme 
which cost £35,335 up to April 1880, a 
towered parochial church of 1833, the 
choir of an ancient collegiate church 
adjoining the parochial one, Free and 
United Presbyterian churches, and a 
public school with about 165 scholars. 
Pop. 1520. — The park lies adjacent to the 
town, extends far to the north-west, 
belongs to the Earl of Home, and contains 
his mansion of Bothwell Hall, and the 
large imposing ruin of Bothwell Castle, 
once held by Sir William Wallace, and 
figuring greatly for ages as both a palatial 
residence and a military strength. — The 
parish contains also Bellshill, Holytown, 
Carnbroe, Carfin, Chapelhall, Mossend, 
Nackerton, Newarthill, and Uddingston, 
and parts of Calderbank and Cleland. 
Its length is about 8J miles ; its breadth 
about 4 miles; its area, 13,644 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £127,942. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 25,466 ; quoad sacra, 7597. 
Bothwell Bridge, the scene of the crushing 
defeat of the Covenanters in 1079, spans 
the Clyde about £ mile south-south-east 
of Bothwell town, but was widened and 
greatly altered in 1826 and 1871. The 
Clyde meanders about 4-^ miles along the 
south-western boundary, beneath diversi- 



fied beautiful banks, celebrated in ancient 
song. The land, for the most part, 
undulates, and rises thence toward the 
north-east, and includes there a plateau 
averagely about 300 feet high, with culmi- 
nating height of about 680 feet. Coal, 
ironstone, and sandstone abound, and are 
extensively worked. Woodhall, Cleland, 
Carfin, Carnbroe, St. Enoch's Hall, and 
Douglas Park are chief residences. There 
are 20 schools for 3795 scholars, and 6 
of them and enlargements for 1610 are 
new. 

BOTHWELL, small affluent of the Whit- 
adder, at boundary between Haddington- 
shire and Berwickshire. 

BOTHWELL AND HAMILTON RAIL- 
WAY. This was authorized in 1874, on a 
capital of £500,000 ; and it comprises a 
main line, a sub-main line, and a multipli- 
city of branches. The main line strikes 
from the North British at Shettleston, 
goes south-eastward, past Uddingston, 
Bothwell, and Greenfield, to Hamilton, 
and was in operation in 1877. The sub- 
main line strikes from the main line about 
400 yards north of Bothwell station ; goes 
north-eastward, past Bellshill and across 
Rosehall estate, to the North British at 
Whifflet ; and was opened in May 1879. 
The numerous branches traverse the 
principal intervening mineral tracts, and 
serve largely for transport of coal. 

BOTHWELL BRANCH RAILWAY. This 
belongs to the Caledonian system, goes 
from Falside Junction to Bothwell, is 
about 1J mile long, and was opened in 
March 1877. 

BOTHWELLHAUGH, quondam seat about 
a mile east of Bothwell Bridge, Bothwell 
parish, Lanarkshire. It belonged to James 
Hamilton, who shot the Regent Moray. 

BOTRIPHNIE, parish, averagely 6 
miles south-west of Keith, Banffshire. It 
has a post office under Keith. It measures 
about 4$ miles by 3, and comprises 9459 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £4571. 
Pop. 696. The greater part is a beauti- 
ful strath, traversed by the Isla, and 
flanked by two hills. The only seat is 
Botriphnie House. The churches are 
Established and Free. The public school 
has accommodation for 127 scholars. 

BOURJO, very large ancient tumulus, 
on Eildon Hills, Roxburghshire. 

BOURTIE, parish, a little south of Old 
Meldrum, Aberdeenshire. Post town, 
Old Meldrum. It is 5 miles long, and 
comprises 5693 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £5796. Pop. 463. The surface 
is mainly a low tract about a mile broad, 
flanked by considerably high hills. The 
antiquities include two ancient Caledonian 
stone circles, and remains of a remarkable 
old fortification, misnamed Comyn'sCamp. 
The public school has about 49 scholars. 

BOUSTA, hamlet in Dunrossness parish, 
Shetland. 

BO VERAY, island in North Uist parish, 
Outer Hebrides. Pop. 137. 



BOW 



55 



BRA 



BOW, coast cave in Fordyce parish, 
Banffshire. 

BOWBEAT, summit of Moorfoot Hills, 
2049 feet high, in Temple parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

BOWDEN, village and parish in north- 
west of Roxburghshire. The village stands 
3 miles south of Melrose, and has a post 
office under Newton St. Boswells, an 
ancient cross, a beautiful fountain, a 
partly ancient parochial church, and a 
public school with about 92 scholars. 
The parish contains Midlem village, and 
is about 6 miles long, and ih miles broad. 
Acres, 7667. Real property in 1880-81, 
£9147. Pop. 769. The surface includes 
about one-half of the Eildon Hills, and 
descends thence in a series of alternate 
parallel ridges and vales to Ale river. 
The seats are Cavers Carre, Linthill, and 
Kippilaw ; and the antiquities are vestiges 
of ancient camps, remains of an ancient 
military road , and the site of the strong noble 
f ortalice of Holydean. There are 3 schools, 
with accommodation for 247 scholars. 

BOWDEN, hill, with traces of ancient 
camp, in Torphichen parish, Linlithgow- 
shire. 

BOWER, parish, with railway station, 
11J miles west-north-west of Wick, Caith- 
ness. It has a post office under Halkirk. 
Its length is 7 miles, its breadth 4 miles. 
Real property in 1880-81, £9113. Pop. 
1608. Two eminences and two lakes 
diversify the surface ; and one of the 
former is crowned by a Scandinavian rude 
round tower, and commands an extensive 
view. The churches are Established and 
Free. There are 4 schools for 399 scholars, 
and 3 of them and an enlargement for 
335 are new. 

BOWER, vestige of ancient royal hunt- 
ing-seat on the Clyde, in Lamington parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

BOWERHOPE, mountain in Yarrow 
parish, Selkirkshire. 

BOWERHOUSES, seat in Spott parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

BOWERMADDEN,estateinBowerparish, 
Caithness. 

BOWHILL, a seat of the Duke of 
Buccleuch, on the Yarrow, 3 miles west 
of Selkirk. 

BOWHOUSE, railway station, 6J miles 
south-west of Borrowstownness. 

BOWLAND, seat in Stow parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

BOWLAND BRIDGE, railway station, 3 
miles south-south-east of Stow village, 
Edinburghshire. 

BOWLING, or BOWLING BAY, viUage on 
the Clyde, at exit of Forth and Clyde 
Canal, 3| miles east-south-east of Dum- 
barton. It has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Glasgow, a railway station, a hotel, 
wharves, a shipbuilding yard, and a 
public school with about 121 scholars. 
Pop. 6S7. 

BOWMONT. See Beaumont. 



BOWMORE, seaport village, near head 
of Lochindaal, Islay Island, Argyleshire. 
It has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Greenock, 
a large distillery, a Free church, a Baptist 
chapel, and a public school with about 
182 scholars. Pop. 823. 

BOW OF FIFE, place, about a mile from 
Cupar, Fife. It has a post office under 
Cupar. 

BOWRIEFAULD, village in Dunnichen 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BOYNDIE, seaside parish, contiguous 
to Banff parish, Banffshire. It contains 
Whitehills village, with post office under 
Banff, and is about 7 miles long, and 
nearly 3 miles broad. Acres, 6945. Real 
property in 1S80-81, £8117. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 2004 ; quoad sacra, 1801. The 
coast is chiefly rocky ; and the interior is 
partly a fine valley traversed by Boyndie 
rivulet to the sea, and partly flat low 
plateau. Chief objects are Boyne Castle, 
and 3 ancient Caledonian stone circles. 
The churches are Established and Free ; 
and there are 2 new public schools for 280 
scholars. 

BOYNDLIE, seat in Tyrie parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

BOYNE, rivulet and old castle in north 
of Banffshire. The rivulet runs about 8 
miles to the sea, at 4f miles west of Banff ; 
and the castle crowns a crag near the 
rivulet's mouth, was once a noble seat, 
and is now a tolerably well-preserved 
ruin. 

BOYSACK, hamlet in Inverkeilor parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BRAAL, large, strong, ancient castle in 
Halkirk parish, Caithness. 

BRAAMBURY, headland, near Brora, 
Sutherland. 

BRAAN. See Bean. 

BRABLOCH, seat near Paisley, Renfrew- 
shire. 

BRABSTER, seat in Canisbay parish, 
Caithness. 

BRABSTERDORRAN, estate in Bower 
parish, Caithness. 

BRACADALE, parish in south-west 
of Skye, Inverness-shire. It contains 
Struan hamlet, with post office under 
Portree ; includes Minginish district, 
and Soay and Wiay Islands, and is about 
20 miles long and 8 miles broad. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6734. Pop. 929. 
The coast is partly flat, but mostly high 
and rocky, and is cut by Lochs Bracadale, 
Eynort, Brittle, and Scavaig. Loch Braca- 
dale extends 7§ miles north-eastward, 
with, mean breadth of about 4 miles, has 
numerous islets, bays, and offsets, and is 
flanked on much of its south-east side by 
mural cavernous cliffs, terminating in the 
bold lofty headland of Taliskar. The interior 
includes part of Cuchullin Mountains, and 
is elsewhere a diversity of hill and vale. 
The churches are Established and Free, 
and there are 4 new jiublic schools for 182 
scholars. 



BRA 



56 



BRA 



BRACHMAIT, place in Durris parish, 
Kincardineshire. It has a public school 
with about 80 scholars. 

BRACHOLY, old parish, now part of 
Petty, Inverness-shire. 

BRACK, small lake in Balmaclellan 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BRACKLEY, old castle, the scene of a 
tragedy in 1592, near Ballater, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BRACKLIN, cascade of 50 feet, in chasm 
on Keltie rivulet, near Callander, Perth- 
shire. 

BRACKMUIRHILL, place in Dunnottar 
parish, Kincardineshire. It has a public 
school witb about 56 scholars. 

BRACKNESS. See Breckness. 

BRACO, village, 1J mile north of Green- 
loaning railway station, Perthshire. It 
stands adjacent to the celebrated Roman 
camp of Ardoch, and has a head post office 
with all departments, a hotel, an Estab- 
lished church, a Free church, and a public 
school. Pop. 270. 

BRACO, estate and burn in Grange 
parish, Banffshire. 

BRACTULLO, artificial conical mound, 
formerly place of capital punishment, in 
Kirkden parish, Forfarshire. 

BRADAN, lake, 7 miles south-south-east 
of Straiton, Ayrshire. 

BRAE, section of Kilmonivaig parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has an Established 
church, served by a minister on the royal 
bounty. 

BRAE, place, with post office, under 
Lerwick, Shetland. 

BRAE-AMAT, section of Kincardine 
parish in Cromartyshire, surrounded by 
Boss-shire. 

BRAE-DUNSTAN, low hill-ridge in 
Eccles parish, Berwickshire. 

BRAE-GRUDIE, place in Strathbrora, 
Sutherland. 

BRAEHEAD, village in Carnwath parish, 
Lanarkshire. It has a United Presbyterian 
church with 500 sittings, and a public 
school with about 174 scholars. Pop. 432. 

BRAEHEAD, seat in Cramond parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BRAEHEAD, or KIRKWOOD COLLIERY, 
village in Old Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire. Pop. 667. 

BRAEHEADS, seat near Larkhall, 
Lanarkshire. 

BRAEHEADS, rising ground on the 
Tweed, at St. Boswells village, Roxburgh- 
shire. 

BRAE-LYON, mountains on north side of 
head of Glenlyon, Perthshire. 

BRAEMAR, village and old parish in 
extreme south-west of Aberdeenshire. 
The village is properly Castletown, and 
will be noticed under that name, but it 
has a post office of Braemar, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Aberdeen, 2 castles of Braemar, new and 
old, and a public school of Braemar with 
about 61 scholars. The parish is now 
part of Crathie. 



BRAE-MORAY, chief part of Edinkillie 
parish, Elginshire. 

BRAE-RIACH, alpine mountain, 4248 
feet high, one of the Cairngorms, Aber- 
deenshire and Inverness-shire. 

BRAE-ROY, tract in Kilmonivaig parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BRAES, section of Gartly parish, Aber- 
deenshire and Banffshire. 

BRAESIDE, place, with public school, in 
Fetlar parish, Shetland. 

BRAES OF ABERNETHY, section of 
Grampians in Abernethy parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

BRAES OF ANGUS, section of Grampians 
in Forfarshire. 

BRAES OF AVON, section of Grampians 
in Kirkmichael parish, Banffshire. 

BRAES OF BALQUHIDDER, section of 
Grampians in Balquhidder parish, Perth- 
shire. 

BRAES OF DOUNE, broad-based moun- 
tain-range, westward from upper part of 
Strathallan, Perthshire. 

BRAES OF FORDOUN, skirts of Gram- 
pians in Fordoun parish, Kincardineshire. 

BRAES OF GLENIFFER, hill-range about 
2 miles south-west of Paisley, Renfrew- 
shire. 

BRAES OF GLENLIVET, mountain group 
in upper part of Inveraven parish, Banff- 
shire. 

BRAES OF GLENORCHY, alpine moun- 
tains in upper part of Glenorchy parish, 
Argyleshire. 

BRAES OF KILPATRICK, section of 
Lennox Hills, in Old Kilpatrick parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

BRAES OF LORN, section of Kilninver 
parish, Argyleshire. 

BRAES OF ORWELL, section of Ochil 
Hills in Orwell parish, Kinross-shire. 

BRAES OF PETTY, upland of Petty 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

BRAES OF PORTREE, section of Portree 
parish, Isle of Skye. 

BRAGANESS, headland in Sandsting 
parish, Shetland. 

BRA GAR, village in Barvas parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. Pop. 635. 

BRAGRUM, hamlet in Methven parish, 
Perthshire. 

BRAHAN, castellated seat, formerly of 
the Earls of Seaforth, in Urray parish, 
Ross-shire. 

BRAID, hill-range, with fine view, in 
southern vicinity of Edinburgh. 

BRAID, small sea-inlet in Wick parish, 
Ciiithness. 

BRAIDWOOD, village, mansion, and 
railway station in Carluke parish, Lanark- 
shire. The village has a public school 
with about 128 scholars. Pop., with 
Harestanes and Thornhill, 616. 

BRAIGHEMOR, bay on west side of 
Harris, Outer Hebrides. 

BRAINSFORD. See Bainsfohd. 

BRALLAIG, lake in Kilninver parish, 
Argyleshire. 

ERAN, small river, running about 14 



BRA 



57 



ERE 



miles north-eastward to the Tay, opposite 
Dunkeld, Perthshire. It makes, in its 
lowermost i-each, a leap of about 85 feet, 
and a long tumultuous cataract. 

BRANAULT, hamlet in Ardnamurchan 
parish, Argyleshire. 

BRANBURY, hill, with fine sandstone 
quarry, in Clyne parish, Sutherland. 

BRANDERBURGH, section of Lossie- 
mouth town, Elginshire. Pop. 1888. 

BRANDIR, pass of Awe, Argyleshire. 
See Awe. 

BRANDY, lake in Clova parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

BRANXHOLM, seat on the Teviot, 3 
miles south-west of Hawick, Roxburghshire. 
It belongs to the Duke of Buccleuch ; is 
now a modern-looking mansion, with very 
strong old tower ; was formerly a great 
fortress, and figures graphically as such 
in Sir "Walter Scott's Lay of the Last 
Minstrel. 

BRANY, head-stream of the North Esk, 
in Lochlee parish, Forfarshire. 

BRAXFIELD, seat near Lanark, Lanark- 
shire. 

BRAXY, hill, 684 feet high, 5 miles 
south-west of Stonehaven, Kincardine- 
shire. 

BREACACHA, deserted, tolerably entire, 
very ancient castle, in Coll Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

BREADALBANE, district in north-west 
of Perthshire. It adjoins Inverness-shire 
and Argyleshire, measures about 33 miles 
by 31, is prevailingly rugged and moun- 
tainous, and consists largely of masses of 
the Grampians, and it gives the title of 
earl to a branch of the family of Campbell. 

BREAKISH, place in Strath parish, Isle 
of Skye. It has a public school with 
about 52 scholars. 

BREASCLETE, village, 16 miles west of 
Stornoway, Outer Hebrides. Pop. 352. 

BRECHIN, town, mansion, and parish 
in north-east of Forfarshire. The town 
stands on the South Esk, at terminus of 
branch railway, 19J miles north-east of 
Forfar ; dates from the Culdee times, and 
became the seat of a diocese ; is a royal 
and parliamentary burgh, uniting with 
Forfar, Arbroath, Montrose, and Bervie 
in sending a member to Parliament ; 
comprises a main street about a mile 
long, and some lesser streets ; has a head 
post office with all departments, 5 banking 
offices, 3 hotels, a town hall of the latter 
part of last century, a public hall of 1838, 
a public library, 2 Established churches, 
2 Free churches, 3 United Presbyterian 
churches, an Evangelical Union chapel, 
an Episcopalian church, a large public 
school of 1876, 5 other public schools, 
and a new water supply, obtained in 1874 
at a cost of £15,000 ; publishes a weekly 
newspaper, and carries on extensive manu- 
facture of sail-cloth and brown linen. Its 
cathedral was founded by David I., but 
never completed ; measured 166 feet by 
61, was partly destroyed at the Reforma- 



tion, and the nave of it is now the parish 
church. A steeple, 128 feet high, is at 
its north-west corner, and a round tower, 
similar to the round tower of Abernethy 
and the round towers of Ireland, is 
adjacent to its south-west corner. Real 
property of the burgh in 1880-81, £26,517. 
Pop. 9031. — The mansion, Brechin Castle, 
is a seat of the Earl of Dalhousie ; stands 
on a rock overhanging the South Esk, in 
western vicinity of the town ; and occupies 
the site of an ancient baronial fortalice 
which stoutly resisted Edward I. of Eng- 
land. — The parish contains also the villages 
of Little Brechin and Trinity Moor, and 
is about 7 miles long and 6 miles broad. 
Acres, 14,313. Real property of landward 
part in 1880-81, £20,854. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 10,499 ; quoad sacra, 8827. The 
surface is mostly level, but includes the 
eminence of Burghill, and is overlooked 
at short distance by the frontier Grampians. 
The seats, besides Brechin Castle, are 
Eskmount, Keithock, and Ardovie. There 
are 11 schools for 1944 scholars, and 3 of 
them and an enlargement for 980 are new. 

BRECHIN (EAST), quoad sacra parish in 
Brechin parish, Forfarshire. Pop. 1672. 

BRECHIN (LITTLE), village in Brechin 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BRECKEN, hiU in St. Mungo parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BRECKNESS, headland and mansion at 
north side of entrance of Hoy Sound, 
Orkney. The mansion was erected in 
1633 by the last Bishop of Orkney. 

BRECKRY, glen and rivulet in Southend 
parish, Argyleshire. 

BRECON, voe or bay in north of Yell 
Island, Shetland. 

BRECONBEDS, place in Annan parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a public school 
with about 110 scholars. 

BREDA, seat, 1\ miles west of Alford, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BREDIELAND, estate in Abbey parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

BREICH. See Briech. 

BRESSAY, island, sound, and parish in 
south of Shetland. The island lies 
between Noss and Mainland, opposite 
Lerwick, and has a post office under 
Lerwick. Its length is 6f miles, its 
breadth mostly between 2 and 3 miles. 
Its coast is rocky, partly high and partly 
cavernous ; and its interior is tumulated, 
includes a conical hill 724 feet high, and con- 
tains a conspicuous ancient standing stone, 
and some vestiges of Scandinavian build- 
ings. Pop. 847. — The sound divides the 
island from Mainland ; is a capacious, well- 
sheltered, natural harbour, and serves as the 
harbour of Lerwick, a rendezvous of whale- 
ships, and a great centre of herring-fishery. 
— The parish contains also Noss, Papa, 
Hevera, Holm, East Burra, and "West 
Burra islands, and the Quarff portion ot 
Mainland. Real property in 1880-81, 
£1880. Pop., quoad civilia, 1768 ; quoad 
sacra, 850. The churches are 3 Estab- 



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58 



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lisbed, and 4 Dissenting. There are 6 
schools for 337 scholars, and 5 of them for 
270 are new. 

BREWERY, hamlet in Borthwick parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BRIARACHAN, head -stream of the 
Ardle, Perthshire. 

BRIDEKIRK, village and quoad sacra 
parish in south of Annandale, Dumfries- 
shire. The village stands on Annan river, 
3 miles north-north-west of Annan town, 
and has a post office under Annan, and a 
three-arched bridge. Pop. of the village, 
309 ; of the quoad sacra parish, 702. 

BRIDESNESS, headland at south-east of 
North Ronaldshay Island, Orkney. 

BRIDGEGATE, quoad sacra parish, with 
Established and Free churches, adjacent 
to north side of Clyde, Glasgow. Bop. 
3119. 

BRIDGEND, suburb on right bank of the 
Leven, adjacent to Dumbarton. 

BRIDGEND, suburb on left bank of the 
Tay, adjacent to Perth. 

BRIDGEND, suburb on right bank of the 
Nith, adjacent to Dumfries. It figures in 
histoiy as Bridgend, but is now called 
Maxwelltown, which see. 

BRIDGEND, suburb of Dalkeith, Edin- 
burghshire. 

BRIDGEND, suburb of Crieff, Perth- 
shire. 

BRIDGEND, suburb of Ceres, Fife. 

BRIDGEND, hamlet on the Tweed, about 
a mile west of Melrose, Roxburghshire. 
A curious ancient bridge here was sur- 
mounted by a castellated gateway, and 
figures in Sir Walter Scott's Monastery, 
but has disappeared. 

BRIDGEND, hamlet in Lintrathen par- 
ish, Forfarshire. 

BRIDGEND, place in Buthven parish, 
Forfarshire. 

BRIDGEND, village in Kenmore parish, 
Perthshire. 

BRIDGEND, place in Kilbirnie parish, 
Ayrshire. It has a public school with 
about 199 scholars. 

BRIDGEND, part of Alness town, Boss- 
shire. Bop. 942. 

BRIDGEND, village at head of Lochin- 
daal, Islay Island, Argyleshire. It has a 
post office, with money order and tele- 
graph departments, under Greenock. 

BRIDGEND, village near Bathgate, 
Linlithgowshire. Bop. 253. 

BRIDGEND, hamlet on the Clyde, 2 
miles south-east of Lanark. 

BRIDGEND, estate in Lochwinnoch par- 
ish, Benfrewshire. 

BRIDGEND (OLD), village in Galston 
parish, Ayrshire. 

BRIDGENESS, village in Carriden pal- 
ish, Linlithgowshire. Bop. 260. 

BRIDGE OF ALLAN,town on Allan river, 
3 miles north of Stirling. It ranks high 
as a resort of invalids and convalescents, 
owes its celebrity to at once its climate, 
its structure, its environs, its views, and 
its vicinity to Airthrey mineral wells ; 



looks, as seen from Stirling, to be a town 
of villas ; communicates with Stirling by 
tramway cars, and commands wide extent 
and variety of charming walks and drives; 
publishes a weekly newspaper, and has a 
head post office with all departments, a 
railway station, 2 banking offices, 4 hotels, 
a hydropathic establishment, a museum, 4 
handsome modern churches, Established, 
Free, United Fresbyterian, and Episcopa- 
lian, and a public school with about 189 
scholars. Pop. at the census of 1881, 
3005; but the summer visitors are 
usually from 30,000 to 40,000. 

BRIDGE OF ALVAH, remarkable bridge 
on the Deveron, in a bold chasm, 3 miles 
south of Banff. 

BRIDGE OF BRUAN, place in Braes of 
Abernethy, Inverness-shire. 

BRIDGE OF BUCKET, hamlet in Glen- 
bucket parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a 
post office under Aberdeen. 

BRIDGE OF CALLY, place, 5 miles north- 
west of Blairgowrie, Berthshire. It has a 
post office under Blairgowrie. 

BRIDGE OF CANNY, place in Banchory- 
Ternan parish, Kincardineshire. It has a 
post office under Aberdeen. 

BRIDGE OF CAY, place, 10 miles south- 
west of Grantown, Elginshire. 

BRIDGE OF CREE. See Ceeebridge. 

BRIDGE OF DEE, village on the Dee, 
2| miles south-west of Castle-Douglas, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. It has a railway 
station. 

BRIDGE OF DEE, place on the Dee, 
suburban to Aberdeen. It has a post 
office under Aberdeen. 

BRIDGE OF DON, place on the Don, 
suburban to Aberdeen. It has a post 
office under Aberdeen, and a public school. 

BRIDGE OF DOUGLAS, place, with public 
school, in Glenaray parish, Argyleshire. 

BRIDGE OF DRIP, bridge on the Forth, 
2J miles west-north-west of Stirling. 

BRIDGE OF DULSIE, place on Findhorn 
river, 10 miles south-south-east of Nairn. 

BRIDGE OF DUN, place, 4 miles east of 
Brechin, Forfarshire. It has a post office 
under Montrose, and a railway junction 
station. 

BRIDGE OF EARN, village on river Earn, 
4 miles south-by-east of Perth. It is a 
resort of invalids and convalescents ; owes 
its attractions to climate, environs, 
command of walks and drives, and 
vicinity to Pitcaithly wells ; and has a 
head post office with all departments, a 
railway station, and a hotel. Pop. 304. 

BRIDGE OF ETRISH, place on Truim 
rivulet, south of Dalwhinnie, Inverness - 
shire. 

BRIDGE OF FEUGH, bridge on cataract- 
ine reach of Feugh river, south-west of 
Banchory, Kincardineshire. 

BRIDGE OF GAIRN, place in Glenmuick 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Aberdeen. 

BRIDGE OF GRUDIE, place near south 
side of Loch Maree, Boss-shire. 



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59 



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BRIDGE OF MARNOCH, place, with post 
office under Huntly, Aberdeenshire. 

BRIDGE OF MUCHALLS, place in 
Fetteresso parish, Kincardineshire. It 
has a public school with about 68 

BRIDGE OF POTARCH, place on the 
Dee, 1J mile east-south-east of Kincardine 
O'Neil, Aberdeenshire. 

BRIDGE OF ROY, hamlet, 10 miles north- 
east of Fort-William, Inverness-shire. It 
has a post office under Fort-William, an 
inn, and a public school with about 75 
scholars. 

BRIDGE OF TEITH, suburb of Doune, 
Perthshire. It has a United Presbyterian 
church. 

BRIDGE OF TILT, village at mouth of 
river Tilt, adjacent to a railway viaduct, 
near Blair-Athole railway station, Perth- 
shire. It has a hotel, and an Episcopalian 
church. 

BRIDGE OF TURK, place, 7 miles west 
of Callander, Perthshire. It figures in 
Sir Walter Scott's Lachi of the Lake, and 
has a post office under Callander. 

BRIDGE OF URR, village in Kirkpatrick- 
Durham parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BRIDGE OF WEIR, town, 4| miles west- 
north-west of Paisley, Renfrewshire. It is 
a seat of manufacture, and has a post 
office under Paisley, and a Free church. 
Pop. 1267. 

BRIDGE OF WESTFIELD, place, with 
post office under Thurso, Caithness. 

BRIDGETON, eastern suburb of Glasgow. 
It is large and mostly squalid, includes a 
public pavilion with clock-tower erected 
in 1875, contains a number of factories, 
communicates by tramway with all parts 
of the city, and has a quoad sacra parish 
church, a Free church, a United Original 
Secession church, and a large public school. 
Pop. of quoad sacra parish, 6383 ; of regis- 
tration district, 39,628. 

BRIDGETON, village in Eedgorton parish, 
Perthshire. 

BRIDGETON, seat and hill in St. Cyrus 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

BRIDIANOCH, headland in west of Eum 
Island, Inner Hebrides. 

BRIECH, rivulet rising in Cambusnethan 
parish, Lanarkshire, running 3 miles 
eastward to meeting point with Linlith- 
gowshire and Edinburghshire, and 
proceeding 8 miles north-eastward along 
the boundary between these two counties 
to the river Almond. 

_ BRIECH, railway station, near Briech 
rivulet, between Fauldhouse and West 
Calder. 

BRIERBUSH, village in Penpont parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BRIGHAM. See Birgham. 

BRIGHTON, place, with public school, in 
Cupar parish, Fife. 

BRIGIE, hill, 575 feet high, near Mull 
of Galloway, Wigtonshire. 

BRIG 0' BALGOWNIE, old bridge on the 
Don, near Old Aberdeen. 



BRIG 0' TRAM, feature on coast of 
Wick parish, Caithness. 

BRIGTON, seat and hill in Kinnettles 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BRIMMOND, hill, S59 feet high, 7 miles 
west-by-north of Aberdeen. 

BRIMSNESS, small headland in Thurso 
parish, Caithness. 

BRINDISTER, voe or bay, with excellent 
anchorage, in Sandsting parish, Shetland. 

BRINDY, part of lofty hill-ridge, divid- 
ing Garioch district from Alford Vale, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BRISBANE, seat and glen in Largs 
parish, Ayrshire. 

BRISHMEAL, basaltic hill, with grand 
view, on Bracadale coast, Isle of Skye 

BRISTO, old suburb, now absorbed in 
southern part of Edinburgh. 

BRITTLE, sea-loch in Minginish district, 
Isle of Skye. 

BROAD BAY, sea-loch, 8 miles long and 
4 miles broad, in Stornoway parish, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

BROADCHAPEL, seat near Lochmaben, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BRO ADFIELD, seat in Kilm alcolm parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

BROADFORD, village, bay, and rivulet, 
in Strath parish, Isle of Skye. The 
village stands at the bay's head and 
rivulet's mouth, 8 miles south-west of 
Kyleakin, and has a head post office with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
an inn, an Established church, and a 
public school with about 64 scholars. 

BROADHAVEN, fishing village in Wick 
parish, Caithness. 

BROADLAW, mountain, 2723 feet high, 
with grand view on north-east border of 
Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire. 

BROADMEADOWS, seat on Yarrow 
river, 4i miles west-by-north of Selkirk. 

BROADMEADOWS, seat in Hutton parish, 
Berwickshire. 

BROADSEA, fishing village, near Fraser- 
burgh, Aberdeenshire. Pop. 423. 

BROATS, seat in Kirkpatrick-Fleming 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BROCHEL, dilapidated strong old castle 
on Raasay Island, Inverness-shire. 

BROCK, small affluent of the Levern, 
Renfrewshire. 

BROCKLEHURST, hamlet in Mouswald 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BROCKS BRAE, rising ground, adjacent 
to south-west end of St. Ninians, Stirling- 
shire. The 'Bore Stone,' in which Bruce 
planted his standard at the battle of 
Bannockburn, is on it. 

BRODICHAN, lake in Crathie parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BRODICK, bay, village, ducal seat, and 
quoad sacra parish in Arran Island, Bute- 
shire. The bay is near the middle of the 
east coast, 14 miles west-south-west of 
Ardrossan, has a crescent form on a chord 
of about 3 miles, and is overlooked by the 
mouths of 3 glens amid grand lofty moun- 
tains. — The village lies dispersedly on the 



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60 



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bay, and has a post office, with all depart- 
ments, under Ardrossan, a hotel, an iron 
pier of 1872, and a church. — The seat, 
Brodick Castle, belongs to the Duke of 
Hamilton, stands amid ornate grounds 
on north side of the village, is a spacious 
modern edifice with lofty tower, and 
occupies the site of an ancient fortalice 
of the Lords of the Isles. — The quoad sacra 
parish is part of Kilbride. Pop. 933. 

BRODIE, railway station and mansion, 

3J- miles west-by-south of Forres, Elginshire. 

'BRODIESORD, place in Fordyce parish, 

Banffshire. It has a public school with 

about 55 scholars. 

BROGAR BRIDGE, place at southern 
extremity of Loch Stenness, Orkney. 

BROICH, seat and burn in Kippen parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

BROLUM, sea-loch on south-east coast 
of Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

BROMLAND, seat in Troqueer parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BRONACH, burn in Laggan parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BRONY, vale in Ellon parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BROOM, village in Dyke parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

BROOM, island in the Spey, in Knock- 
ando parish, Elginshire. 

BROOM, sea-loch, 16 miles long, on west 
coast of Ross-shire. 

BROOM, mountain, 2302 feet high, near 
head of Glenisla, Forfarshire. 

BROOM, farm, said to have been the 
scene of a severe repulse of Robert Bruce 
by the English, in Cummertrees parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BROOMHALL, seat of the Earl of Elgin, 
near the Forth, in Dunfermline parish, 
Fife. 

BROOMHILL, seat near Larkhall, 
Lanarkshire. 

BROOMHILL, lake near Lochmaben, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BROOMHILL, railway station, 3J miles 
south - south - west of Grantown, Elgin- 
shire. 

BROOMHILL, estate, with home for 
incurables, near Kirkintilloch, Dumbarton- 
shire. It was purchased for £14,000, and 
the home on it was opened in 1875. 

BROOMHOLM, seat, thought to be on 
site of ancient Caledonian town, 2 miles 
south of Langholm, Dumfriesshire. 

BROOMHOUSE, village in Old Monkland 
parish, 6 miles by road south-east of Glas- 
gow. It has a railway station. Pop. 371. 

BROOMHOUSE, seat in Edrom parish, 
Berwickshire. 

BROOMIEKNOWE, village, with railway 
station, 1J mile west-south-west of Esk- 
bank, Edinburghshire. 

BROOMIEKNOWE, hamlet in Heriot 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

BROOMIELAW, north side of harbour, 
Glasgow. 

BROOMKNOLL, part of Airdrie, Lanark- 
shire. 



BROOMLANDS, hamlet in Inchinnan 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

BROOMLEE, railway station, serving for 
"West Linton, Peeblesshire. 

BROOMLEY, seat near Alexandria, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

BROOM (LITTLE), sea-loch, 8| miles 
long, separated by only a narrow ridge 
from Loch Broom, Boss-shire. 

BROOMRIG, seat on the Nith, in Holy- 
wood parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BRORA, river, lake, and village in south- 
east of Sutherland. The river runs about 
24 miles south-eastward, along a pictur- 
esque glen to the sea, at 4J miles north- 
east of Golspie. — The lake is an expansion 
of the lower reach of the river, 4 miles 
long, and looking to be a chain of 3 lakes. 
— The village stands at the river's mouth, 
adjoins a remarkable coal-field, and has a 
post office with all departments designated 
of Sutherlandshire, a railway station, a 
banking office, and a small harbour. 
Pop. 579. 

BROTHER, lake in Mearns parish, Ren- 
frewshire. 

BROTHER, small island, near south 
coast of Yell, Shetland. 

BROTHERSTONE, hill, 1362 feet high, 
4 miles south-east of Borthwick, Edin- 
burghshire. 

BROTHERTON, seat in Benholm parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

BROTHOCK, rivulet entering the sea at 
Arbroath, Forfarshire. 

BROUGH, fishing hamlet in Dunnet 
parish, Caithness. 

BROUGH, seat in Fetlar Island, Shetland. 

BROUGH, semi-insular headland, appar- 
ently once a rock fortification, on north- 
west coast of Birsay parish, Orkney. 

BROUGH, dilapidated Scandinavian 
castle, on north coast of Delting parish, 
Shetland. 

BROUGHTON, village and parish in west 
of Peeblesshire. The village stands on a 
burn of its own name, 5 miles east of 
Biggar, and has a Free church and a public 
school. — The parish is properly threefold, 
Broughton, Glenholm, and Kilbucho, 
contains Rachan Mill, with post office 
under Biggar, and measures 9J by 5^- 
miles. Acres, 18,065. Real property in 
1880-81, £9574. Pop. 665. The surface 
comprises 3 vales, traversed by burns to 
Biggar water, mostly flanked by hill 
ranges, and 2 of them closed at the head 
by lofty mountains. The seats are 
Broughton Place, Mossfennan, Quarter, 
and Rachan. The parochial church is in 
Kilbucho, and public schools are in Kil- 
bucho and Glenholm. 

BROUGHTON, old suburb, now absorbed 
in New Town of Edinburgh. 

BROUGHTY FERRY, town and 2 quoad 
sacra parishes, on south border of Forfar- 
shire. The town stands on Firth of Tay, 
3J miles east of Dundee ; connects rail- 
ways from the west, the north, and the 
north-east with the ferry to Tayport ; is a 



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61 



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favourite watering-place, with numerous 
villas and several mansions, and has a post 
office, with all departments, under Dundee, 
2 banking offices, 3 hotels, a renovated old 
castle, a monument of I860 to Dr. Thomas 
Dick, 2 Established churches, 2 Free 
churches, 3 United Presbyterian churches, 
Congregational and Baptist chapels, an 
Episcopalian church, a Good Templars' 
hall of 1874, and 12 schools with accommo- 
dation for 1305 scholars. 4 of the 
churches — Established, Free, United Pres- 
byterian, and Episcopalian — are recent and 
handsome, and 2 of the schools and an en- 
largement for 300 scholars are new. Pop. of 
the town, 7407 ; of the 2 parishes, Broughty 
Ferry and St. Stephens, 5549 and 1836. 

BROW, decayed small watering-place on 
Solway Firth, in Ruthwell parish, Dum- 
friesshire. The poet Burns made his last 
and vain effort here for regaining health. 

BROWHOUSES, village on coast of 
Gretna parish, Dumfriesshire. 

BROWN-CARRICK, broad-based hill, 940 
feet high, with magnificent view, between 
Doon river and Firth of Clyde, Ayrshire. 

BROWNFIELD, part of Glasgow, ad- 
jacent to east side of Anderston. 

BROWNHILLS, seat near St. Andrews, 
Fife. 

BROWNLEE, and WEST BROWNLEE, 
seats near Dalserf, Lanarkshire. 

BROXBURN, rivulet, entering the sea 
about a mile south-east of Dunbar, 
Haddingtonshire. 

BROXBURN, rivulet and town in east of 
Linlithgowshire. The rivulet runs about 
8 miles east-north-eastward to the Almond, 
at f mile above Kirkliston. — The town 
stands on the rivulet, 12 miles west-by- 
south of Edinburgh, and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Edinburgh, a public hall of 
1872, a United Presbyterian church of 
1881, a Roman Catholic school-chapel, and 
a public school with about 212 scholars. 
Pop. 3066. 

BROXMOUTH, a seat of the Duke of 
Roxburgh, 1J mile east of Dunbar, Had- 
dingtonshire. Its park was Cromwell's 
headquarters on eve of the battle of Dun- 
bar. 

BRUAN, hamlet, 8 miles south-west of 
Wick, Caithness. It has a Free church. 

BRUAR, rivulet, running 10 miles south- 
ward to the Garry at 3 miles west of 
Blair- Atliole, Perthshire. It makes in the 
lower part of its course an enormous 
descent, with series of cataracts and 3 
famous falls. 

BRUCEFIELD, seat in Clackmannan 
parish, Clackmannanshire. 

BRUCEFIELD, tract, alleged to have 
been the battle-scene of 1308 between 
Bruce and Comyn, in Bourtie parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BRUCEFIELD FEUS, village in Dun- 
fermline parish, Fife. 

BRUCEHAVEN, harbour, adjacent to 
Limekilns village, Fife. 



BRUCE'S CASTLE, place, alleged to have 
been a retreat of King Robert Bruce, at 
south-east skirt of Schichallion Mountain, 
Perthshire. 

BRUCH-NA-FREA, north-west summit 
of Cuchullin Mountains, Isle of Skye. 

BRUCKLAY, village in New Deer parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a railway station, 
and a public school with about 78 scholars. 

BRUIACH, lake in Kiltarlity parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BRUNSTAIN, seat, If mile south of 
Portobello, Edinburghshire. 

BRUNSTANE, ruined ancient castle, 2J 
miles south-west of Penicuick, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

BRUNSWARK, tabular-topped hill, 740 
feet high, with magnificent view, 8 miles 
north of Annan, Dumfriesshire. It was a 
Roman central station, and it has well- 
preserved remains of 2 Roman camps. 

BRUNTISLAND. See Burntisland. 

BRUNTON, village in Criech parish, 
Fife. It has a post office under Cupar. 

BRURIE, island in Nesting parish, Shet- 
land. Pop. 50. 

BRUX, seat in Tullynessle parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

BRUXIE, hill in Arbuthnot parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

BRYDEKIRK. See Bridekiek. 

BUACHAILLE, basaltic islet adjacent to 
Staffa, Argyleshire. 

BUACHAILLE-ETIVE, massive moun- 
tain, 3120 feet high, at south side of head 
of Glencoe, Argyleshire. 

BUALNALUIB, place in Gairloch parish, 
Ross-shire. It has a public school with 
about 118 scholars. 

BUCCLEUCH, ancient parish, now part 
of Ettrick parish, Selkirkshire. It gives 
the title of duke to the chief of the 
family of Scott. 

BUCCLEUCH, quoad sacra parish in 
south side of Edinburgh. Pop. 9672. 

BUCHAN, district in north of Aberdeen- 
shire. It extends from the east coast 
almost to the Deveron, and measures 
about 40 miles by 27, and it gives the 
title of earl to a branch of the family of 
Erskine. 

BUCHANAN, parish in west border of 
Stirlingshire. It lies along the greater 
part of Loch Lomond ; extends from head 
of Loch Katrine to lowmost reach of 
Endrick river ; includes Inchcallioch, 
Inchmurrin, Inchfad, Inchcrnin, and Inch- 
torr islands ; contains Inversnaid, Rowar- 
dennan, and Balmaha; and measures, 
exclusive of the islands, about 20 miles 
by 6. Its post town is Dry men, under 
Glasgow, and stands adjacent to the 
southern boundary. Acres, 41,598. Real 
property in 1880-81, £8436. Pop. 550. 
The surface consists mostly of the moun- 
tain-ridge culminating 'in Benlomond, but 
comprises a rich lowland tract between 
the end of that ridge and the Endrick. 
Buchanan House there is the seat of the 
Duke of Montrose, and succeeded a 



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62 



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previous mansion accidentally burnt in 
1850. The public school has about 26 
scholars. 

BUCHANHAVEN, fishing village, subur- 
ban to Peterhead, Aberdeenshire. 

BUCHANNESS, promontory, 3 miles 
south of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire. An 
islet near it shares its name, and has 
a lighthouse with flashing light visible at 
the distance of 16 nautical miles. 

BUCHANTY, village in Fowlis-Wester 
parish, Perthshire. 

BUCHANY, village near Doune, Perth- 
shire. 

BUCHARIN, remnant of ancient castle 
in Boharm parish, Banffshire. 

BUCHLYVIE, village and quoad sacra 
parish, with railway station, 15g miles west 
of Stirling. The village has a post office 
under Stirling, a banking office, a parochial 
church of 1876, a Free church, a United 
Presbyterian church, and a public school 
with about 106 scholars. Pop. 319. — The 
parish was constituted in 1875. Pop. 
789. 

BUCHOLIE, ruined strong old castle, on 
coast of Oanisbay parish, Caithness. 

BUCKET, affluent of the Don, draining 
Glenbucket, Aberdeenshire. 

BUCKHAVEN, fishing town, 4| miles 
north-east of Dysart, Fife. It has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph de- 
partments, under Leven, 2 banking offices, a 
pier and harbour formed under the Board 
of Fisheries, a Free church, a United Pres- 
byterian church, and 2 public schools with 
about 420 scholars, and it presents a 
curious irregular appearance, and figures 
grotesquely in the old publication, History 
of the College of Buckhaven. Pop. 2952. 
A branch railway from Buckhaven to 
Wemyss was opened in 1881. 

BUCKHOLMSIDE, part of Galashiels 
town. 

BUCKIE, town and quoad sacra parish 
on coast of Banffshire. The town stands 
5 miles west - by - south of Cullen ; is 
bisected by a burn of its own name, 
dividing it into Bast Buckie and Nether 
Buckie ; has a post office with all depart- 
ments under Fochabers, 2 banking offices, 
a new harbour constructed in 1874-80 at 
cost of £60,000, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, Episcopalian, and Roman 
Catholic churches, and male and female 
public schools with about 152 and 96 
scholars, and is the headquarters of one 
of the 25 fishery districts of Scotland. 
A branch railway to it from Keith was 
decided on in March 1882. Pop. of the 
town, 4175 ; of the quoad sacra parish, 4349. 

BUCKIE, glen in Balquhidder parish, 
Perthshire. 

BUCKLAND, affluent of the Dee, near 
Kirkcudbright. 

BUCKLAW, seat in New Deer parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BUCKLERHEAD, hamlet in Murroes 
parish, Forfarshire. 

BUCKLERHOLE, vestige of old Border 



fortalice, in Mouswald parish, Dumfries- 
shire. 

BUCKLYVIE. See Btjchlyvie. 

BUCK OF CABRACH. See Cabeach. 

BUDDO, dangerous rock in St. Andrews 
Bay, Fife. 

BUDDONNESS, low, sandy headland at 
north side of mouth of Firth of Tay, 
Forfarshire. 

BUIE, stream entering Loch Creran, 
Argyleshire. 

BUlE, lake in Criech parish, Suther- 
land. 

BUILG, lake in Kirkmichael parish, 
Banffshire. 

BUITTLE, parish between Castle-Douglas 
and Dalbeattie, and extending to the 
coast at west side of Urr river, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. It contains Palnackie village, 
and its post town is Castle-Douglas. Its 
length is 10 miles, its greatest breadth 3f 
miles, its area 11,391 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £12,994. Pop. 991. The 
surface is finely diversified with hill and 
dale. Granite abounds, and was for some 
time extensively quarried. Buittle Castle, 
now represented by only vaults and 
ditches, was a favourite residence of John 
Baliol. There are 2 public schools for 144 
scholars, and 1 of them is new. 

BULAY, two islets, Greater and Lesser, 
off south coast of Skye. 

BULLERHOLES, place, with public 
school, in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire. 

BULLERS OF BUCHAN, village and 
shattered range of sea cliff, 5^ miles 
south of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire. The 
cliff is intricately torn and perforated, and 
includes a natural tunnel with shaft swept 
by sea-billows in storms. 

BULLIONFIELD, place, with paperworks, 
adjacent to Invergowrie, 4 miles west of 
Dundee. 

BULLION WELL, mineral spring in 
Ecclesmachan parish, Linlithgowshire. 

BULVICAR, bay in Seil Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

BULWARK, place in Old Deer parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a public school 
with about 69 scholars. 

BUNACHTON, lake on north border of 
Daviot parish, Inverness-shire. 

BUNAVOULIN, place in Morvern parish, 
Argyleshire. It has a post office under 
Fort-William, and a public school with 
about 48 scholars. 

BUNA WE, village at influx of river Awe 
to Loch Etive, Argyleshire. It adjoins 
extensive ironworks, and maintains a 
ferry across Loch Etive. 

BUNCHREW, railway station and seat, 
3i miles west of Inverness. 

BUNDALLOCH, fishing village on Loch 
Long, in Kintail parish, Ross-shire. 

BUNESS, seat and chrome quarry in 
Unst Island, Shetland. 

BUNESSAN. See Bonessan. 

BUNKER'S HILL, site of James Square, 
Edinburgh. 

BUNKLE, parish, averagely 3f miles 



BUN 



63 



BUR 



north-north-east of Dunse, Berwickshire. 
Post town, Edrom. Acres, 9189. Real 
property in 1S80-81, £12,136. Pop. 726. 
The south-eastern section is nearly level, 
and the north-western is part of the 
Lammermoors, called Bunkle Edge. The 
seats are Blanerne, Cruiksfield, and Easter 
Cruicksfield. The public school has about 
75 scholars. 

BUNMAN, hill with fine view in Kirk- 
maiden parish, Wigtonshire. 

BUNROY, hamlet in Kilmonivaig parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BUNZEON, estate in Cults parish, 
Fife. 

BURDIEHOUSE, hamlet, with limekilns, 
on burn of its own name, 3J miles south 
of Edinburgh. The burn runs SJ miles 
from the Pentlands north-eastward to 
Firth of Forth. 

BURDYARDS, estate in Forres parish, 
Elginshire. 

BURG, bold headland in Kilfinichen 
parish, Argyleshire. 
BURGAR, seat in Evie parish, Orkney. 
BURGHEAD, bay, promontory, town, 
and quoad sacra parish in Elginshire. 
The bay lies immediately east of mouth of 
Findhorn river, has'a proximately half-moon 
form on a chord of about 4 miles, and is 
entirely exposed to the north-north-west. 
— The promontory flanks the east side of 
the bay, projects about f mile from the 
adjacent coast line, presents to the sea a 
precipitous front about 80 feet high, and 
was the site of successively a Roman 
station and Scandinavian works. — The 
town stands on the south-west slope of 
the promontory, at terminus of branch 
railway, 11 miles north-west of Elgin ; is 
a watering-place, a small seaport, and an 
important fishing-station, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Elgin, a banking office, 
a hotel, a suite of baths, a public reading- 
room, an artificial harbour, Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian churches, 
and 2 public schools with about 305 
scholars. Pop. of the town, 1411 ; of the 
quoad sacra parish, 2059. 

BURGIE, estate, with ancient castle, 
modern mansion, and public school, in 
Rafford parish, Elginshire. 

BURLEIGH, ruined baronial castle, 
near Milnathort, Kinross-shire. It 
belonged to the Lords Balfour, who were 
attainted in 1716, and whose descendant 
was restored to the peerage in 1869. 

BURN, seat in Fettercairn parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

BURNBANK, fishing village in Nigg 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

BURNBANK, streamlet running to the 
Forth in Kincardine parish, Perthshire. 

BURNBRAE, place near Methven, Perth- 
shire. It has a post office under Perth. 

BURNBRIDGE, village in Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

BURNESS, parish in Sanday Island, 
Orkney. It comprises the island's 



north-west peninsula, and is united to 
Cross. 

BURNESS, lake in Westray Island, 
Orkney. 

BURNFOOT, small harbour at head of 
Luce Bay, Wigtonshire. 

BURNFOOT, small harbour in Rerrick 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BURNFOOT, seat in Westerkirk parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

BURNFOOT, places in Carriden parish, 
Linlithgowshire ; Glendovan parish, Perth- 
shire ; Gargunnock parish, Stirlingshire ; 
and Lochwinnoch parish, Renfrewshire. 

BURNFOOTHILL, town in Dalmelling- 
ton parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 1690. 

BURNHAVEN, fishing village in Peter- 
head parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a 
public school which about 94 scholars. 
Pop. 320. 

BURNHEAD, hamlet in Penpont parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a United Presby- 
terian church. 

BURNHEAD, place in Dunscore parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a public school 
with about 113 scholars. 

BURNHOUSE, village in Beith parish, 
Ayrshire. 

BURNHOUSE, seat in Stow parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BURNMOUTH, fishing village in Ayton 
parish, Berwickshire. It has a railway 
station, and a public school with about 100 
scholars. Pop. with Ross, 371. 

BURN OF CAMBUS, place near Doune, 
Perthshire. It has a post office under 
Stirling. 

BURN OF VAT, streamlet crossing a 
vertical vat-like cave, in east end of Tullich 
section of Glenmuick parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

BURN ROW, village in Slamannan 
parish, Stirlingshire. Pop. 353. 

BURNS, hamlet in Milton section of 
Markinch parish, Fife. 

BURNSIDE, village, suburban to Dum- 
barton. Pop. 386. 

BURNSIDE, village in Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

BURNSIDE, village, suburban to Kettle, 
Fife. 

BURNSIDE, place in Tannadice parish, 
Forfarshire. It has a public school, with 
about 67 scholars. 

BURNSIDE, part of Kilsyth burgh, 
Stirlingshire. It has a public school with 
about 247 scholars. 

BURNSIDE, place in Dairy parish, Ayr- 
shire. It has a public school with about 
104 scholars. 

BURNSIDE, village in St. Cyrus parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

BURNSIDE, village in Nairn parish, 
Nairnshire. 

BURNSIDE, seat in Rathven parish, 
Banffshire. 

BURNSIDE, hamlet near Birnam, Perth- 
shire. 

BURNSIDE, seat in Rescobie parish, 
Forfarshire. 



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64 



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BURNSWARK. See Brunswakk. 
BURNTISLAND, town and parish on 
south coast of Fife. The town stands on 
Firth of Forth, 6 miles south-west-by-south 
of Kirkcaldy ; occupies a low peninsula in 
front of near screen of high sheltering hills ; 
connects the railways through Fife 'with 
the ferry to Granton ; belonged anciently 
to Dunfermline Abbey, and had once 
defensive walls, but figures little in history ; 
ranks now as a sea-bathing resort, a sea- 
port, a royal burgh, and a parliamentary 
burgh, uniting with Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, 
and Dysart in sending a member to 
Parliament ; comprises 2 principal 
streets, parallel to each other, and some 
lanes ; and has a head post office with all 
departments, 2 banking offices, a hotel, 
extensive waterworks, an excellent arti- 
ficial harbour, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, and Episcopalian churches, 
a public school with capacity for 600 
scholars, and several local institutions. 
New waterworks, constructed at a cost of 
about £25,000, were opened in 1879 ; and 
together with previous works they yield 
to the inhabitants 70 gallons per head per 
day. The harbour, even prior to the rail- 
way period, was the best on the Firth of 
Forth, and had much capacity and good 
appliances ; and it underwent much ex- 
tension and improvement to fit it for 
the purposes of the railway ferry. A new 
dock also was completed in December 
1876, at a cost of more than £90,000; 
measures 530 feet in length, 450 feet in 
breadth, and 5J acres in water area ; and 
has a depth of 22J feet on the sill at high. 
Water of spring tides. The shipment of 
coal forms a prominent business, and is 
aided by two hydraulic hoists, which cost 
£4000. The export trade underwent great 
increase after 1876, continued to rise 
steadily and rapidly, while that of nearly 
all the other ports of Scotland underwent 
depression, and was so high in the latter 
part of 1879 as to yield harbour revenue 
at the rate of about £11,000 a year. Eeal 
property of the burgh in 1880-81, £23,904. 
Pop. 4099. — ■ The parish contains also 
Kirkton village, and comprises 2565 acres. 
Eeal property of landward part in 1880-81 , 
£9491. Pop. 4821. The coast is about 
3 miles long, — £ sandy, and § rocky. The 
interior, for about \ mile from the shore, 
is low, and afterwards rises abruptly into 
bold hills. The seats are Colinswell, New- 
bigging, and Grange ; and other interesting 
objects are Rossend Castle, Knockdavie 
ruined fortalice, and remains at Kirkton 
of the ancient parochial church. There 
are 3 schools, with accommodation for 951 
scholars. 

BURNWELL, seat near Kilmarnock, 
Ayrshire. 

BURRA, 2 islands, parish, and quoad 
sacra parish in south of Shetland. The 
islands are East and "West Burra, they lie 
off the west coast, divided by Cliff Sound 
from the mainland, averagely about 10 



miles south-west of Lerwick ; they extend 
parallel to each other, respectively 6 and 
5 miles, and are in one place so near each 
other as to be connected by a rude bridge ; 
and they consist mostly of narrowhill-ridges 
with rocky shores. Pop. 215 and 427. — 
The parish includes also Hevera and Papa 
Islands, is united to Bressay, and has a 
post office under Lerwick. — The quoad 
sacra parish includes also Quarff. Pop. 
918. See Bressay. 

BURRA FIRTH, deep sandy bay in north 
of Unst Island, Shetland. 

BURRANESS, headland, with Scandina- 
vian fort, in north-east of Yell Island, 
Shetland. 

BURRAVOE, bay and hamlet at south- 
east extremity of Yell Island, Shetland. 
The hamlet has a post office under Lerwick, 
a chapel-of-ease, and a public school. 

BURRAY, island and parish in south- 
east of Orkney. The island lies between 
South Eonaldshay and Pomona, measures 
about 4J miles in length, and 2| miles in 
extreme breadth, and has a post office 
under Kirkwall, a chapel-of-ease, and a 
public school with about 131 scholars. 
Pop. 685. — The parish includes also 
Hunda and Glenisholm Islands, and is 
united to South Eonaldshay. 

BURRELTON, village near Wood side 
railway station, 13J miles north-east of 
Perth. It has a post office under Coupar- 
Angus, and a Free church. Pop. with 
Woodside, 486. 

BURWICK, place on south-east of South 
Eonaldshay, Orkney. It has a post office 
under Kirkwall, and an inn. 

BUSBY, town on the White Cart, 6 
miles south-by-west of Glasgow. It is a 
seat of manufacture, and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Glasgow, a railway station, 
a Free church, a United Presbyterian 
church, a Eoman Catholic chapel of 1880, 
and a public school with about 257 
scholars. Pop. 2155. 

BUSH, seat in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

BUSH, burn on eastern boundary of 
Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire. 

BUSTA, eastward branch of St. Magnus 
Bay, Shetland. 

BUTE, island in Firth of Clyde. It is 
separated from Argyleshire by the narrow 
channel called Kyles of Bute ; it extends 
16 miles south - south - eastward, with a 
breadth of from 2 to 5 miles ; it has mostly 
a rocky coast, with intervention of fine 
beachy bays ; it comprises 4 districts, 
separated by nearly parallel dingles ; it 
exhibits a pleasing variety of hill, rising 
ground, slope, and vale ; it rises to a 
height of nearly 1000 feet in the north, 
and to heights of more than 500 feet in 
the middle and the south ; it contains a 
lake of fully 388 acres, and 6 smaller 
lakes ; it gives the titles of earl and 
marquis to a branch of the family of 
Stuart, and it contains the Marquis's 



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65 



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magnificent re-constructed seat of Mount 
Stuart. Pop. 10,998. 

BUTE (KYLES OF). See Kyles of 
Bute. 

BUTELAND, estate in Currie parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

BUTE (NORTH), parish containing Port- 
Bannatyne or Kamesburgh village, and 
comprising the northern part of Bute 
Island and all Inchmarnock, Buteshire. 
Acres, 14,764. Eeal property in 1880-81, 
£12,196. Pop. 1192. The post office 
is Kamesburgh, under Rothesay ; the 
churches are Established and Free ; and 
2 public schools, with accommodation 
for 263 scholars, belong jointly to it and 
the landward parts of Rothesay parish. 

BUTESHIRE, insular county in Firth of 
Clyde. It comprises the islands of Bute, 
Arran, Big Cumbray, Little Cumbray, 
Holy Isle, Inchmarnock, and Pladda, and 
has an area of 225 square miles. Real 
property in 1880-81, £115,991. Pop. in 
1871, 16,977 ; in 1881, 17,666. The only 
towns are Rothesay and Millport, and the 
only village with more than 500 inhabitants 
is Port-Bannatyne. The county, inclusive 
of Rothesay burgh, sends one member to 
Parliament. 

BUTTERGASK, village in Ardoch parish, 
Perthshire. 

BUTTERSTONE, village, seat, and lake 
in Caputh parish, Perthshire. The village 
has a post office under Dunkeld. 

BUTT OF LEWIS, bold rugged promon- 
tory at northern extremity of Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides. A lighthouse is on it, with 
fixed light visible at the distance of 18 
nautical miles. 

BUTTURICH, modern seat, on site of large 
ancient fortalice, near Loch Lomond, 2 
miles north of Balloch, Dumbartonshire. 

BUXBURN, place on burn of its own 
name, 5 mdes north-west of Aberdeen. It 
has a railway station, an Episcopalian 
chapel of 1S80, and a public school with 
about 112 scholars. 

BYRES, estate, 3 miles north-north-west 
of Hamilton. It gives the title of baron to 
the Earl of Haddington. 

BYTH, seat in King Edward parish, 
Aberdeenshire. See also Newbyth. 



CAAF, affluent of the Garnock, Ayrshire. 

CABRACH, parish in Aberdeenshire and 
Banffshire, averagely about 11 miles west- 
south-west of Huntly. It has a post office 
under Aberdeen. Its length is 12 miles ; 
its greatest breadth 8 miles ; its area 14,622 
acres in Aberdeenshire, and 19,481 acres in 
Banffshire. Real property in 1880-81, 
£1347 and £2107. Pop. 312 and 370. 
The entire surface is mountainous, and the 
Buck of Cabrach, on its eastern boundary, 
has a height of 2368 feet above sea-level. 
The churches are Established and United 
Presbyterian. There are 2 public schools 
for 170 scholars, and 1 of them and a class- 
room are new. 



CACHILRIGH, hill in Torphichen parish, 
Linlith go wshire. 

CADBOLL, ancient castle, now represented 
by only two or three vaults, on coast of 
Fearn parish, Ross-shire. 

CADDAM, extinct village in Coupar- 
Angus parish, Perthshire. 

CADDEN, extinct old castle on peninsular 
rock in Kinneff parish, Kincardineshire. 

CADDER, affluent of the Avon in Avon- 
dale parish, Lanarkshire. 

CADDER, village and parish on north 
border of Lanarkshire. The village stands 
adjacent to the site of a fort of Antoninus' 
Wall, near the river Kelvin, 5 miles north- 
north-east of Glasgow, and is a small 
scattered place, but contains the parochial 
church, erected in 1830, and a public 
school with about 124 scholars. — The parish 
contains also the villages of Bishopbriggs, 
Chryston, Auchinairn, Garnkirk, Mollin- 
burn, Auchenloch, Muirhead, and Moodies- 
burn, and parts of Lenzie and Garnqueen. 
Its length is about 10 miles ; its greatest 
breadth about 3| miles ; its area 13,969 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £49,508. 
Pop. , quoad civilia, 6965 ; quoad sacra, 
2934. The surface is all low, and either 
level or but slightly undulated. The soils 
are exceedingly various. Coal, limestone, 
and fine sandstone are more or less plenti- 
ful ; and rich extensive beds of fire-clay 
lie around Garnkirk. The chief seats are 
Cadder House, Garnkirk, Gartloch, Spring- 
field, Bedlay, Robroyston, Gartferry, and 
Glaudhall; and principal objects of antiqua- 
rianinterest are vestiges of Antoninus' Wall 
and site of the house in which Sir William 
Wallace was betrayed. The churches are 
2 Established, 2 Free, and a United Presby- 
terian. There are 7 schools for 1213 
scholars, and 3 of them for 870 are new. 

CADDON, affluent of the Tweed, drain- 
ing the part of Stow parish within Selkirk- 
shire. 

CADDONFOOT, quoad sacra parish around 
influx of the Caddon to the Tweed, aver- 
agely 4y miles west-south-west of Gala- 
shiels. It contains Clovenfords village, 
with post office under Galashiels, and has 
a church, enlarged in 1875, and a new 
public school with accommodation for 135 
scholars. Pop. 693. 

CADZOW, burn running from Glassford 
through Hamilton to the Clyde ; village and 
quoad sacra parish on Hamilton part of 
that burn ; and ruined castellated seat of 
ancestors of the Duke of Hamilton on 
Avon river, li mile south-south-east of 
Hamilton. Pop. , of the village, 675 ; of 
the quoad sacra parish, 7163. 

CAERBANTORIGUM, ancient Caledonian 
fort on hill with very extensive view in 
Kirkcudbright parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CAERKETAN, or KIRKYETTAN, one of 
the Pentland Hills, in Colinton parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

CAERLANRIG, tract in Teviothead par- 
ish, Roxburghshire. 

CAERLAVEROCK, peninsular parish, be- 

E 



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66 



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tween the Nith and the Lochar, on the 
coast of Dumfriesshire. It contains Glen- 
caple and Bankend villages, each with post 
office under Dumfries ; contains also 4 
smaller villages, and part of Kelton. Its 
length is about 6 miles ; its greatest breadth 
about 2J miles ; its area 5664 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £9086. Pop. 1046. 
The south-eastern part is low and level ; 
and the middle and north-western parts 
are an elongated hill, descending gradually 
to the Nith and to the Lochar. Conheath 
House is a chief residence. Vestiges of 
Caledonian and Roman works are on the 
hill. Caerlaverock Castle, one of the 
grandest baronial ruins in Scotland, stands 
near the mouth of the Nith ; was erected 
about 1420 on site of a previous strong 
castle ; served both as an important for- 
tress and a noble residence ; forms three 
sides of a triangle with interior open court ; 
exhibits much beauty of architecture and 
sculpture ; is so well preserved as to 
retain a comparatively fresh aspect ; and 
appears to have been in some respects, 
though not in all, the prototype of Sir 
Walter Scott's ' Ellangowan ' in his Guy 
Mannering. The grave and monument of 
the person whose popular soubriquet gave 
title to Sir Walter's Old Mortality are in 
the parochial burying-ground. The churches 
are Established and Free, and the latter is 
in Glencaple. The public school is called 
Hutton Hall, and has about 113 scholars. 

CAERWINNING, hill, with vestiges of 
ancient fortification, near Dairy, Ayrshire. 

CAILM, lake in Reay parish, Caith- 
ness. 

CAINAIL, glen in Torosay parish, Mull 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CAIRN, small river, uniting with the 
Glenesland to form the Cluden, on west 
border of Dumfriesshire. 

CAIRN, hill in Tundergarth parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CAIRN, hill in Kirkmaiden parish, Wig- 
tonshire. 

CAIRN, two summits of the Pentlands, 
East and West, 1839 and 1844 feet high, in 
Edinburghshire. 

CAIRN, hill in Culsamond parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

CAIRNAIG, rivulet, entering the Fleet, 
in Sutherland. 

CAIRNAKAY, mountain ridge, south- 
westward from Benrinnes to the Aven's 
glen, in Banffshire. 

CAIRNAPPLE, lofty hill on east border 
of Torphichen parish, Linlithgowshire. 

CAIRN-A-QUHEEN, stone tumulus about 
1^ mile west of Crathie church, Aberdeen- 
shire. Its name was the war-cry of the 
ancient clans of Deeside. 

CAIRN-ARC, very ancient large cairn 
near mouth of river Ness, Inverness-shire. 

CAIRN - A - VAIN, ancient large cairn, 
crowning one of the Ochil Hills, on north 
border of Orwell parish, Kinross-shire. 

CAIRNAVERAN, hill, crowned with 
cairn, in Alford parish, Aberdeenshire. 



CAIRNBALLOCH, one of the Monadh- 
leadh mountains, Inverness-shire. 

CAIRNBAN, place, with nine locks on 
Crinal Canal, 2§ miles west-north-west of 
Lochgilphead, Argyleshire. 

CAIRNBAN, mountain, 3443 feet high, 
10 miles east - north - east of Kingussie, 
Inverness-shire. 

CAIRNBANNO, seat, 11 miles west-south- 
west of Mintlaw, Aberdeenshire. The 
tract around it has one public school of its 
name, with about 124 scholars, in New 
Deer parish ; and another, with about 31 
scholars, in Monquhitter. 

CAIRNBANNOCH, mountain, 3314 feet 
high, near Lochnagar, Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRNBARROW, farm, withlarge cairns, 
in Glass parish, Banffshire. 

CAIRNBEDDIE, village in St. Martin's 
parish, Perthshire. A moated mound here 
is said to have been the site of a castle of 
Macbeth. 

CAIRNBRAN, large cairn in Loth parish, 
Sutherland. 

CAIRNBRENNOCH, mountain on north 
verge of Blair- Athole parish, Perthshire. 

CAIRNBROE, or CARNBROE, seat in 
Bothwell parish, Lanarkshire. 

CAIRNBULG, headland, conspicuous 
ruined baronial castle, and fishing village 
2t? miles south-east of Fraserburgh, Aber- 
deenshire. The village possesses, con- 
jointly with Inverallochy, a quoad sacra 
parochial church, and a large public school. 
Pop. 459. 

CAIRNBURGBEG, and CAIRNBURG- 
MORE, two of the Treshinish Isles near 
north-west coast of Mull, Argyleshire. 

CAIRNCHUNAIG, lofty mountain on 
mutual border of Rosskeen and Kincardine 
parishes, Ross-shire. 

CAIRNCONAN, hill, with very fine view, 
on west border of St. Vigeans parish, For- 

CAIRN-CUILDICH, true site of original 
Culdee establishment on west coast of Iona 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CAIRNDOW, hamlet on east side near 
head of Loch Fyne, Argyleshire. It com- 
municates by steamboat with Inverary, 
and has a post office, designated of 
Argyleshire, and a good inn. 

CAIRNECLAR, mountain, 3250 feet high, 
13 miles north of Bridge of Tilt, Perth- 
shire. 

CAIRNESS, estate, with modern man- 
sion, and with post office under Aberdeen, 
in Lonmay parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRNEY. See Cairnie. 

CAIRNEYHILL, village, 3 miles west- 
south-west of Dunfermline, Fife. It has 
a United Presbyterian church with 400 
sittings, and a public school with about 
89 scholars. Pop. 293. 

CAIRNEYHILL, village adjacent to Bank- 
foot, in Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire. 

CAIRNFARRY, headland at north end of 
Gigha Island, Argyleshire. 

CAIRNFERG, conspicuous conical moun- 
tain in Birse parish, Aberdeenshire. 



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67 



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CAIRNFIELD, seat in Rathven parish, 
Banffshire. 

CAIRNGARROCH, bay in Kirkmaiden 
parish, Wigtonshire. 

CAIRNGORMS, alpine mountain group 
of Central Grampians around meeting- 
point of Aberdeenshire, Banffshire, and 
Inverness-shire. They occupy an area of 
about 140 square miles ; they comprise 
a number of masses and summits, separated 
by depressions and glens ; they culminate 
in Benmacdhu at an altitude of 4296 feet 
above sea-level ; and they give their name 
to certain fine rock crystals. 

CAIRNGRASSIE, place near Stonehaven, 
Kincardineshire. It has a post office 
under Stonehaven. 

CAIRNGREGOR, mountain at source of 
Nairn river, 16 miles south of Inverness. 

CAIRNHARROW, hill, 1497 feet high, 
with extensive fine view, 4 miles south- 
east of Creetown, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CAIRNHILL, seat near Airdrie, Lanark- 
shire. 

CAIRNHILL, seat near Kilmarnock, Ayr- 
shire. 

CAIRNHOLY, tumulus of antiquarian 
note in Kirkmabreck parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

CAIRNIE, parish, chiefly in Aberdeen- 
shire, and partly in Banffshire. It lies 
midway between Huntly and Keith, and 
has a post office under Huntly. Its length 
is 8 miles ; its greatest breadth nearly 
4| miles. Real property in 1880-81 of 
the Aberdeenshire part, £7701 ; of the 
Banffshire part, £912. Pop. 1565 and 60. 
Some of the surface is low ground, with 
deep fertile soil ; and some consists of 
hills, largely covered with plantation. 
About nine-tenths of the whole belong to 
the Duke of Richmond. The churches are 
Established and Free. There are five 
schools for 310 scholars, and one of them 
for 70 is new. 

CAIRNIE, seat in Kilconquhar parish, 
Fife. 

CAIRNIE, seat in Cupar parish, Fife. 

CAIRNIEMOUNT, or CAIRN-O'-MOUNT, 
hill, 1488 feet high, at meeting-point of 
Fordoun, Fettercairn, and Strachan par- 
ishes, Kincardineshire. 

CAIRNIES, estate, with Scottish Episco- 
pal college, on the Almond, 10 miles west- 
north-west of Perth. It has a post office 
under Perth. 

CAIRN-IRENAN, spot of antiquarian 
interest, giving name by transmutation to 
Killearnan parish, Ross-shire. 

CAIRNISH. See Carinish. 

CAIRNKINNA, mountain, 1813 feet high, 
in Penpont parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CAIRNLAW, mountain, 3| miles east- 
south-east of Tweedsmuir church, Peebles- 
shire. 

CAIRNMONEARN, lofty hill, one of the 
Grampians, in Durris parish, Kincardine- 
shire. 

CAIRNMORE, mountain in Strathdon 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 



CAIRNMORE, large cairn of antiquarian 
interest in Aboyne parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRNMORE, each of two farms named 
from large cairns in Logie-Coldstone parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRNMORE, farm, named from large 
cairn, in Glass parish, Banffshire. 

CAIRNMUIR, cairn, 456 feet in circuit, 
and 14 feet high, in Caputh parish, Perth- 
shire. 

CAIRNMUIR, seat in Kirkurd parish, 

CAIRN-NA-CUIMHNE, historical cairn, 
contiguous to narrow pass on the Dee, in 
Crathie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRNNOVVIE, place in Methlick parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen, and a public school with about 

" CAIRN-O'-MOUNT. See CAIRNIEMOUNT. 

CAIRNPIOT, hill, 593 feet high, with 
fine view, and with vestiges of military 
works, in Portpatrick parish, Wigtonshire. 

CAIRNRYAN, seaport village on Loch 
Ryan, 6 J miles north of Stranraer, Wig- 
tonshire. It has a post office under Stran- 
raer, an Established church, and a Free 
church. 

CAIRNS, ruined baronial fortalice in 
Mid-Calder parish, Edinburghshire. 

CAIRNSERY, lake near Poolewe, Ross- 
shire. 

CAIRNSMORE, seat in Minnigaff parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CAIRNSMUIR, mountain, 2331 feet high, 
with magnificent view, on mutual border 
of Minnigaff and Kirkmabreck parishes, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CAIRNSMUIR, mountain, 2612 feet high, 
in Carsphairn parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CAIRNTABLE, mountain, 1944 feet high, 
on mutual border of Muirkirk parish, Ayr- 
shire, and Douglas parish, Lanarkshire. 

CAIRNTAGGART, mountain, about 3000 
feet high, on mutual border of Crathie and 
Glenmuick parishes, Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRNTOUL, alpine mountain, 4241 feet 
high, one of the Cairngorms, Aberdeenshire 
and Inverness-shire. 

CAIRNVAICKAN, mountain, 2442 feet 
high, 3 miles south of Strathdon church, 
Aberdeen shire. 

CAIRNWILLIAM, mountain on mutual 
border of Tough and Monymusk parishes, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CAIRSTON, place in Stromness parish, 
Orkney. It gives name to a presbytery of 
the Established Church. 

CAISTEAL-ABHAIL, summit, 2735 feet 
high, north-west of Goatfell, Arran Island, 
Buteshire. 

CAITESEAL, hill, 1250 feet high, ad- 
jacent to Loch Seaforth, Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides. 

CAITHA, hamlet in Stow parish, Edin- 
burghshire. It has a public school with 
about 46 scholars. 

CAITHNESS, county in extreme north- 
east of mainland of Scotland. Its length 
is 53 miles ; its greatest breadth 33 miles ; 



CAI 



68 



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its coast-line 105 miles ; its circuit about 
145 miles ; its area 712 square miles. The 
coast, with exception of that of some 
bays, is bold and rocky, and in some parts 
cavernous. The landward border, com- 
mencing with the Ord on south-east coast, 
and terminating 12 miles west-south-west 
of Thurso on north coast, is nearly all 
upland, partly mountainous, partly hilly, 
and attains on one summit an altitude of 
2331 feet. The interior, with small excep- 
tion, is tame low country, either flat or 
but slightly undulated, and includes a 
large proportion of deep bog and moorish 
morass. The chief rivers are the Thurso, 
the Wick, and the Berriedale ; but they 
have little economical value except for 
their fish. The lakes are very numerous, 
but only 3 of them are each more than 
1 mile long. Sandstone flag is a principal 
rock, and is very extensively quarried and 
exported. Agriculture, especially as viewed 
under disadvantageous conditions of soil and 
climate, is highly improved and skilful. 
The fishing, curing, and exporting of her- 
ring is a prominent industry. The chief 
towns are Wick and Thurso ; and the chief 
villages are Castletown, Lybster, Halkirk, 
Keiss, and Sarclet. Ileal property in 
1880-81, £133,922. Pop. in 1871, 39,992 ; 
in 1881, 38,845. 

CAITNISH, place, with series of cascades, 
on river Orchy, in Glenorchy parish, 
Argyleshire. 

CAKEMUIR, old castle in Cranston par- 
ish, Edinburghshire. An apartment in 
it is called Queen Mary's room, and got 
that name from having received her on 
her flight from Borthwick Castle. 

CALAIR, impetuous burn in Balquhidder 
parish, Perthshire. 

CALART, hill at eastern boundary of 
Rothiemurchus parish, Inverness-shire. 

CALASAND, bay on east side of Sanday 
Island, Orkney. 

CALDARVAN, seat in Kilmaronock parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

C ALDER, district in extreme west of 
Edinburghshire. It was early divided into 
Calder-Comitis on the west, and Calder- 
Clere on the east ; and the former section 
was afterwards divided into Mid-Calder 
and West-Calder. 

CALDER, seat of Lord Torphichen in 
Mid-Calder parish, Edinburghshire. 

CALDER, rivulet, running about 10 miles 
north-eastward to the Clyde, at 5^ miles 
south-east of Glasgow. It is called Park 
burn in its upper part, Calder in its middle 
part, and Rotten Calder in its lower part. 

CALDER, rivulet, running 7 miles east- 
south-eastward to Castle Semple Loch, in 
west of Renfrewshire. 

CALDER, rivulet, entering left side of 
the Spey, in Kingussie parish, Inverness- 
shire. 

CALDER, hamlet and lake in north-west 
of Halkirk parish, Caithness. The hamlet 
lias a post office under Thurso, and a public 
school with about 52 scholars. The lake is 



about 2 miles long, and sends off a burn of 
its own name to Thurso river. 

CALDER, Lanarkshire. See Caddek. 

CALDER, Nairnshire. See Cawdor. 

CALDERBANK, town on North Calder 
river, partly in Bothwell parish, but chiefly 
in Old Monkland, Lanarkshire. It has a 
post office under Airdrie, andanEstablished 
church ; is adjacent to a rich mineral field ; 
and was proposed near end of 1872 to be 
reached by a branch railway. Pop. 1749. 

CALDERBANK, seat in Blantyre parish, 

CALDERBRAES, suburb of Calderbank 
town, Lanarkshire. 

CALDERCRUIX, village with railway sta- 
tion, 4i miles east of Airdrie, Lanarkshire. 
Pop. 306. 

CALDER (EAST), village and parish on 
west border of Edinburghshire. The village 
stands near Mid-Calder railway station, 
11 miles west-south-west of Edinburgh, 
and has a ruined ancient parochial church , a 
United Presbyterian church, and a public 
school with about 174 scholars. Pop. 734. 
— The parish was originally Calder-Clere 
barony, and is now united to Kirknewton. 

CALDERGROVE, seat in Cambuslang 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CALDERHALL, seat in Kirknewton par- 
ish, Edinburghshire. 

CALDERHAUGH, place in Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

CALDERHEAD, registration district, dis- 
joined in 1863 from Cambusnethan and 
Shotts,Lanarkshire. It has an Established 
church. Pop. 4158. 

CALDER IRONWORKS, town on North 
Calder river, comprising Calder Proper in 
Old Monkland parish, and New Carnbroe in 
Bothwell parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 2180. 

CALDER (MID), village and parish in 
west of Edinburghshire. The village 
stands on Almond river, 2J miles west of 
railway station of its own name, 10 miles 
south-west of Edinburgh, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Edinburgh, a public 
hall of 1880, Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches, and 2 public schools 
with about 197 scholars. Pop. 657.— The 
parish contains also the village of Bells- 
quarry, extends south-eastward to water- 
shed of Pentland Hills, and is 9 miles 
long, but comparatively narrow. Acres, 
12,294. Real property in 1S80-81, £17,431. 
Pop. 1695. The north-western section is 
mostly level and fertile ; the south-eastern 
section ascends to the summits of Cairn 
Hills ; and the total surface is about one- 
third arable and two - thirds pastoral. 
The chief residence is Calder House ; and 
chief antiquities are a Roman camp, ruins 
of Cairns and Murieston Castles, and the 
ancient towers and battlements of Lin- 
house. Public schools are at Bellsquarry 
and Causewayend. 

CALDER (NORTH), small river, running 
13 miles south-westward to the Clyde, at 5 
miles south-east of Glasgow. 



CAL 



69 



CAL 



CALDERS, cliff-screened small sea-inlet 
in Wick parish, Caithness. 

CALDERSIDE, place on the Calder, in 
Elantyre parish, Lanarkshire. 

CALDER (SOUTH), small river, running 
about 11 miles south-westward to the 
Clyde, at 1J mile north of Hamilton. It 
is crossed, near Motherwell, by a lofty 
viaduct of Caledonian Railway. 

CALDER (WEST), town and parish in 
extreme west of Edinburghshire. The 
town stands 15f miles south-west of Edin- 
burgh ; was only a village with 434 inhabi- 
tants in 1851 ; rose rapidly to the condition 
of a great centre of industry ; flourishes in 
connection with paraffin works, collieries, 
and ironworks in an extensive tract around 
it ; and has a head post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, a railway 
station, a banking office, Established, Free, 
United Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic 
churches, and a public school with about 
254 scholars. Pop. 2291. — The parish 
contains also Addiewell town and Gavie- 
side, Mossend, and Cobinshaw villages. 
Its length is nearly 9 miles ; its breadth from 
1J to 9 miles ; its area 21,089 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £43,846. Pop. 7681. 
The surface has a general elevation of 
nearly 500 feet above sea-level, and rises 
in the south-east to the watershed of 
Pentlands. Bituminous minerals, lime- 
stone, and ironstone are plentiful. The 
chief residences are Hermand, Harburn, 
and Limefield ; and the chief antiquities 
are an old castle and remains of a Roman 
camp. There are 8 schools for 1499 
scholars, and one of them for 200 is new. 

CALDERWOOD, seat of Sir William 
Maxwell, Bart., in East Kilbride parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CALDHAM, hamlet in Marykirk parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

CALDRON, cascade into dark cavern on 
Lednock river, near Comrie, Perthshire. 

CALDRON, series of cascades on the 
Devon, near Crook of Devon, or meeting- 
point of Perthshire and Kinross-shire. 

CALDRONLEE, place, with limeworks, 
in Kirkpatrick-Fleming parish, Dumfries- 
shire. 

CALDWELL, seat and railway station, 
4i miles east of Beith, Ayrshire. 

CALEDONIA, originally the mainland of 
Ross-shire, and greater part of the main- 
land of Inverness-shire ; afterwards all 
parts of the mainland of Scotland north of 
the Forth and the Clyde ; subsequently all 
the mainland of Britain north of the Tweed, 
or the southern Tyne and the southern 
Eden. Caledonia, in its ultimate or largest 
form, was distributed among 21 tribes of 
Britons or ancient Caledonians. 

CALEDONIAN CANAL, line of inland 
navigation from head of Moray Firth, near 
Inverness, to middle of Loch Eil, near 
Fort- William, Inverness-shire. It traverses 
the Great Glen ; includes 22 miles of 
artificial cut, and 38| miles through Lochs 
Dochf our, Ness, Oich, and Lochy ; has a 



minimum depth of 17 feet, so as to serve 
for sea-borne vessels; was begun to be 
formed in 1803, but not completed till 
1847 ; and cost, up to that date, more than 
£1,256,000. 

CALEDONIAN RAILWAY, extensive 
ramified railway system throughout much 
of Scotland into west side of English 
border. It originally did no more than 
connect a large portion of the southern 
Lowlands of Scotland with the English 
railways at Carlisle ; comprised only great 
forks from Edinburgh and Glasgow to 
Carstairs, branches from the Glasgow fork 
to south side of Glasgow, Strathaven, and 
the south border of Stirlingshire, and a 
main trunk from Carstairs to Carlisle ; 
and was completed to that extent in 1848 ; 
but it now, by amalgamations, new lines, 
new branches, and working connections, 
extends from Aberdeen to Carlisle, from 
Oban to Edinburgh, from Wemyss Bay to 
Leith, from Lockerby to Portpatrick, — has 
connections with all the other Scottish 
railway systems, the North British, the 
Glasgow and South-Western, the Highland, 
and the Great North of Scotland, — and thus 
gives conveyance from every existing rail- 
way point in Scotland into communication 
with the English railways at Carlisle. Its 
paid-up capital in 1879-80 was £27,370,193 
in stock and share capital, £13,039,680 in 
ordinary capital, and £6,954,976 in loans 
and debenture stock. 

CALF, islet near north-eastern extremity 
of Eday Island, Orkney. 

CALF, ARGYLESHIRE. See Calve. 

CALFA, islet near Tyree Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

CALF SOUND, sea-belt, with harbour, 
between Calf islet and Eday, Orkney. A 
hamlet of its own name, with an inn, is on 
its Eday side. 

CALGARRY, seat and small bay on 
north-west coast of Mull Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

CALLADER, lake, 5 miles south-south- 
east of Castle to wn-Braemar, Aberdeenshire. 

CALLANDER, town and parish in south- 
west of Perthshire. The town stands on 
river Teith, 16J miles north-west of Stir- 
ling ; has environs overhung or horizoned 
by very striking Highland scenery; is a 
tourists' centre, and a summer retreat of 
very high attraction ; comprises well-built, 
regular, cleanly streets ; includes a noble 
villa on ground believed to have been 
occupied by a Roman camp ; includes also 
vestiges of an ancient seat of the Earls of 
Linlithgow and Callander ; and has a post 
office with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Perthshire, a 
railway station, 2 banking offices, 3 hotels, 
public halls of 1878, waterworks of 1872, Es- 
tablished, Free, and Episcopalian churches, 
and a public school. Pop. 1522. — The 
parish measures about 19 miles in length, 
and 5 miles in greatest breadth. Acres, 
51,186. Real property in 1880 - 81, 
£19,039. Pop., quoad civilia, 2167 ; quoad 



CAL 



70 



CAM 



sacra, 1940. The vale of Teith, upward 
from the town, overhung on the west by 
Benledi, bounded on the north by Crag of 
Callander and hills of Leny, and all within 
the eastern section of the parish, is the 
chief seat of population. The Crag of 
Callander is a bold stupendous rock, with 
aspects strikingly contrasted to that of the 
vale. A line along the southern border, 
past Lochs Vennachoir and Achray, through 
the Trossachs, to upper part of Loch 
Katrine, teems with the scenery of Sir 
"Walter Scott's Lady of the Lake ; so also 
does a line from the Teith's vale up the 
side of Loch Lubnaig to the northern 
boundary. Most other parts, and likewise 
some screens of these lines, are mountainous 
and heathy. There are 3 schools for 
304 scholars, and one of them for 150 is 
new. 

CALLANDER, seat near Falkirk, Stirling- 
shire. It is partly ancient, it belonged to 
the Earls of Linlithgow, it was frequently 
visited by Queen Mary, and it suffered 
storm and capture by Cromwell. 

CALLANDER AND OBAN RAILWAY, 
railway 70f miles long, first northward 
then curvingly westward from Callander 
in Perthshire to Oban in Argyleshire. It 
was authorized in 1865, terminated for 
some time at Tyndrum, and was opened 
from Tyndrum to Dalmally in 1877, and 
from Dalmally to Oban in 1880. It 
curves from Callander into Pass of Leny, 
goes northward past Lochearnhead and 
through Glenogle to vicinity of Killin, 
curves there rapidly to the west, goes up 
Glendochart and Strathfillan to Tyndrum, 
descends past the north-west skirt of Ben- 
loy to Dalmally, crosses Loch Awe a little 
to the east of Kilchurn Castle, sweeps 
thence round to the Pass of Brandir, has 
a station adjacent to new hotel about 4 
miles from Dalmally, proceeds down the 
gorge of the Awe and along the south side 
of Loch Etive, and terminates contiguously 
to sea-walls and other works at Oban, com- 
pleted in 1881. It belongs, by arrange- 
ment, to the Caledonian system. 

CALLENDS, seat, hill, and burn, in New- 
lands parish, Peeblesshire. 

CALLERNISH, tract, with village and 
great group of Caledonian standing stones, 
in Uig parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CALLIEVAR, hill, 1747 feet high, 4 miles 
west of Alford, Aberdeenshire. 

CALLIGRAY. See Killigray. 

CALLIOCH, headland, with very grand 
view, at north-western extremity of Mull 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CALLOW, seat, a little north of Tighna- 
bruaich, Argyleshire. 

CALLUMS, wooded hill in Crieff parish, 
Perthshire. 

CALLY, seat near Gatehouse, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

CALLY (BRIDGE OF). See Bridge of 
Callt. 

CALLY (STRONE OF), place in Ben- 
dochy parish, Perthshire. 



CALNADULACH, village in Muckairn 
parish, Argyleshire. 

CALROSSIE, seat in Logie-Easter parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CALTON, eastern suburb of Edinburgh. 
It once formed part of Bestalrig barony, 
was annexed to Edinburgh in 1725, ranked 
for a time as a separate bailiary, and was 
eventually incorporated with the burgh of 
Edinburgh. Its streets and lanes were 
always few ; they have suffered decrease 
of importance in result of modern city 
improvement ; they lie on the skirts or 
at the base of the southern and western 
sides of Calton Hill ; and they are desig- 
nated in two divisions as High Calton and 
Low Calton. Their south side is a narrow 
vale, dividing them from Canongate ; their 
south-west corner is a gorge, spanned by 
Regent bridge, and dividing them from 
the New Town ; and their side thence 
north-eastward is a ravine curving from 
the gorge and merging in the plain toward 
Leith. Calton Hill, the main feature of 
the suburb, and now an ornate as well as 
very prominent feature of the city, mea- 
sures about 5 furlongs by 3, rises to an 
altitude of 344 feet above sea-level, is 
largely occupied by elegant terraced streets 
and ornamental public structures, and 
commands one of the richest panoramic 
views in Europe. 

CALTON, suburb, parish, and registra- 
tion district, in east of Glasgow. The 
suburb adjoins the eastern part of Glasgow 
Green; lies between Gallowgate and Bridge- 
ton, and extends eastward to the city's 
outskirts ; includes numerous streets in 
various alignment ; is largely occupied by 
factories, and by working-men's dwelling- 
houses ; presents, on the whole, a bustling 
and dingy appearance ; and contains (5 
Established churches, 4 Free churches, 4 
United Presbyterian, and 6 of other deno- 
minations. The parish lies wholly within 
Glasgow parliamentary burgh. Pop. 39,590. 
Pop. of registration district, 37,448. 

CALVA, sea-loch in Edderachyllis parish, 
Sutherland. 

CALVE, islet at mouth of Tobermory 
harbour, Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

CALVINE, place in Blair- Athole parish, 
with post office under Blair- Athole, Perth- 
shire. 

CAMA, lake in Assynt parish, Suther- 
land. 

CAMBIE, streamlet, entering the Leven, 
in Leslie parish, Fife. 

CAMBO, seat of Sir Thomas Erskine, 
Bart. , in Kingsbarns parish, Fife. 

CAMBUS, village on the Forth, 2 
miles west of Alloa, Clackmannanshire. 
It has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Stirling ; a 
railway station, a small harbour, and a 
large distillery. 

CAMBUSBARRON, town, If mile south- 
west of Stirling. It has a post office under 
Stirling, a mission church projected in 
1876, a Free church, a public school with 



CAM 



71 



CAM 



about 161 scholars, and a large woollen 
factory. Pop. 1135. 

CAMBUSCROSS, place near Isle Oronsay, 
Isle of Skye. 

CAMBUSCURRY, hill in Eddertoun par- 
ish, Ross-shire. 

CAMBUSDOON, seat near Ayr, Ayrshire. 

CAMBUSKENNETH, abbey and village on 
the Forth, about a mile east of Stirling. The 
abbey was founded in 1147 by David I. ; 
figured conjointly with Stirling Castle in 
some great public affairs ; was the burial 
place of James in. and his queen ; is nowre- 
presented chiefly by a massive early-pointed 
tower, 70 feet high ; and contains a me- 
morial tomb of 1865 of James III. and his 
queen. Pop. of the village, 217. 

CAMBUSLANG, town and parish in 
north of Lanarkshire. The town stands 
about J mfle from the Clyde, 4 miles 
south-east of Glasgow ; consists of eight 
sections, or villages, on the banks of a 
picturesque burn ; is near a natural amphi- 
theatre, used in 1742 as a place of worship, 
and then the scene of a religious revival 
known as ' the Cambuslang wark ; ' and 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Glasgow ; 
a railway station, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, and Congregational churches; 
and 2 public schools with about 304 scholars. 
Pop. 5538. — Theparish excludes asmallpart 
of the town, but includes Silverbank, New- 
ton-Colliery, and Ridleywood villages. Its 
length is 4|- miles ; its greatest breadth Si- 
miles ; its area 5160 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £56,565. Pop. 9447. The 
surface includes a hill -ridge, with the 
summits of Dechmont and Turnlaw ; de- 
clines thence in a fine series of swells and 
undulations ; and terminates in low, flat 
lands on the Clyde. Coal abounds, and is 
largely worked ; ironstone also is plentiful. 
Chief seats are Gilbertfield, Newton, and 
Caldergrove ; and chief antiquities are 
traces of ancient buildings on Dechmont, 
and a circular mound on which stood 
Drumsarguard Castle. There are 5 schools 
for 1017 scholars, and 2 of them and an 
enlargement for 680 are new. 

CAMBUSMICHAEL, old parish, now 
united to St. Martin's, Perthshire. 

CAMBUSMORE, seat on the Teith, about 
2 miles south-east of Callander, Perth- 
shire. 

CAMBUSNAGLASS, small bay on west 
side of upper part of Loch Lomond, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

CAMBUSNETHAN, town and parish in 
middle ward of Lanarkshire. The town 
stands | mile east of Wishaw, and has an 
Established church, a Free church, and a 
public school with about 309 scholars. 
Pop. 1829. — The parish contains also the 
towns of Wishaw, Newmains, and Over- 
town, the villages of Stane, Morningside, 
Chapel, Clydesdale Rows, Waterloo, 
Bonkle, and Stewarton, and part of 
Shotts Ironworks. Its length is 9| miles ; 
its greatest breadth 3^ miles ; its area 



16,608 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£91,037. Pop., quoad civilia, 20,823 ; quoad 
sacra, 4548. The Clyde bounds the 
western end ; the South Calder bounds 
most of the north - eastern side ; the 
Garrion burn, along a deep ravine, bounds 
the lower part of the south-eastern side ; 
and head-streams of Briech water, running 
into Linlithgowshire, drain the eastern 
end. The lands adjacent to the Clyde are 
low, level, fertile hangh ; those in the 
middle parts are variegated plateau, 
mostly with good argillaceous soil ; and 
those in the east are principally moorish, 
and rise to a maximum height of about 
900 feet. Excellent coal, ironstone, and 
sandstone abound, and are extensively 
worked. Ironworks, tileworks, a large 
distillery, and textile manufacture employ 
very many hands. The chief seats are 
Cambusnethan House, Wishaw House, 
Coltness, Allanton, and Muirhouse. Es- 
tablished churches are at Overtown and 
Newmains, a United Presbyterian church 
is at Bonkle, and churches of six de- 
nominations are at Wishaw. There are 
10 schools for 3751 scholars, and 3 of 
them and an enlargement for 1320 are new. 

CAMBUS (OLD). See Aldcambus. 

CAMBUS O'MAY, railway station be- 
tween Dinnet and Ballater, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

CAMBUSTANE, hfll, surmounted by 
monument 105 feet high, in Monikie 
parish, Forfarshire. 

CAMBUS-VIC-HUSTAN, small safe har- 
bour in Assynt parish, Sutherland. 

CAMBUS-VIC-KER-CHIR, partially well- 
sheltered harbour in Assynt parish. 
Sutherland. 

CAMBUSVRACKAN, place, with public 
school, in Glenlyon, Perthshire. 

CAMBUS-WALLACE, place, 1 mile north- 
west of Doune, Perthshire. 

CAMBUS-WALLACE, seat in Biggar 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CAMELON, town on Forth and Clyde 
Canal, about a mile west of Falkirk, 
Stirlingshire. It has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Falkirk, and a quoad sacra parish 
church. Pop. of the town, 2014 ; of the 
quoad sacra parish, 2795. 

CAMELON (OLD), spot on Carron river, 
near Camelon, Stirlingshire. A Roman 
town, with harbour, stood here, and 
communicated by iter from Antoninus' 
Wall with the country north of the Forth. 

CAMERON, parish, with church, 3 J miles 
south-south-west of St. Andrews, Fife. 
Post town, St. Andrews. Length and 
extreme breadth, each 4-J miles ; area, 
9325 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£11,857. Pop., quoad civilia, 1003; quoad 
sacra, 768. The surface presents an 
undulating appearance, but includes 
DrumcarroHill. Coal, limestone, andsand- 
stone are plentiful. The chief seat is 
Mount Melville. A United Presbyterian 
church is at Lathones, and public schools 



CAM 



72 



CAM 



are near the parochial church, and at 
Radernie and Denhead. 

CAMERON, seat on west side, near foot 
of Loch Lomond, Dumbartonshire. 

CAMERON BRIDGE, hamlet, 1J mile 
south of Edinburgh. 

CAMERON BRIDGE, village on Leven 
river, 2 miles west of Leven, Fife. It has 
a railway station and a large distillery. 

CAMILLA, lake in Auchtertool parish, 
Fife. 

CAMISENDUN, bay, with prime anchor- 
age, in Loch Eriboll, Durness parish, 
Sutherland. 

CAMLACHIE, suburb, 1J mile east of 
cross of Glasgow. It connects the City 
proper with Parkhead suburb, is inhabited 
chiefly by operatives, presents a dingy 
unpleasant appearance, has an Established 
church and a Free church, and gives name 
to a registration district. Pop. of the 
district, 37,933. 

CAMMACHMORE, estate in Fetteresso 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

CAMMUSMORE, bay in Kilmuir parish, 
Isle of Skye. 

CAMP, castles in Craigie parish, Ayr- 
shire ; in Roberton parish, Roxburghshire ; 
in Aberlemno parish, Forfarshire ; and on 
Turin Hill, in Rescobie parish, Forfarshire. 

CAMP, hills in Dairy parish, Ayrshire ; 
in Yetholm parish, Roxburghshire ; in 
Cathcart parish, Renfrewshire ; and in 
Lumphanan parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CAMPBELL (CASTLE). See Castle 
Campbell. 

CAMPBELTON, town and parish in 
Kintyre district, Argyleshire. The town 
stands at head of sea-loch of its own name, 
12 miles in direct line north-east of Mull 
of Kintyre, and 35 by water west-south- 
west of Ayr ; was the original capital of 
Dalriada, and was then called Dalruadh- 
ain ; lost some importance by removal of 
the royal court to Dunstaffnage ; became 
the centre of the extensive missionary 
operations of St. Kiaran ; shared after- 
wards the prosperity attending the rise of 
the Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles ; was 
either renovated or rebuilt by them, and 
acquired then a strong castle called Kin- 
loch-Kerran ; gave such trouble to James 
V. in his contests with the Macdonalds as 
induced him to make a grant of it, and of 
the surrounding country, to the family of 
Argyle ; and in course of time was greatly 
improved under their administration, and 
changed its old name for that of Camp- 
belton. Its sea-loch is about 2 miles long 
and about 1 mile broad, is a singularly 
excellent natural harbour, and has good 
piers and prime anchorage. The town 
curves round the head of the loch in the 
manner of a crescent ; presents, with its 
outskirts, a very pleasant appearance ; 
possesses, in centre of its main street, 
a highly interesting sculptured ancient 
granite cross ; ranks as a royal and par- 
liamentary burgh, uniting with Ayr, 
Irvine, Inverary, and Oban in sending a 



member to Parliament ; is a head port and 
the head station of one of the twenty-five 
fishery districts of Scotland ; has a head 
post office with all departments, 3 bank- 
ing offices, 2 hotels, 2 Established churches, 
Free, United Presbyterian, Episcopa- 
lian, and Roman Catholic churches, 4 
public schools, acquired subsequent to 
1876, new waterworks, and extended 
harbour works ; publishes 2 weekly news- 
papers ; and carries on a vast trade in the 
distilling and exporting of whisky. The 
shipping of the port in 1879 amounted to 
918 British vessels of 87,165 tons, and 15 
foreign vessels of 2014 tons, inward ; and 
909 British vessels of 86,206 tons, and 15 
foreign vessels of 2013 tons, outward. 
Real property of the burgh in 1880-81, 
£27,339. Pop. 7558.— The parish contains 
also the villages of Dalintober and Drum- 
lemble, and comprehends the four old par- 
ishes of Kilkerran, Kilkivan, Kilchusland, 
and Kilmichael. Its length is 12i miles ; 
its greatest breadth 6 miles ; its area 
44,220 acres. Real property of landward 
part in 1880-81, £29,866. Pop. 9620. 
The limits include Devaar islet across the 
mouth of Campbelton loch ; include also 
Ardnacross, small bay 6 miles to the 
north ; and extend westward to the Atlan- 
tic. A plain, about 4 miles long and 3 
miles broad, and not higher than 40 feet 
above sea-level, extends westward from 
the town to head of Machirhanish bay ; 
and hill tracts rise from the sides of that 
plain to the northern and the southern 
boundaries, and attain elevations of from 
800 to about 1154 feet. Coal and por- 
phyry have been worked. Plantations 
are on the estates of Kildalloig, Knock- 
rioch, Drummore, Oatfield, Aseomil, and 
Limecraigs. There are 10 schools for 
1600 scholars, and 2 of them and 2 en- 
largements for 810 are new. 

CAMPBELTON, coast village, U mile 
south-east of Fort-George, Inverness-shire. 
It has a chalybeate spring, a hotel, and 
a United Presbyterian church. Pop. 
668. 

CAMPERDOWN, railway station, and 
seat of the Earl of Camperdown, 5J miles 
north-west of Dundee. 

CAMPFIELD, hamlet in Kincardine 
O'Neil parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a 
post office under Aberdeen, and a public 
school with about 80 scholars. 

CAMPHILL, village, seat, and wooded 
height, in Cathcart parish, Renfrewshire. 
The village is a recently erected suburb of 
Glasgow, and has an elegant United Pres- 
byterian church. The height has vestiges 
of a Roman camp, and commands a very 
fine view. 

CAMP-KNOW, conical hillock, anciently 
surrounded by a ditch, in Blantyre parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CAMPLE, rivulet, running about 8 miles 
to the Nith, near Thornhill, Dumfries- 
shire. 

CAMPMUIR, hamlet near vestiges of 



CAM 



73 



CAN 



:mcient camp, in Kettins parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

CAMPMUIR, place, with traces of ancient 
camp, in Langton parish, Berwickshire. 

CAMPS, affluent of the Clyde, at Craw- 
ford village, Lanarkshire. 

CAMPSAILE, bay, with prime anchor- 
age, on south-west side of Gareloch, 2J 
miles west of Helensburgh, Dumbarton- 
shire. 

CAMPSIE, village and parish on south 
border of Stirlingshire. The village stands 
at mouth of Kirkton Glen, 1J mile north- 
west of Lennoxtown ; bears the name of 
Clachan of Campsie ; and has a public 
school with about 62 scholars, and 
remains of the old parochial church. 
— The parish contains also the town of 
Lennoxtown, and the villages of Haughead, 
Milton, Torrance, Balgrochan, Craighead, 
Antermony, and Birdston. Its length is 
about 7 miles ; its greatest breadth about 
5 mdes ; its area 17,872 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £30,820. Pop. 5873. 
The southern district is bounded by the 
river Kelvin, includes part of the great 
strath traversed by Forth and Clyde Canal, 
has much breadth in the east but contracts 
toward the west, and is all an undulating 
plain. The western district, immediately 
north of narrow part of that plain, is a 
hill-range called the South Brae, with 
extreme altitude of about 700 feet above 
sea-level. The northern district is all a 
part of the Lennox Hills, bears the name 
of Campsie Fells, culminates at an alti- 
tude of 1894 feet above sea-level, and com- 
prises glens, ravines, and crags of strikingly 
picturesque character, including miniature 
resemblances to the Trossachs, and forming 
a popular holiday resort. Coal, limestone, 
and aluminous minerals abound, and are 
extensively worked ; and many kinds of 
industry are skilfully carried on. The 
chief seats are Lennox Castle, Craigbarnet, 
Bancleroche, Kincaid, Antermony, Glorat, 
and Auchinreoch ; and chief antiquities 
are traces of two ancient Caledonian forts. 
Established, Free, United Presbyterian, 
and Roman Catholic churches are in 
Lennoxtown. There are 7 schools for 
1166 scholars, and 2 of the schools and 2 
enlargements for 555 are new. 

CAMPSIE FELLS, section of Lennox 
Hills, within Campsie parish, Stirlingshire. 
But the name is sometimes given to a 
wider section of these hills, and sometimes 
to the entire range. 

CAMPSIE GLEN, railway station near 
Campsie village, Stirlingshire. 

CAMPSIE LINN, cataract on the Tay, a 
short distance north of Stanley, Perth- 
shire. It figures in Sir Walter Scott's 
Fair Maid of Perth. 

CAMPSTER, place in south-west of Wick 
parish, Caithness. 

CAMPTOWN, place near vestiges of 
ancient camp in Jedburgh parish, Rox- 
burghshire. It has a post office under 
Jedburgh. 



CAMSERNY, stream, with cascade, in 
Dull parish, Perthshire. 

CAMSTRADDEN, bay and residence on 
Loch Lomond, in Luss parish, Dumbarton- 
shire. 

CAMUS-ESKAN, seat near Helensburgh, 
Dumbartonshire. 

CANAAN, handsome modern suburb, 
between Bruntsfleld Links and Morning- 
side, on south side of Edinburgh. 

CANDACRAIG, seat in Strathdon parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CANDAR, rivulet entering the Avon at 
1^ mile south-east of Stonehouse, Lanark- 
shire. 

CANDICK, headland at south-east ex- 
tremity of Walls, Orkney. A lighthouse 
is on it, with revolving light visible at the 
distance of 15 nautical miles. 

CANDIDA CASA. See Whithorn. 

CANDLESTICK, cavern in Duirinish par- 
ish, Isle of Skye. 

CANDREN, medicinal spring, 2\ miles 
east of Paisley, Renfrewshire. 

CANDY, burn entering Biggar river at 
boundary between Lanarkshire and Peebles- 
shire. 

CANISBAY, parish in north-east comer 
of Caithness. It has a post office of its 
own name under Wick ; contains Houna 
and Mey hamlets, John o' Groat's House, 
and Duncansby, Freswick, and Gills town- 
ships ; forms the north-eastern extremity 
of mainland of Scotland ; and includes 
Stroma Island in Pentland Firth. It 
measures, on the mainland, 8 miles of 
eastern coast, 11 miles of northern coast, 
and 12f miles of inland boundary. Real 
property in 1880-81, £5902. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 2626 ; quoad sacra, 2373. The 
eastern coast has a sandy beach at Fres- 
wick Bay, but is elsewhere bold and 
precipitous, and terminates in the grand 
circular promontory of Duncansby Head ; 
the north coast is more level, yet has 
pieces of considerably high rock, and 
includes Mey Head ; and the interior is 
remarkably level, and rises nowhere higher 
than about 300 feet on Ward or Watch 
Hill. The residences are Barrogill Castle, 
the seat of the Earl of Caithness, West 
Canisbay House, and the relinquished 
mansions of Brabster and Freswick ; and 
the chief antiquities are ruins of Bucholie 
Castle, and remains or traces of ancient 
churches. The present churches are 
Established and Free ; and there are 7 
schools for 502 scholars. 

CANISP, lofty mountain in Assynt par- 
ish, Sutherland. 

CANNA, island, 3J miles north-west of 
Rum, and 12 miles south-west of nearest 
point of Skye, Inner Hebrides. Sanda 
Island is nearly contiguous to it on the 
east, and some stacks and skerries are 
adjacent. It and they form a group 4J 
miles long and 2 miles broad ; consist of 
eruptive rocks from 100 to 800 feet high ; 
and exhibit striking features of cliff, 
natural tower, and basaltic terrace. 



CAN 



74 



CAP 



Canna has a post office under Greenock. 
Pop. 48. 

CANNACHY BRIDGE, place on the 
North Esk, in Edzell parish, Forfarshire. 

CANNICH, small river, running about 
14 miles north-eastward and eastward into 
confluence with the Affrick to form the 
Glass in north-west of Inverness-shire. A 
hamlet of its own name is on it in Kil- 
morack parish, and has a public school 
with about 34 scholars. 

CANNISBURN, hamlet in New Kil- 
patrick parish, Dumbartonshire. 

CANNOR, lake in Glenmuick parish, 
Aberdeenshire. An islet in it was formerly 
crowned with a fortified hunting-seat of 
Malcolm Canmore. 

CANNY, burn entering left side of the 
Dee, in Banchory-Ternan parish, Kincar- 
dineshire. 

CANONBIE, village and parish on east 
border of Dumfriesshire. The village 
stands on the river Esk, 6 miles south-by- 
east of Langholm, and has a post office with 
money order and telegraph departments, de- 
signated of Dumfriesshire, arail way station, 
an Established church, a Free church, and 
a public school with about 218 scholars. — 
The parish contains also the villages of Row- 
anburn and Forgebraehead, and is 9 miles 
long and 5£ miles broad. Acres, 24,142. 
Real property in 1880-81, £14,123. Pop. 
2723. The central tract, along the Esk, is 
flat ; the tracts thence, east and west, are 
diversified by ridges ; and the tract in the 
north-east is hilly. Coal, limestone, and 
sandstone abound, and are largely worked. 
The chief residences are Woodhouselees, 
Forge, Marsh House, Crookholm, and 
Woodslee ; and the chief antiquities are 
remains of a Roman station, vestiges of an 
ancient priory, the walls of Hollows and 
Harelaw towers, famous in the history 
of Border raids, and sites of 5 other 
mediaeval Border towers. There are 5 
schools for 606 scholars, and 2 of them and 
an enlargement for 170 are new. 

CANONGATE, suburb and parish at east 
end of Edinburgh. The suburb originated 
in the erection of Holyrood Abbey ; it was 
largely occupied first by retainers of the 
Abbey, next by retainers of the royal 
court ; it then possessed much splendour, 
and contained many noble mansions ; it 
suffered great devastation by the English 
in 1544, underwent grand reconstruction, 
and continued to be much inhabited by 
the nobility till the National Union ; and 
it then began to be occupied mainly by 
the operative classes, and thenceforth 
declined rapidly into a condition of poverty 
and squalor. It was long so divided from 
Edinburgh by an open tract as to be a 
separate town, but it eventually grew into 
strict contiguity with all the eastern end 
of the Old City ; it now, in its main street, 
or Canongate proper, extends from the 
palace yard of Holyrood to the foot of 
Netherbow, and measures in that line 
about 650 yards; it is winged, on both 



sides of its main street, with numerous 
narrow alleys or closes ; it has there also, 
in the same length and direction as the 
closes, 5 modern or renovated streets ; 
and it likewise includes the two flanking 
thoroughfares of North Back and South 
Back, and the salient thoroughfares of 
Watergate, Abbeyhill, St. John's Hill, 
and Pleasance. Its most noticeable build- 
ings are several quondam noble mansions 
nowin a state of utter decadence, — Queens- 
berry House, quondam mansion of the 
Dukes of Queensberry, now the House of 
Refuge for the Destitute ; Moray House, 
quondam mansion of the Earls of Moray, 
now the Normal School of the Free 
Church ; the Tolbooth, a curious edifice of 
1591 ; 3 Established churches, 4 Free 
churches, a United Presbyterian church, 
an Episcopalian church ; a public school of 
1878, erected at a cost of about £7400 ; and 
Queensberry Lodge, a genteel female 
reformatory erected in 1866. The parish 
includes also Holyrood and Arthur's Seat. 
Real property in 1880-81 of landward 
part, £364. Pop. of the whole, 9908. 

CANONGATE (NEW), quoad sacra parish 
in Canongate, Edinburgh. 

CANONMILLS, small old suburb on 
Water of Leith, contiguous to northern 
outskirts of New Town of Edinburgh. It 
originated in the erection of corn mills for 
the vassals of the canons of Holyrood ; it 
was then, and continued till modern times, 
about a mile from the city ; and it now 
presents a mixture of old features, par- 
ticularly large flour mills, with modern 
buildings. A public school for it and 
adjacent places was completed in 1880 at 
a cost of less than £7000, and has accom- 
modation for about 800 scholars. 

CANT, hill in Shotts parish, Lanarkshire. 

CANTICK. See Candick. 

CANTLAY, hill with large cairn in 
Fetteresso parish, Kincardineshire. 

CANTRAY, seat on river Nairn, in Croy 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

CANTSDAM, public school, with about 
274 scholars, in Beath parish, Fife. 

CANTY, bay, 3 miles east of North Ber- 
wick, Haddingtonshire. 

CANTYRE. See Kintyre. 

CAOL, sea-loch in Kilfinichen parish, 
Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

CAOLISPORT. See Killispoet. 

CAOLVALLOCH, hamlet in Weem par- 
ish, Perthshire. 

CAPEHOPE, streamlet and vale in 
Hounam parish, Roxburghshire. 

CAPEL, mountain at head of Glenesk, 
Forfarshire. 

CAPELAW, one of the Pentland Hills, 
in Colinton parish, Edinburghshire. 

CAPEL FELL, mountain adjacent to 
source of Ettrick river, on south-west 
verge of Selkirkshire. 

CAPELRIG, seat in north of Mearns 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

CAPENOCH, seat and hill in Keir parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 



CAP 



75 



CAR 



CAPE WRATH, massive, bold, pyramidal 
headland, about 300 feet high, at north- 
western extremity of mainland of Scotland. 
A lighthouse is on it, erected in 1828 at a 
cost of £14,000, and shows a revolving 
light visible at the distance of 25 nautical 
miles. 

CAPPLA, headstream of the Ae, Dum- 
friesshire. 

CAPRINGTON, castellated seat about a 
mile west of Riccarton, Ayrshire. 

CAPUTH, village in Perthshire, and par- 
ish partly also in Forfarshire. The village 
stands on the Tay, 5 miles south-east of 
Dunkeld, and contains the parochial 
church. — The parish contains also the 
post office villages of Meikleour and 
Spittalfield, the villages of Craigie, Fun- 
garth, and Kincaimie, and part of the 
post town of Dunkeld ; and consists of a 
main body and 9 detached districts in 
Perthshire, and 3 detached districts in 
Forfarshire. The main body lies wholly 
in Stormont, and measures about 13 miles 
in length, and from 2 to 7 miles in breadth. 
The Perthshire detached districts are Bal- 
holmie, within Oargill ; Gormaek, within 
Kinloch ; Craigtown, within Kirkmichael ; 
South Bandirran, within Collace; and Logie, 
Cairns, Chapelton, Meadows, and Crofty, 
within Clunie ; and the Forfarshire de- 
tached districts are Balbeuchly, within 
Auchterhouse ; Broughty Castle, near 
Dundee ; and Fofarty, within Kinnettles. 
Acres in Perthshire, 18,922; in Forfar- 
shire, 567. Eeal property in 1880-81 
of the Perthshire parts, £19,722. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 2096 ; quoad sacra, all in 
Perthshire, 2031. The main body com- 
prises the greater part of the rich 
champaign of Stormont, and includes 
picturesque uplands to the north and the 
north-west. Roofing slate is worked, and 
limestone abounds. The chief seats are 
Delvine, Meikleour, Glendelvine, Snaigow, 
Stenton, Kincairney, and Billhead ; and 
the chief antiquities are cairns, Caledonian 
stone circles, Pictish forts, and Boman 
camps. There are 6 schools with accom- 
modation for 318 scholars. 

CARA, island about a mile south of 
Gigha, Argyleshire. Its circuit is about 3 
miles ; and its south end, called the Mull 
of Cara, is a mural rock 117 feet high, 
pierced with a large cave. Pop. 4. 

CARALDSTON, or CARESTON, parish, 
averagely 4J miles west of Brechin, For- 
farshire, ft has a post office under 
Brechin. Acres, 2085. Eeal property in 
1880-81, £2697. Pop. 194. The land 
lies around the confluence of the South 
Esk and the Noran, and has a deep, 
fertile soil. Caraldston or Careston 
Castle, an edifice chiefly of early part of 
15th century, is a seat of the Earl of 
Fife. The public school has about 55 
scholars. 
_ CARBERRY, hill and old baronial man- 
sion, 2 miles south-east of Musselburgh, 
Edinburghshire. The hill was the place 



of Queen Mary's surrender in 1567 ; and 
the mansion is the seat of Lord Elphin- 
stone. 

CARBERRY, farm, with supposed site of 
Koman station, in Dysart parish, Fife. 

CARBETH, seat in Killearn parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CARBETH - GUTHRIE, seat in Strath- 
blane parish, Stirlingshire. 

CARBOST, place on Loch Harport, Isle 
of Skye. It has a post office, with money 
order department, under Broadford, and a 
distillery. 

CARBROOK, seat in Dunipace parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CARBUDDO, or KIRKBUDDO, southern 
section of Guthrie parish, Forfarshire. 

CARBY, isolated hill, 2 miles south of 
Newcastleton, Roxburghshire. It has a 
circular camp with 8 concentric walls, 
and it commands an extensive panoramic 
view. 

CARDEN, mountain, 2218 feet high, in 
Kilbucho section of Broughton parish, 
Peeblesshire. 

CARDENDEN, village and glen in south 
of Auchterderran parish, Fife. The village 
stands 9-f miles east-north-east of Dun- 
fermline, and has a railway station. Pop. 
147. The glen is in the basin of Ore 
river, and is wide, unwooded, and fertile, 
and has rich substrata of coal. 

CARDERROCH, part of Cadder estate, 
in Cadder parish, Lanarkshire. 

CARDONALD, estate, with railway sta- 
tion and with site of picturesque old 
castle, 3 miles east of Paisley, Renfrew- 
shire. 

CARDONALD MILLS, village in vicinity 
of Cardonald station, Renfrewshire. 

CARDONESS, seat of Sir William Max- 
well, Bart., in Anwoth parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. Cardoness Castle, a tall 
ancient tower, is in its vicinity. 

CARDOWAN, place, with Boman Catholic 
chapel, near Stepps railway station, Lan- 
arkshire. 

CARDRONA, seat and railway station on 
the Tweed, 3J miles east-south-east of 
Peebles. 

CARDROSS, village and parish on north 
side of the Clyde in Dumbartonshire. The 
village stands 3 miles west-north-west of 
Dumbarton, and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Dumbartonshire, a railway 
station, a drill hall, an Established church, 
a Free church, and a public school with about 
150 scholars. Pop. 521. The parish contains 
also Benton town and part of Dumbarton, 
and is 7f miles long and 2\ miles broad. 
Acres, 8264. Real property in 1880-81, 
£27,189. Pop. , quoad civilia, 9365 ; quoad 
sacra, 1342. The surface includes the fine 
wooded promontory of Ardmore,rises gradu- 
ally from the Clyde and the Leven, and is 
bordered by a hill - ridge with extreme 
altitude of 943 feet. The seats are Ard- 
more, Keppoch, Bloomhill, and Camus- 
Eskan ; and a spot of great antiquarian 



CAR 



76 



CAR 



interest is the site of the castle in which 
King Robert Bruce died. There are public 
schools for 694 scholars, and enlargements 
of them for 460 are new. 

CARDROSS, seat in Port-of-Menteith 
parish, Perthshire. 

CARDRYNE, place in Kirkmaiden par- 
ish, Wigtonshire. It has a public school 
with about 88 scholars. 

CARESTON. See Caealdston. 

CARFIN, town and mansion on South 
Calder river, near Cleland, Lanarkshire. 
The town carries on much trade in connec- 
tion with rich surrounding mineral field, and 
has a post office under Motherwell, and arail- 
way station. Pop., with Cleekhimin, 1428. 

CARFRAE, farm, with site of ancient, 
large, circular fortification, in Garvald 
parish, Haddingtonshire. 

CARFRAE MILL, place, 5£ miles north- 
north-west of Lauder, Berwickshire. 

CARGEN, rivulet, running about 8 miles 
eastward to the Nith, in north-east of 
Kirkcudbrightshire. It enters the Nith 
at 3J miles south of Dumfries ; and the 
seats of Cargen and Cargenholm are on it 
near its mouth. 

CARGILL, village and parish on eastern 
border of Perthshire. The village stands 
near the Tay, J mile south-west of influx 
of the Isla, and 11J miles north-north-east 
of Perth ; and has a railway station, a 
parochial church, and a Free church. — The 
parish contains also the post office village 
of Burrelton, and the villages of Woodside 
and Wolfhill, and measures about 6-j miles 
by 3. Acres, 9495. Eeal property in 
1880-81, £12,997. Pop. 1348. The 
surface rises gradually for about a mile 
from the Tay, extends from rolling plain 
to Sidlaw Hills, and exhibits a charming 
appearance. Chief objects of interest are 
the quondam noble mansion of Stobhall,the 
ruins of an ancient dependency of Coupar 
Abbey, and vestiges of a Roman station. 
There are 2 public schools for 276 scholars, 
and an enlargement of one of them for 
143 is new. 

CARINGTON. See Caeeington. 

CARINISH, village on east side of North 
Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. It has a post 
office under Lochmaddy, an Established 
church, served by a minister on the Royal 
Bounty, and a Free church. Pop. 228. 

CARITY, rivulet, running about 9 miles 
eastward to the South Esk, at 3 miles 
north-north-east of Kirriemuir, Forfar- 
shire. 

CARLAVEROCK. See Caeelaveeock. 

CARLEBAR, seat near Barrhead, Ren- 
frewshire. 

CARLETON, bay, hill, and ruined old 
fortalice, in Colmonell parish, Ayrshire. 

CARLINTOOTH, mountain, 1801 feet 
high, on mutual border of Southdean and 
Castleton parishes, Roxburghshire. 

CARLINWARK, lake and seat adjacent 
to Castle-Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CARLOGIE, seat in Aboyne parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 



CARLONAN, cascade on Aray rivulet, 
near Inverary, Argyleshire. 

CARLOPS, village, 14 miles south of 
Edinburgh. It has a Free church. 

CARLOWAY, village in Lochs parish, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. It has a post 
office under Stornoway, and a Free church. 
Pop. 316. 

CARLOWS, cascade on the Tweed, in 
Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire. 

CARLTON, hill in Glasserton parish, 
"Wigtonshire. 

CARLUKE, town and parish in upper 
ward of Lanarkshire. The town stands 
near Caledonian Railway, adjacent to pic- 
turesque ravine, amid a fine tabular tract, 
19 J miles east-south-east of Glasgow. It 
dates from old times, went long into 
decay, and rose in modern times into well- 
built, pleasant, prosperous condition. It 
has a head post office with all depart- 
ments, a railway station, 2 bank- 
ing offices, 3 hotels, good waterworks, 
opened in January 1880; Established, 
Free, United Presbyterian, Original Seces- 
sion, Evangelical Union, and Roman 
Catholic churches, all modern or quite 
recent ; an evangelistic hall of 1879 ; a 
public school of 1877, for 600 scholars ; and 
a quondam parochial school, then con- 
verted into an infant school ; and it 
conducts much business in connection 
with a rich surrounding mineral field. 
Pop. 3867. — The parish contains also 
the villages of Braidwood, Law, Kilcad- 
zow, and Yieldshields. Its length is 8 
miles ; its greatest breadth 4^ miles ; its 
area 15,345 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £48,911. Pop. 8552. The south- 
western boundary is all traced by the 
Clyde, and the interior is traversed by 
little affluents along deep ravines. The 
tracts adjacent to the Clyde are low, rich 
lands, either alluvial or argillaceous, 
largely covered with orchards and woods ; 
the central tracts are plateau, averagely 
about 450 feet high, varied by roundish 
hills, and mostly under the plough ; and 
the north-eastern tracts are chiefly ascend- 
ing, bleak, barren moor. Mauldslie Castle 
and Milton Lockhart are chief residences ; 
and Hallbar, a square tower in a romantic 
dell, is the principal antiquity. An Estab- 
lished church of 1880, and a Free church 
of 1879, are in Law. 11 schools are in the 
parish, and have accommodation for 1315 
scholars. 

CARMACOUP, estate in Douglas parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CARMAN, hill-summit in Cardross par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. 

CARMEL, rivulet, running about 10 
miles south - westward to Irvine river, 
about 3 miles above Irvine town, Ayr- 
shire. 

CARMICHAEL, parish in upper ward of 
Lanarkshire. Its post town is Thankerton. 
Its length is nearly 6 miles ; its greatest 
breadth 5£ miles ; its area 11,314 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £9091. Pop. 770. 



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The surface includes part of Tinto 
Mountain, and descends thence, with 
much diversity of hill and vale, to the 
rivers Clyde and Douglas. The rocks 
include excellent coal and limestone. 
Carmichael House belonged to the Earl 
of Hyndford, and is now a seat of 
Sir W. C. J. Carmichael Anstruther, 
Bart. The public school has about 56 
scholars. 

CARMOUNT, moor and hill on mutual 
border of Dunnottar and Glenbervie par- 
ishes, Kincardineshire. 

CARMUNNOCK, village and parish on 
north-west border of Lanarkshire. The 
village stands 3J miles south-south-west of 
Rutherglen, and has a post office under 
Glasgow, a parochial church with 470 
sittings, and a public school with about 103 
scholars. Pop. 315. — The parish measures 
about 5 miles by 2, and comprises 3479 
acres. Eeal property in 1880-81, £7599. 
Pop. 722. The surface includes part of 
Cathkin Hill, commanding a most magni- 
ficent view, and is all beautifully diversi- 
fied with hill and dale. The seats are 
Cathkin House and Castlemilk, and the 
antiquities are remains of a Roman road 
and a Roman camp. 

CARMYLE, village on the Clyde, 4£ 
miles south-east of Glasgow. It is beauti- 
fully situated, and has a railway station. 
Pop. 484. 

CARMYLIE, parish, averagely 6J miles 
west-by-north of Arbroath, Forfarshire. 
It has a post office under Arbroath. Its 
length is about 5 miles ; its greatest breadth 
about 3f miles ; its area 7553 acres. Real 
property in 1880 - 81, £8838. Pop. 1137. 
The land consists of skirts and vales of 
south-eastern Sidlaws, presents no bold 
feature or lofty height, and, with excep- 
tion of one summit, is all under the 
plough. Flagstone quarries in it have 
been worked for several centuries, produce 
now about 150 tons of flags per day, and 
have a railway for carrying them to 
Arbroath. The seats are Guynd and 
Conansythe ; and the antiquities are 
vestiges and sites of cairns and Caledonian 
standing stones and forts. The churches 
are Established and Free. There are 3 
schools for 377 scholars, and 1 of them for 
120 is new. 

CARNA, small island in Loch Sunart, 
Argyleshire. Pop. 7. 

CARNABATTAN, lake in Kiltarlity par- 
ish, Inverness-shire. 

CARNAC, fosse of quondam Pictish fort, 
in Dunbarny parish, Perthshire. 

CARNACH, quoad sacra parish, compris- 
ing a narrow valley about 14 miles long, 
on south border of Ross-shire. Post town, 
Beauly. Pop. 296. 

CARNACLAISER, place, with public 
school, in Urray parish, Ross-shire. 

CARN-A-MAIREE, lofty mountain in 
Glenlyon, Perthshire. 

CARNAN, small affluent of the Etive, 
in Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 



CARNAN, sea-loch in north-east of 
South Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

CARNASOUG, mountain, 8 miles south- 
south-west of Kinlochewe, Ross-shire. 

CARNASSARY, ruined, notable histori- 
cal castle, in Kilmartin parish, Argyle- 
shire. 

CARNAVADDY, cavern, once the retreat 
of a notable bandit, in Benclybric, Suther- 
land. 

CARNBANE, mountain on north flank 
of Glenstrathfarrar, Inverness-shire. 

CARNBEE, parish, with church, 2f miles 
north-by-west of Pittenweem, Fife. It 
has a post office under Pittenweem. Its 
length is 4^ miles ; its greatest breadth 3^ 
miles ; its area 8396 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £14,816. Pop., quoad civilia, 
1057; quoad sacra, 982. A high hill- 
ridge extends through the middle from 
east to west, and commands very fine 
views. The section southward of the 
ridge is rich, highly cultivated land ; but 
the section northward lies high, and has 
an inferior soil. Coal, limestone, and 
sandstone are worked. Balcaskie, the 
seat of Sir Robert Anstruther, Bart., is a 
chief residence ; and Kellie Castle, once the 
seat of the Earl of Kellie, is now a farm- 
house. The churches are Established 
and Free, and there are 3 schools for 297 
scholars. 

CARNBO, place about 4 miles from Kin* 
ross. It has a post office under Kinross. 

CARNBROE (LOW), section of Mossend 
town, Lanarkshire. 

CARNBROE (NEW), section of Calder 
Ironworks town, Lanarkshire. 

CARNDEARG, lofty mountain in Fortin- 
gal parish, Perthshire. 

CARNEIL, hill in Carnock parish, Fife. 

CARNLIATH, one of the summits of 
Benygloe, in Blair- Athole, Perthshire. 

CARN-NAN-EUN, hill in north of Colon- 
say Island, Argyleshire. 

CARNOCK, village and parish on south- 
west border of Fife. The village stands 
3J miles west-north-west of Dunfermline, 
and has a post office under Dunfermline, 
a fine parochial church of 1840, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 86 
scholars. Pop. 303. — The parish contains 
also the villages of Cairneyhill and Gowk- 
hall, and the greater part of Oakley Iron- 
works. Its length is 3 miles ; its greatest 
breadth 2f miles ; its area 3492 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £5902. Pop. 1055. 
The surface is partly level, partly undu- 
lated and diversified, and partly occupied 
with considerable hills. Coal abounds, 
and ironstone and sandstone are found. 
The chief seats are Carnock House and 
Luskar, and the chief antiquity is the site 
of a Roman camp. John Erskine, author 
of the Institutes of the Law of Scotland, 
was a native ; and Thomas Gillespie, 
founder of the Relief Church, now part of 
the United Presbyterian Church, was par- 
ish minister. There are 3 schools, with 
accommodation for 512 scholars. 



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CARNOCE, estate in St. Ninians parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CARNOCE, burn, running about 6 miles 
north-eastward, partly through a deep 
chasm, to the Blane, at 2 miles south-west 
of Killearn, Stirlingshire. 

CARNOUSIE, seat in Forglen parish, 
Banffshire. 

CARNOUSTIE, town and quoad sacra 
parish on south-east coast of Forfarshire. 
The town stands 6 miles south-west of 
Arbroath ; is a sea-bathing resort, and a 
place of linen manufacture ; consists of 
Carnoustie proper and Lower Victoria, 
Bavensby, Newton, and Westhaven sub- 
urbs ; and has a head post office with all 
departments, a railway station, 2 banking 
offices, 4 hotels, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, and Original Secession 
churches, an Episcopalian church, founded 
in August 1880, and a public school with 
about 171 scholars. Pop., of the town 
proper, 2650 ; of the town and suburbs, 
3243 ; of the quoad sacra parish, 1999. 

CARNSALLOCH, estate in Kirkmahoe 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CARNTORKIE, one of the summits of 
Benygloe, in Blair-Athole parish, Perth- 
shire. 

CARNWATH, village and parish in upper 
ward of Lanarkshire. The village stands 
J mile east of a railway station of its own 
name, 26 miles south-south-west of Edin- 
burgh ; is partly old and partly recent ; 
adjoins an artificial mound, formerly forti- 
fied, and supposed to have been a defensive 
work in the cause of Bobert Bruce ; has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Lanarkshire, a 
banking office, a modern parochial church 
contiguous to fine remains of an ancient 
collegiate one, a Free church, a United 
Presbyterian church, and 2 public schools 
with about 217 scholars ; and gives to the 
family of Dalzell the title of earl, created 
in 1639, attainted in 1715, and restored in 
1823. Pop. 845. — The parish contains 
also the villages of Wilsontown, Braehead, 
Forth, Haywood, and Newbigging, and 
part of Carstairs Junction. Its length is 
8J miles ; its greatest breadth 1\ miles ; its 
area 30,446 acres. Beal property in 
1880-81, £42,726. Pop. 5831. Low, flat 
lands lie adjacent to the Clyde and the 
Medwin, yet have an elevation of about 
600 feet above sea-level ; and other lands 
are mostly plateau and low hill, nowhere 
higher than about 600 feet above the level 
of the low lands. Much is bare moor, and 
about one-half is bleak, wild, and unculti- 
vated. Coal, ironstone, and limestone are 
plentiful around Wilsontown. Carnwath 
House is a seat of Sir Simon M. Lockhart, 
Bart. ; and Cowthally Castle, now a ruin, 
was a seat of the noble family of Somer- 
ville. Established churches are at Forth 
and Haywood, a Free church is between 
Forth and Wilsontown, and a United Pres- 
byterian church is at Braehead. 8 schools 
for 1481 scholars are in the parish, and 



4 of them and enlargements for 967 are 
new. 

CAROLINE PARK, a seat of the Duke 
of Buccleuch, near Granton, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

CAROLINE PLACE, village in St. Mar- 
tins parish, Perthshire. 

CAROLSIDE, seat on the Leader, about 
a mile north of Earlston, Berwickshire. 

CARPOW, seat in Abernethy parish, 
Perthshire. 

CARR, burn, entering left side of the 
Dee, 2 miles above Castleton-Braemar, 
Aberdeenshire. It makes a pretty cascade. 

CARR, reef, with beacon, about 1^ mile 
from Fifeness, eastern extremity of Fife. 

CARR, seat of Sir Bobert P. Douglas, 
Bart., Perthshire. 

CARRADALE, hamlet, small bay, small 
peninsula, rocky sea cliff, and rivulet of 7 
miles entering the bay, 14 miles north-by- 
east of Campbelton, Argyleshire. The 
hamlet has a post office, with money order 
and telegraph departments, designated of 
Argyleshire, an iron pier of 1872, an Estab- 
lished church, and a public school. The 
peninsula contains ruins of a vitrified fort 
about 450 feet in circuit. The sea cliff 
is crowned with remains of a considerable 
old fortalice. 

CARRAIG, dangerous rock, unseen at 
high water, between Lismore and Mull 
Islands, Argyleshire. 

CARR BRIDGE, hamlet on Dulnain 
river, 24J miles south-east of Inverness. 
It has a post office, with money order 
department, under Aviemore, an inn, and a 
Free church. 

CARRICE, southern district of Ayrshire. 
It measures about 32 miles by 20 ; has 
mostly a broken, hilly surface, correspond- 
ing to its name, signifying ' a rock ; ' 
figures as an earldom in the history of 
the royal Bruces ; and continues to give 
the title of earl to the Prince of Wales. 

CARRICE, ancient and tolerably entire 
castle on west side of/ Loch Gail, Argyle- 
shire. It dates at leist from the end of 
fifth century, and belonged to the Crown, 
but was held by the Earl of Argyle as 
hereditary keeper. A place adjacent to it 
has a post office of Carrick, under Greenock. 

CARRICE, seat in Eday Island, Orkney. 

CARRIDEN, parish on coast of Linlith- 
gowshire. It contains Blackness, the 
Grangepans suburb of Borrowstownness, 
and 3 hamlets, and its post town is 
Borrowstownness. Its length along the 
coast is 4| miles ; its greatest breadth is 
2 miles ; and its area is 2705 acres. Beal 
property in 1880-81, £8581. Pop. 1989. 
The surface rises rapidly from the shore, 
declines again to the south, includes part 
of Irongath Hills, and is aggregately very 
unequal. The rocks are mostly carboni- 
ferous, and include many seams of coal. 
Carriden House is the seat of Admiral Sir 
James Hope. Antoninus' Wall had its 
eastern termination on this coast. The 
parochial church stands about \\ mile east- 



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79 



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south-east of Borrowstownness, and public 
schools are there and in Grangepans. 

CARRINGTON, village and parish in 
south of Edinburghshire. The village 
stands 5 miles south-by-west of Dalkeith, 
and has a post office under Gorebridge. The 
parish measures A\ miles by 2§, and com- 
prises 4403 acres. Real property in 1880- 
81, £6347. Pop. 606. The surface is 
hilly, but is mostly arable. Whitehall 
House is a chief feature. The churches 
are Established and Free, the latter serving 
also for Temple parish ; and the public 
school has accommodation for 130 scholars. 

CARROL, abrupt precipice overhanging 
Loch Brora, in Clyne parish, Suther- 
landshire. 

CARRON, daugh in Aberlour parish, 
and hill partly also in Inveraven parish, 
Banffshire. 

CARRON, meadow-bog of about 500 
acres, on plateau near the centre of Lennox 
Hills, Stirlingshire. 

CARRON, river issuing from Carron bog 
and running about 20 miles eastward to 
the Forth, at Grangemouth. Its banks 
have been the scene of many memorable 
events, and are famous in song for their 
beauty. 

CARRON, rivulet, running about 9 miles 
southward to the Nith, in vicinity of 
Carronbridge, Dumfriesshire. It is crossed, 
near the foot, by a very fine railway 
viaduct. 

CARRON, rivulet, running about 7 miles 
eastward to the sea, at Stonehaven, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

CARRON, sea-loch in south-west of Boss- 
shire. It commences at influx of Carron 
river ; goes 8 miles south-westward, with 
average width of less than a mile ; expands 
suddenly to width of about 2\ miles ; sends 
off north-north-eastward a branch called 
Loch Kishorn ; and proceeds 7 miles south- 
westward to the sea, with average width 
of 3 miles. 

CARRON, small river, running about 16 
miles south-westward, forming a chain of 
small lakes, and falling into head of Loch 
Carron, Boss-shire. 

CARRON, station on Strathspey railway, 
3J miles south-west of Aberlour, Banffshire. 
It has a post office, called Carron Station, 
under Craigellachie. 

CARRONBRIDGE, village on Carron 
rivulet. If mile north-west of Thomhill, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a post office under 
Thomhill, and a railway station. 

CARRONBRIDGE, place on Carron river, 
near Denny, Stirlingshire. It has a post 
office under Denny. 

CARRONHALL, village on Carron river, 
in Larbert parish, Stirlingshire. Pop. 313. 

CARRON IRONWORKS, vast iron- 
foundry on river Carron, 1J mile north- 
north-east of Falkirk, Stirlingshire. It 
was projected in 1760; is now, and has 
long been, the largest foundry in Europe ; 
employs about 2000 men ; and has a post 
office, simply designated Carron, under 



Larbert, and a United Presbyterian church 
of 1881. 

CARRONSHORE, village on Carron river, 
2 miles west of Grangemouth. It is con- 
nected with Carron ironworks by a double- 
line railway, and it has a post office under 
Falkirk, an Established church, projected 
in 1876, and a public school with about 
236 scholars. Pop. 962. 

CARRON (WEST), village, with iron- 
works, on river Carron, in Larbert and 
Falkirk parishes, Stirlingshire. Pop. 902. 

CARROY, small sea - loch, projecting 
north-eastward from Loch Bracadale, in 
Skye. 

CARRUCHAN, seat in Troqueer parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CARRUTH, seat in Kilmalcolm parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

CARRUTHERS, old parish, now part of 
Middlebie, Dumfriesshire. 

CARRUTHERSTOWN, place, 3 miles 
from Kirtlebridge, Dumfriesshire. It has 
a post office under Lockerby. 

CARRY BLAIR, place, with ancient 
sculptured obelisk, in Eddertoun parish, 
Boss-shire. 

CARSAIG, place, with two grand natural 
arches, between Lochbuy mouth and 
Innimore head, on south coast of Mull 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CARSE, bay in Kirkbean parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

CARSE, seat and hill in Bescobie parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CARSEBRIDGE, coal-field in Alloa parish, 
Clackmannanshire. 

CARSEBURN, village in Forfar parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CARSECREUCH, ancient castle, once the 
seat of the Earls of Stair, in Old Luce 
parish, "Wigtonshire. 

CARSEGILL, seat in Westerkirk parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CARSEGOWNIE, transmuted oldfortified 
seat in Aberlemno parish, Forfarshire. 

CARSE GRANGE, small village in Errol 
parish, Perthshire. 

CARSE OF CLACKMANNAN, section of 
Carse of Forth within Clackmannanshire. 

CARSE OF FALKIRK, section of Carse 
of Forth, from Airth in Stirlingshire to 
Borrowstownness in Linlithgowshire. 

CARSE OF FORTH, low, flat, alluvial 
land along both sides of the Forth, from 
foot of the Grampians to the heights of 
Carriden, in the counties of Perth, Clack- 
mannan, Stirling, and Linlithgow. 

CARSE OF GOWRIE, low, flat, alluvial 
tract along north side of the Tay, from base 
of Kinnoul Hill, in Perthshire, to vicinity 
of Dundee, Forfarshire. It seems to have 
lain under water till far into the human 
period ; and it includes some low eminences, 
now called Inches, which seem to have 
been islands. 

CARSE OF KINNEIL, terminal part of 
Carse of Forth, around Borrowstownness, 
Linlithgowshire. 

CARSE OF STIRLING section of Carse 



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of Forth from Craigforth to Airtb? in 
Stirlingshire. 

CARSETHORN, village in KirWS>^i 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CARSK, place, 13 miles north-nolfch- 
west of Lairg, in Sutherland. 

CARSKEY, seat and bay in Southend 
parish, Argyleshire. 

CARSLOGIE, old seat in Cupar parish, 
Fife. 

CARSPHAIRN, village and parish on 
northern border of Kirkcudbrightshire. 
The village stands onDeugh rivulet, about 
12 miles north-north-west of New Gal- 
loway, and has a post office under Dairy, 
a hotel, a parochial church with about 400 
sittings, and a public school with about 76 
scholars. — The parish measures about 15J 
miles by 10, and comprises 54,624 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £11,339. Pop. 
484. The western border includes part of 
Loch Doon, and the interior is much 
streaked with upland streams, exhibits 
great diversity of glen and mountain 
scenery, culminates on Cairnsmuir at 2612 
feet above sea-level, contains a well- 
preserved Roman camp and a well-pre- 
served reach of Roman road, and abounds 
in memories of the Covenanters. There is 
a Free church for Carsphairn and Dalmel- 
lington. 

CARSTAIRS, village and parish in upper 
ward of Lanarkshire. The village stands 
about a mile north of Carstairs Junction, 
occupies the site of the Caledonian and 
Roman town Coria, and has a post office 
under Lanark, a parochial church, and a 
public school with about 170 scholars. 
Pop. 528. — The parish contains also 
Ravenstruther village and most of Car- 
stairs Junction. Its length is 1\ miles ; 
its greatest breadth 3 miles ; its area 
9820 acres. Real' property in 1880-81, 
£15,737. Pop. 1955. The Clyde bounds 
the south-east end, and Mouse rivulet 
crosses the interior. The land is diversified 
by multitudes of sand knolls, of exceedingly 
various shape and size. Carstairs House, 
adjacent to the Clyde, is a chief feature. 

CARSTAIRS JUNCTION, viUage, with 
railway station at meeting-point of rail- 
ways from Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dolphin- 
ton, and Carlisle, 27^ miles south-west-by- 
south of Edinburgh. It has a post office de- 
signated of Lanarkshire. It sprang entirely 
from the formation of the Caledonian Rail- 
way ; and it has ample buildings and 
appliances for accommodating and re- 
arranging railway trains. Pop. 888. 

CART, river, formed by conflux of Black 
and White Carts, and running about 7 
furlongs northward to the Clyde, at 6J miles 
west-north-west of Glasgow. 

CART, burn, running to the Lossie, in 
Dallas parish, Elginshire. 

CART (BLACK), small river, running 
about 9 'miles north-eastward from Castle- 
Semple Loch to confluence with White 
Cart, Renfrewshire. 

CARTERBAR, east shoulder of Carter 



Fell, on mutual border of Roxburghshire 
and England. It is traversed by the 
public road from Jedburgh to Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. 

CARTER FELL, mountain, 1815 feet 
high, one of the Cheviots, on mutual border 
of Roxburghshire and England, 9J miles 
south - south - east of Jedburgh. The 
famous skirmish of 1575, sung as the 
'Raid of the Red Swire,' was fought on it. 

CARTERHAUGH, meadow at confluence 
of the Ettrick and the Yarrow, Selkirk- 
shire. It is the scene of the fairy ballad 
of 'Tamlane.' 

CARTLAND, village in north-west of 
Lanark parish, Lanarkshire. It has a 
public school. 

CARTLAND CRAGS, great chasm, tra- 
versed by lowmost reach of Mouse rivulet, 
in north-west vicinity of Lanark. It ex- 
tends fully f mile, in curved line, from 
east - north - east to west - south - west ; 
appears to be a rent through a tabular hill, 
caused by vertical earthquake stroke ; is 
flanked by perpendicular, fissured, rugged 
cliffs, with maximum height of about 400 
feet on one side, and more than 2Q0 feet 
on the other ; and shows correspondence 
of the two sides, face to face and part to 
part, in almost every crack and salience. 

CARTSBURN, quoad sacra parish in east 
end of Greenock,Renfrewshire. Pop. 10,639. 

CARTSDYKE, or CRAWFURDSDIKE, 
eastern suburb of Greenock, Renfrewshire. 
It was originally a separate village ; and it 
became a burgh of barony, and a rival to 
Greenock ; but it now stands compact with 
that town, and is part of the parliamentary 
burgh. It has a railway station, a Free 
church, and a large public school. 

CART (WHITE), river, rising in south- 
east extremity of Renfrewshire, and run- 
ning about 19 miles deviously, past Busby, 
Pollockshaws, and Paisley, to a confluence 
with the Black Cart. 

CARTY, harbour on Cree river, \\ mile 
south-south-east of Newton-Stewart, Wig- 
tonshire. 

CARVY, small affluent of the Don, in 
Strathdon parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CARWOOD, seat and burn in Big-gar 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CASH FEUS, section of Strathmiglo 
town, Fife. Pop. 698. 

CASHOGLE, estate in Durisdeer parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CASKIEBEN, seat, 9 miles north-west- 
by-west of Aberdeen. 

CASSENCARRIE, old building, with 
tower, in Kirkmabreck parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

CASSILIS, railway station and mansion, 
6J miles south of Ayr, Ayrshire. The 
mansion is partly modern, but chiefly an 
edifice of 15th century, belongs to the 
Marquis of Ailsa, and is the scene of the 
famous traditional story of Sir John Faa. 
The Kennedys of Dunure have been Earls 
of Cassilis in the peerage of Scotland since 
1511, and acquired the Marquisate of Ailsa 



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in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 
1831. 

CASSLEY, small river, running 15 miles 
south -south-eastward to the Oikell, near 
Rosehall, at the boundary between Suther- 
land and Ross-shire. 

CASTLE, village in New Cumnock 
parish, Ayrshire. 

CASTLE, small bay in Portpatrick 
parish, Wigton shire. 

CASTLE, bay in Barra Island, Outer 
Hebrides. 

CASTLEBANK, seat near Lanark, Lanark- 
shire. 

CASTLEBAY, place in Barra Island, 
Outer Hebrides. It has a post office under 
Lochmaddy. 

CASTLE - CAMPBELL, or CASTLE- 
GLOOM, ruined, strong, noble fortalice, 
about a mile north-north-west of Dollar, 
Clackmannanshire. It crowns a round 
isolated mound at top of a wooded ravine ; 
it dates from some period unknown to 
record ; and it became the property of the 
Earls of Argyle in 1493, and was burnt by 
the Marquis of Montrose in 1645. 

CASTLECARY, railway station, and re- 
mains of a principal station on Antoninus' 
Wall, 7 miles west-south-west of Falkirk, 
Stirlingshire. 

CASTLE-CLANYARD, ruined old seat in 
Kirkmaiden pa ish, "Wigtonshire. 

CASTLE - CLUGGY, remains of strong 
ancient fortalice in Monivaird parish, 
Perthshire. 

CASTLE - COEFFIN, mined ivy - clad 
ancient fortalice, supposed to be Danish, 
on Lismore Island, Argyleshire. 

CASTLE - COLE, curious Scandinavian 
tower, with uncemented walls 11 feet 
thick, in Clyne parish, Sutherland. 

CASTLE-CRAIG, seat of Sir William H. 
G-. Carmichael, Bart., in Kirkurd parish, 
Peeblesshire. 

CASTLE-CRAIG, fragment of seat of the 
Bishops of Ross in Resolis parish, Ross- 
shire. 

CASTLE-CRAIG, place, with remains of 
fort, adjacent to Tillicoultry, Clackmannan- 
shire. 

CASTLE-CRAIG, rising ground, with re- 
mains of small Roman camp, in West Calder 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

CASTLE-CRAIGNISH. See Craignish. 

CASTLE-DANGEROUS. See Douglas. 

CASTLE-DONNAN, ruined ancient forta- 
lice in Kintail parish, Ross-shire. 

CASTLE-DOUGLAS, town in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, 195 miles south-west of Dum- 
fries. It sprang from a hamlet called 
Causewayend or Carlinwark, and took its 
present name in 1792, with allusion to the 
famous Douglas Castle of Thrieve, 1J mile 
to the west. It rose suddenly to import- 
ance, sustained a check by failure of cotton 
manufacture, flourished speedily again, 
and is now the main centre of business for 
eastern Galloway. It stands on a gentle 
declivity adjacent to Carlinwark Loch ; 
consists of spacious streets, crossing one 



ant at right angles, with gardens in 

the ear; and presents an airy, pleasant, 
wel 'It appearance. It has a head post 
offic with all departments, a railway 
static, 2 banking offices, 3 hotels, a town 
hall, an Established church, 2 Free churches, 
United Presbyterian, Episcopalian, and 
Roman Catholic churches, a Mechanics' 
Institute, 2 public schools with about 417 
scholars, and public waterworks of 1880. 
Pop. 2565. 

CASTLE - DOWNREAY, ruined ancient 
seat of the Mackays, in Reay parish, Caith- 
ness. 

CASTLEDYKES, site of ancient castle of 
the Comyns, on the Nith, a little south of 
Dumfries. 

CASTLEDYKES, site of Roman station, 
on the Clyde, in Carstairs parish, Lanark- 
shire. 

CASTLEFAIRN, headstream of the Cairn, 
in Glencairn parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CASTLE-FORBES, seat of Lord Forbes, 
on the Don, in Keig parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

CASTLE FRASER, seat, 2 miles south- 
west of Kemnay, Aberdeenshire. 

CASTLE-GILMOUR, farm, with impor- 
tant minerals, in Sanquhar parish, Dum- 
friesshire. 

CASTLE - GIRNIGOE, ruined ancient 
stronghold of the Earls of Caithness, on 
the coast 3 miles north-east of Wick, 
Caithness. 

CASTLE-GLOOM. See Castle-Campbell. 

CASTLEGOWER, farm,with vitrified fort, 
in Buittle parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CASTLE-GRANT, a seat of the Earl of 
Seafield, near Grantown, Elginshire. 

CASTLE - HAYNE, vestige of strong 
ancient fortalice, on coast of Borgue par- 
ish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CASTLEHILL, village in Carluke parish, 
Lanarkshire. Pop. 485. 

CASTLEHILL, place, with public school, 
in Kippen parish, Stirlingshire. 

CASTLEHILL, south-western section of 
Inverness. It has a post office under 
Inverness. 

CASTLEHILL, bay, harbour, and ship- 
ment place of paving-flag, in Olrig parish, 
Caithness. 

CASTLE -HILL, each of at least 46 
eminences in Scotland, now or formerly 
crowned by a castle. 

CASTLE-HUNTLY, grand mansion, once 
the seat of the Earls of Strathmore, in 
Longforgan parish, Perthshire. 

CASTLE-ISLAND, islet, famous in the 
history of Queen Mary, in Loch Leven, 
Kinross-shire. 

CASTLE-ISLAND, islet near Eigg, Inner 
Hebrides. 

CASTLE - KENNEDY, railway station, 
post office, lake, and ruined noble man- 
sion, in Inch parish, Wigtonshire. The 
station is 3 miles east-by-south of Stran- 
raer. The post office is designated Castle- 
Kennedy Station, Wigtonshire. The lake 
measures 2 miles by \\, has picturesque 



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82 



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features, contains two islets, and is nearly 
bisected by two peninsulas. The mansion 
was built in the time of James VI., 
belonged to the Earls of Cassilis, passed 
to the Earls of Stair, and was accidentally 
burnt in 1715. The parochial church of 
Inch, and a public school with about 90 
scholars, are adjacent to the lake. 

CASTLE-KILCHURN. See Kilchurn. 

CASTLE-KNAP, vestige of ancient State 
prison, in Lunan parish, Forfarshire. 

CASTLE -LACHLAN, seat in Strachur 
parish, Argyleshire. 

CASTLELAW, lofty conical hill, with 
vestige of large Scandinavian fort, and 
with extensive view, 2 miles south of 
Forgandenny, Perthshire. 

CASTLELAW, lofty hill, one of the Lam- 
mermoors, with large circular camp, in 
Yester parish, Haddingtonshire. 

CASTLELAW, eminence, with vestige of 
ancient camp, in Glencorse parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

CASTLELAW, seat in Coldstream parish, 
Berwickshire. 

CASTLELAW, hill, with ancient Cale- 
donian fort, in Yetholm parish, Roxburgh- 
shire. 

CASTLE-LEATHERS, estate in Inverness 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

CASTLE-LEOD, noble mansion, long a 
seat of the Earls of Cromarty, and now 
belonging to the Duchess of Sutherland, 
at head of Strathpeffer, Ross-shire. 

CASTLE LOCH, lake of more than 200 
acres, adjacent to Lochmaben, Dumfries- 
shire. It is rich in both kinds and quan- 
tities of fish, and contains a peculiar 
species called the vendace ; and it has, 
on a peninsula, the remains of the royal 
castle of the Bruces. 

CASTLE-LYON, quondam seat in Bor- 
rowstownness parish, Linlithgowshire ; also 
quondam name of Castle-Huntly, Perth- 
shire. 

CASTLE-MAINS, seat near Lesmahagow, 
Lanarkshire. 

CASTLE-MAOIL, ruined ancient strong 
fortalice, adjacent to Kyleakin, Inverness- 
shire. 

CASTLE-MEARNAIG, ancient fortalice, 
surmounting conical rock, on Kingairloch 
coast, opposite Lismore, Argyleshire. 

CASTLE MENZIES, seat of Sir Robert 
Menzies, Bart., near the Tay, in Weem 
parish, Perthshire. 

CASTLEMILK, seat in St. Mungo par- 
ish, Dumfriesshire. 

CASTLEMILK, seat in Carmunnock par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. Queen Mary slept in it 
on the night before the battle of Langside. 

CASTLE NA-COIR, ruined old baronial 
fortalice, near mouth of Cassley river, on 
south border of Sutherland. 

CASTLE -NEWE, seat of Sir Charles 
Forbes, on upper part of Don river, Aber- 
deenshire. 

CASTLE - O'ER, Saxon camp, formerly 
thought to be Roman, in Eskdalemuir 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 



CASTLE-POINT, low wooded headland 
at eastern extremity of Roseneath parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

CASTLE-QUA, quondam fort on a brink 
of Cartland Crags, Lanarkshire. It dated 
from the Caledonian times, and may have 
been held by Sir William Wallace at his 
assault on Lanark. 

CASTLE-RACHAL, ruined Scandinavian 
fortalice on north-west side of Lismore 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CASTLE - RANKINE, affluent of the 
Carron, with industrial works, in Denny 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

CASTLE-ROY, remnant of large, strong, 
ancient fortalice in Abernethy parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

CASTLES, lofty hill, with ancient camp, 
in Yester parish, Haddingtonshire. 

CASTLES, pinnacled cliff, pierced with 
spacious cave, on south side of Ulva 
Island, Arayleshire. 

CASTLE-SEMPLE, lake and mansion in 
Lochwinnoch parish, Renfrewshire. The 
lake was reduced by drainage from up- 
wards of 600 acres to about 200 acres ; has 
3 wooded islets, and richly embellished 
cincture ; contains several kinds of fish, 
and is frequented by waterfowl. The 
mansion is on its west side, near the foot, 
and is a modern edifice on site of an 
ancient one. 

CASTLE - SHUNA, ruined ancient fort- 
alice, on Shuna Island, in Loch Linnhe, 
Argyleshire. 

CASTLE - SINCLAIR, ruined ancient 
fortalice of the Earls of Caithness, adja- 
cent to Castle-Girnigoe, on Wick coast, 
Caithness. 

CASTLE-SPIRITIN, remnant of small 
baronial keep on upper part of river Ness, 
Inverness-shire. 

CASTLE-SPYNIE, ancient, partly vitri- 
fied fort on rocky peak of southern screen 
of Loch Beauly, Inverness-shire. 

CASTLE-STALKER, unroofed hunting- 
seat of King James IV., afterwards resi- 
dence of the Stewarts of Appin, on insu- 
lated rock, off mouth of Appin Bay, 
Argyleshire. 

CASTLE-STALKER, ruined old fortalice, 
picturesque and conspicuous, on Eriskay 
Island, Outer Hebrides. 

CASTLE-STEWART, lake and neglected 
seat in Glasserton parish, Wigtonshire. 

CASTLE-STEWART, ruined old seat in 
Penningham parish, Wigtonshire. 

CASTLE-STRIPE, streamlet and traces of 
old castle in Inveraven parish, Banffshire. 

CASTLE-STUART, a seat of the Earl of 
Moray in Petty parish, Inverness-shire. 

CASTLE-SWIN, ruined ancient strong 
fortalice on Loch Swin, North Knapdale 
parish, Argyleshire. 

CASTLE-TIRIM, ruined strong ancient 
fortalice on Loch Moydart, Inverness-shire. 

CASTLETON, parish, containing the post 
office villages of Newcastleton and Riccar- 
ton, in south of Roxburghshire. It 
adjoins England, figures in history and in 



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popular nomenclature as Liddesdale, is 
the country of the ' Dandy Dinmont ' of 
Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering, and 
contains many scenes like that of Dandy 
Dinmont's farm, much modified by modern 
improvement. Its length is about 20 
miles ; its greatest breadth 14 miles ; its 
area 67,858 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £29,262. Pop. 2256. The border 
districts, excepting the south, are moun- 
tainous ; the interior districts are mostly 
hilly ; a large proportion of the whole is 
moorish, bleak, and wild ; and the inhabi- 
ted parts are chiefly low tracts along 
Hermitage and Liddle rivers. Hermitage 
Castle, notable both in structure and in 
history, is a prominent feature ; and 
monuments of the Caledonian, the Roman, 
and the feudal times are numerous. The 
churches are Established, Free, and Uni- 
ted Presbyterian. There are 4 schools for 
418 scholars, and 2 of them and enlarge- 
ments for 170 are new. 

CASTLETON, small village in Borthwick 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

CASTLETON, farm, with ruins of ancient 
royal palace, in Fordoun parish, Kincar- 
dineshire. 

CASTLETON, estate, with vestiges of 
archi-episcopal mansion of 14th century, 
in Muckart parish, Perthshire. 

CASTLETON, hill, with site of ancient 
castle, in Avoch parish, Ross-shire. 

CASTLETON-BRAEMAR, village at influx 
of the Cluny to the Dee, 60 miles west-by- 
south of Aberdeen. It is a tourists' centre 
for exploring the Dee's upper basin and 
the Cairngorm Mountains ; it adjoins the 
ruin of an ancient fortalice of the Earls of 
Mar, said to have been originally a bunting- 
seat' of Malcolm Canmore ; it is near a 
castellated edifice of 1720, long used by a 
Government garrison ; and it has a post 
office of Braemar, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Aberdeen, 
2 hotels, Established, Free, and Roman 
Catholic Churches, and a public school. 
Pop., with adjacent part of quoad sacra 
parish, 859. 

CASTLETON (NEW). See Newcastle- 

TON. 

CASTLETOWN, town at head of Dunnet 
Bay, 5 miles east of Thurso, Caithness. It 
is modern, contains some handsome houses, 
conducts a large trade in working and ex- 
porting pavement flags, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
department, under Thurso, a banking office, 
Established, Free, and Original Secession 
churches, and a public school with about 
113 scholars. Pop. 932. 

CASTLE-URQUHART. See Ubquhart, 
Inverness-shire. 

CASTLE- VARRICH, ruined fortalice on 
small promontory near head of Kyle of 
Tongue, Sutherland. 

CASTLE-W ALLANS, vestige of old fort- 
alice, said to have been a refuge of Sir 
William Wallace, on the Clyde, in Carluke 
parish, Lanarkshire. 



CASTLEWIGG, seat in Whithorn parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

CASTRAGOE, harbour in Birsay parish, 
Orkney. 

CASTRAMOUNT, ancient small moat in 
Girthon parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CATACOL, hamlet at mouth of Glen- 
catacol, Arran Island, Buteshire. Tradi- 
tion says that a battle was fought on its 
site between Fingal and his enemies. 

CATCUNE, hamlet and ruined fortalice, 
in Borthwick parish, Edinburghshire. 

CATERLINE, village and ancient parish 
in Kincardineshire. The village stands on 
the coast, 5 miles north - north - east of 
Bervie, and has a pier and an Episcopalian 
church. The parish is now united to 
Kinneff. 

CATERTHUN, hills, with remains of 
very strong and extensive ancient Cale- 
donian fortifications, 4J miles north-west 
of Brechin, Forfarshire. 

CATFIRTH, voe or bay on southern 
boundary of Nesting parish, Shetland. 

CATHCART, parish, chiefly in Renfrew- 
shire, but partly in Lanarkshire, and in- 
cluding parts of the southern suburbs of 
Glasgow. It has a post office of its own 
name under Glasgow, and contains the 
Queen's Park, the town of Crosshill, the vil- 
lages of New Cathcart, Old Cathcart, Cross- 
myloof, Langside, Camphill, Prospect Hill, 
Florida, Clarkston-Toll, Hangingshaw , Mill- 
bridge, Netherlee, and part of the town 
of Busby. Its length is 4 miles ; its greatest 
breadth about 2 miles ; its area, in Renfrew- 
shire, 2667 acres ; in Lanarkshire, 1397 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £86,113 and 
£4381. Pop. , quoad civilia, 12, 023 and 188 ; 
quoad sacra, 7242 and 73. The northern 
section is a charming expanse of rolling 
landscape, very rich in both natural beauty 
and artificial embellishment ; but the 
southern section is somewhat hilly and 
comparatively bleak and barren. A tract 
of much interest is the battlefield of Lang- 
side ; and an object of much note is Cath- 
cart Castle, a place of conflict in the times 
of Wallace and. Bruce, and long the seat of 
the distinguished family of its own name, 
but now a diminished ivy-clad ruin. The 
Cathcart family acquired the title of 
baron in the peerage of Scotland about 
1447, and the titles of viscount and earl in 
the peerage of the United Kingdom in 
respectively 1807 and 1814. Their heredi- 
tary estates were alienated in 1546, but 
partly repurchased within the present 
century. Their present seat in the parish 
is Cathcart House. Other seats are Aiken- 
head, Langside, Netherlee, Camphill, and 
numerous villas. The churches are 3 
Established, 4 Free, and 4 United Pres- 
byterian. There are 10 schools for 1686 
scholars, and 2 of them for 700 are new. 

CATHCART (NEW), village on the White 
Cart, 2J miles south of Glasgow. It was 
founded about the beginning of present 
century. Pop. 689. 

CATHCART (OLD), village on the White 



CAT 



84 



CAW 



Cart, near New Cathcart. It contains 
Cathcart parochial church, a fine edifice. 
Pop. , with Holmhead and Braehead, 1003. 

CATHERINEFIELD, place in Dumfries 
parish, Dumfriesshire. It has a public 
school with about 93 scholars. 

CATHERINE'S (ST.), ferry on Loch Fyne, 
opposite Inverary, Argyleshire. 

CATHKIN, seat in Carmunnock parish, 
and hill on mutual border of Carmunnock 
and Rutherglen parishes, Lanarkshire. The 
hill commands a magnificent view. 

CATHLAW, seat and hill in Torphichen 
parish, Linlithgowshire. 

CATLAW, mountain, 2196 feet high, in 
Kingoldrum parish, Forfarshire. 

CATRAIL, military work, generally sup- 
posed to have been constructed by the 
Romanized Caledonians as a defence 
against the Saxons, and extending from 
vicinity of Galashiels southward to vicinity 
of western end of Cheviot Hills. It con- 
sisted of a fosse and a double rampart from 
20 to 24 feet broad, aided at intervals by 
hill - forts ; and it is still distinct or 
traceable in several parts. 

CATRINE, town and quoad sacra parish 
in Ayrshire. The town stands on Ayr river, 
2 miles east - south - east of Mauchline ; 
was founded in 1787, as a seat of cotton 
manufacture ; is built on a regular plan, 
with central square and streets crossing 
one another at right angles ; and has a post 
office, with money order department, under 
Mauchline, a banking office, a hotel, Es- 
tablished, Free, United Presbyterian, and 
Evangelical Union churches, and a public 
school with about 316 scholars. Pop. of 
both town and parish, 2638. Catrine House, 
in the vicinity, figures in the biography of 
Prof. Dugald Stewart and the poet Burns. 

CATSTANE, monumental stone, com- 
memorative of a battle between Kenneth 
and Constantine in 995, on Almond river, 
in Kirkliston parish, Edinburghshire. 

CATTER, seat in Kilmaronock parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

CAULDCHAPEL, farm, with ancient 
camp and tumulus, in Wandell parish, 

CAULDCLEUCH, mountain, 1996 feet 
high, on mutual border of Teviothead and 
Castleton parishes, Roxburghshire. 

CAULDHAME, hamlet in section of 
Kippen parish, within Perthshire. 

CAULDRON, lake in Dryfesdale parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CAULDSHIELDS, lake in section of Gala- 
shiels parish, within Roxburghshire. 

CAULDSTANE, pass through Pentland 
Hills, south-west of East Cairn, Edin- 
burghshire. 

CAUSEWAYEND, railway station, 5J 
miles south - west of Borrowstownness, 
Linlithgowshire. 

CAUSEWAYEND, place, with public 
school, in Mid-Calder parish, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

CAUSEWAYHEAD, village, 1J mile north 
of Stirling. It has a post office under 



Stirling, a railway station, and a public 

school with about 110 scholars. Pop. 370. 

CAUSEWAYSIDE, suburb of Tollcross, 

CAUSEWAY-STONES, village in Blantyre 
parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 464. 

CAVA, island in Orphir parish, Orkney. 

CAVENS, seat in Kirkbean parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. A castellated residence of 
the Regent Morton stood on a spot near. 

CAVE OF GOLD, basaltic cavern near 
Loch Staffin, Isle of Skye. 

CAVE OF THE KETTLE, coast cavern, 
with vertical shaft discharging lofty jet 
d'eau, at Tighary Point, in North Uist, 
Outer Hebrides. 

CAVERS, parish, containing the post 
office village of Denholm, in Roxburgh- 
shire. Its length is nearly 12 miles ; its 
breadth, in some parts, not much more 
than 2 miles ; its area 18,254 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £15,896. Pop. 1318. 
The Teviot bounds its north-west side, and 
the Rule its north-east end. The surface 
near these streams is partly rich alluvial 
land ; farther back is a beautiful as- 
semblage of undulation, dale, ravine, and 
hill, terminating in part of Ruberslaw 
Mountain ; in the extreme south, is mostly 
bleak, moorish, and mountainous. Cavers 
House is the only mansion. The churches 
are Established, Free, and Congregational. 
There are 3 schools for Cavers and Kirkton, 
with accommodation for 467 scholars, and 
2 of them and enlargements with accom- 
modation for 291 are new. 

CAVERS-CARRE, seat in Bowden parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

CAVERTON, village, i\ miles south- 
south-east of Kelso, Roxburghshire. It 
has a public school with about 56 scholars. 

CAVERTON EDGE, extensive moor near 
Caverton village, Roxburghshire. It was 
formerly used for the Kelso races. 

CAWDOR, village in Nairnshire, and 
parish partly also in Inverness-shire. The 
village stands 5J miles south-west-by-south 
of Nairn ; has a post office under Nairn , 
an Established church, a Free church, and 
a public school with about 99 scholars, 
and gives the titles of baron and earl to 
a branch of the family of Campbell. — The 
parish extends about 3J miles along Nairn 
river, varies in breadth there from about 
1 mile to 5 miles, and has an offset across 
Findhorn river to the extent of more than 
16 miles. Acres, in Nairnshire, 27,414 ; 
in Inverness-shire, 1952. Real property 
in 1880-81, £4500 and £599. Pop. 959 and 
111. The tract along the Nairn, to 
the breadth of about a mile, is cultivated 
plain, and the surface thence rises into 
ranges of considerable hills. Cawdor 
Castle, partly a grand structure of 14th 
century, is the seat of Earl Cawdor, was 
a hiding-place of Lord Lovat after the 
battle of Culloden, and is traditionally 
but foolishly alleged to have been the 
scene of the murder of King Duncan by 
Macbeth. The churches are Established 



CAW 



85 



CHA 



and Free, and there are 2 new public 
schools with accommodation for 176 
scholars. 

CAWPLA, burn and lake in Neilston 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

CEANNABIN, mountain in Durness par- 
ish, Sutherland. 

CEANNAMHARA, bold headland, cloven, 
shattered, and swarming with seafowl, at 
western extremity of Tyree Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

CEANNARD, lake on Grandtully Hill, 
Dull parish, Perthshire. 

CEANNARD, rivulet traversing Strath- 
ceannard, in Coigach district, Cromarty- 
shire. 

CEANNLOCH, rivulet entering head of 
Loch Roag, in Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CEAN- RESORT, mountain at head of 
Loch Resort, in Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CEATHRAMHGARBH, district between 
Loch Inchard and Loch Laxford, Edder- 
achyllis parish, Sutherland. 

CELLAR, headland in north-east of 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CELLARDYKE, fishing town contiguous 
to Anstruther, on south-east coast of Fife. 
It got its name from storage cellars for 
fish ; it forms part of the royal burgh of 
Kilrenny ; and it has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Anstruther, a banking office, and 
infant and female public schools with 
about 134 and 55 scholars. Pop. 2568. 

CERES, town and parish in east centre 
of Fife. The town stands on burn of its 
own name, 2J miles south-east of Cupar ; 
includes the suburbs of Bridgend and 
Glaidney ; carries on considerable manu- 
facture of brown linen ; and has a post 
office, with most departments, under Cupar, 
a public green, an Established church, 
a Free church, 2 United Presbyterian 
churches, a public school with about 184 
scholars, and the burial vault of the 
Earls of Crawford. Pop. 839. — The 
parish contains also the villages of Craig- 
rothie and Chance Inn, but excludes the 
suburb of Glaidney. Its length is 6^ 
mdes ; its greatest breadth 3f miles ; its 
area 10,075 acres. Real property in 1880- 
81, £17,541. Pop., quoad civilia, 2063; 
quoad sacra, 1963. The surface is 
pleasantly diversified, but mainly consists 
of fine valley screened by Tarvet Hill and 
Magus Moor. Limestone is largely worked, 
building stone is extensively quarried, 
and coal abounds^ but is not now worked. 
A basaltic colonnade is onNewbiggingfarm. 
Teasses and Edenwood are principal seats ; 
Craighall House and Struthers House are 
ruins ; and a tower about 50 feet high is 
on Scotstarvet estate. There are 4 schools 
for 497 scholars, and an enlargement of 
1 of them for 100 is new. 

CESSFORD, village and old castle in 
east of Roxburghshire. The village stands 
on burn of its own name, 6^ miles south- 
east of Jedburgh, and gives the titles of 
baron and marquis to the Duke of Rox- 



burghe. — The castle was the residence of 
the Duke of Roxburghe's ancestors ; 
figured in many events of the Border 
raids and warfare ; had a strength not 
much less than that of Dunbar and Fast 
Castles ; and is now represented by a 
ruined massive keep, with frightful 
dungeon. 

CESSNOCK, rivulet, running about 9 
miles north-north-westward to the Irvine, 
at 2 miles below Galston, Ayrshire. 

CHALMERS, quoad sacra parish in east- 
ern part of Glasgow. Pop. 4415. 

CHAMPFLEURIE, seat, 2| miles east of 
Linlithgow. 

CHANCE INN, village midway between 
Ceres and Cupar, Fife. 

CHANCE INN, place in Inverkeilor par- 
ish, Forfarshire. It has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Forfarshire. 

CHANLOCK, verdant round hill in Pen- 
pont parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CHANNELKIRK, parish in extreme 
north-west of Berwickshire. Post town, 
Lauder. Length, nearly 8 miles ; greatest 
breadth, 5 miles ; area, 14,191 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £8524. Pop. 607. 
The surface is an assemblage of hills and 
vales, among the Lammermoors, in upper 
part of basin of the Leader. The hills are 
mostly bleak and heathy, and the vales 
comprise about 3000 acres of arable land. 
Oxton village is in the south-east. The 
parochial church contains about 300 
sittings, and the public school has accom- 
modation for 169 scholars. 

CHANONRY, town and headland in 
Rosemarkie parish, Ross-shire. The town 
stands on the coast about h mile south- 
west of Rosemarkie burgh ; took the name 
of Chanonry from being the canonry and 
bishop's seat of Ross ; and was united to 
Rosemarkie burgh in the time of James 
II. , under the common name of Fortrose. 
The headland projects east-south-eastward 
to vicinity of Fort-George, contracts Moray 
Firth there to a width of 1J mile, and has 
a ferry station and a lighthouse, the latter 
with a fixed light visible at the distance of 
11 nautical miles. 

CHAPEL, any spot which is or was the 
site of an ancient chapel, as in the par- 
ishes of Bothwell, Crawford, Dirleton, 
Kelso, Larbert, Dalserf, Lauder, Lillies- 
leaf, Tynron, and New Kilpatrick. 

CHAPEL, small village in Newtyle par- 
ish, Forfarshire. 

CHAPEL, village contiguous to Gateside, 
in Neilston parish, Renfrewshire. 

CHAPEL, village in Cambusnethan par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 414. 

CHAPEL, village in Abbotshall parish, 
Fife. 

CHAPELDEN, place, with remains of 
ancient chapel, in Aberdour parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

CHAPEL-DERMID, place, with remains 
of ancient burying-ground, in Row parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 



CHA 



CHA 



CHAPEL-DOCKIE, site of ancient chapel 
in Monifieth parish, Forfarshire. 

CHAPEL-DONAN, site of ancient chapel 
in Girvan parish, Ayrshire. 

CHAPELFIELD, site of ancient chapel 
in Abbey St. Bathans parish, Berwick- 
shire. 

CHAPELFIELD, site of ancient chapel 
and burying - ground in Edrom parish, 
Berwickshire. 

CHAPELFIELD, site of ancient church, 
with remains of ancient burying-ground, in 
Dunlichity parish, Inverness-shire. 

CHAPEL-GARDEN, place, with remains 
of ancient chapel, in Wemyss parish, 
Fife. 

CHAPELGILL, mountain, 2282 feet 
high, 5 miles south-south-west of Brough- 
ton, Peeblesshire. 

CHAPEL - GREEN, place, with public 
school, in Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire. 

CHAPELHALL, town, 2 miles north-by- 
east of Holytown, Lanarkshire. It stands 
adjacent to extensive collieries, has exten- 
sive ironworks, is quite modern and well 
built, and has a post office under Airdrie, 
a Free church, and a Roman Catholic 
church. Pop. 1829. 

CHAPELHILL, any eminence now or 
formerly crowned with ancient chapel, as 
in the parishes of Culter, Dundonald, 
Kirkmahoe, Logie, Monedie, Muthil, Rob- 
erton, Rothes, Rothesay, Tarbat, and 
Trinity-Gask. 

CHAPELHILL, eminence on the Clyde, 
near Old KUpatrick village, Dumbarton- 
shire. It was occupied by the western 
terminal forts of Antoninus' Wall, and it 
has yielded many Roman relics. 

CHAPELHILL, place, with United Pres- 
byterian church, in Nigg parish, Ross- 
shire. 

CHAPELHILL, village in Monzie parish, 
Perthshire. 

CHAPELHOPE, hill on west side of 
Loch-of-the-Lowes, on south-west border 
of Selkirkshire. It has the site of an 
ancient chapel, and is crowned with a 
massive monument, erected about 1862, to 
Hogg, the ' Ettrick Shepherd.' 

CHAPELKNOWE, site of celebrated 
chapel on Old Melrose peninsula, Rox- 
burghshire. The chapel succeeded a Cul- 
dee establishment, was erected in the 
time of Malcolm III., figured as a great 
resort of pilgrims, and was burnt by the 
English in the time of Robert Bruce. 

CHAPELKNOWE, village, 1\ miles south- 
south-west of Langholm, Dumfriesshire. 
It has a post office designated of Dumfries- 
shire, and a United Presbyterian church. 

CHAPELKNOWE, site of ancient chapel 
at west end of Leitholm village, Berwick- 
shire. 

CHAPEL-LAROCH, site of ancient chapel, 
in Drymen parish, Stirlingshire. 

CHAPEL-OF-GARIOCH, parish, contain- 
ing the post office and railway station of 
Pitcaple, in Garioch district, Aberdeen- 
shire. Its length is 10 miles ; its greatest 



breadth 5 miles ; its area 13,059 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £13,181. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1923 ; quoad sacra, 1780. 
The river Ury intersects the broadest 
part, and the river Don traces the 
southern boundary. The land is uneven, 
but neither mountainous nor hilly. A 
notable place is the battlefield of Harlaw. 
The seats are Pitcaple, Pitrodie, Fetternear, 
and Logie-Elphinstone ; and the antiquities 
are a Caledonian stone circle, the hiero- 
glyphic Maiden stone, the ruined Balquhain 
Castle, and part of Pitcaple Castle. The 
churches are 2 Established and 2 Free. 
There are 3 schools for 388 scholars, and 1 
of them and class-rooms for 200 are new. 

CHAPEL-PARK, place, with vestige of 
ancient monastery, in Ladykirk parish, 
Berwickshire. 

CHAPEL - PATRICK, site of ancient 
chapel in Portpatrick parish, Wigton- 
shire. 

CHAPEL-RONE, site of ancient chapel 
in Dalserf parish, Lanarkshire. 

CHAPELROSSAN, bay and hamlet in 
Kirkmaiden parish, "VVigtonshire. 

CHAPELSHADE, quoad sacra parish in 
Dundee. It has an Established church 
and a Free church. Pop. 5989. 

CHAPELTON, village and quoad sacra 
parish in middle ward of Lanarkshire. 
The village stands about 5 miles south- 
south-west of Hamilton, and has a post 
office under Hamilton, an Established 
church, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 76 scholars. Pop. 721.— The 
quoad sacra parish was constituted in 1875. 
Pop. 937. 

CHAPELTON, one of the villages or 
sections of Cambuslang town, Lanark- 
shire. 

CHAPELTON, hamlet inGlenlivet, Banff- 
shire. It has a post office under Ballindal- 
loch and a Roman Catholic chapel. 

CHAPELTON, hamlet in Borgue parish,. 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CHAPELTON, place, with burying-ground 
and remains of ancient chapel, in Inver- 
keilor parish, Forfarshire. 

CHAPELTON, property in Fetteresso 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

CHAPELTON, site of ancient chapel and 
burying - ground in Cumbernauld parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

CHAPELTON, place, with ancient bury- 
ing-ground, in Rescobie parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

CHAPELTON, site of ancient chapel in 
Methlick parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CHAPELTON, place, with vestige of 
ancient chapel, in Leslie parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

CHARLESTON, southern suburb of 
Paisley, Renfrewshire. 

CHARLESTON, village in Glammis 
parish, Forfarshire. 

CHARLESTON^ village in Rathven parish , 
Aberdeenshire. 

CHARLESTON, village in Knockbain 
parish, Ross-shire. 



CIIA 



87 



CHR 



CHARLESTON, village in Nigg parish, 
Kincard ineshire. 

CHARLESTON, Deeside, Aberdeenshire. 
See Aboyne. 

CHARLESTOWN, seaport village on 
Firth of Forth, adjacent to Limekilns, 4 
miles west of Inverkeithing, Fife. It was 
founded in 1778, serves chiefly for exporta- 
tion of lime and coal, acquired a break- 
water and great improvement of its harbour 
in 1876, and has a post office, with all de- 
partments, under Dunfermline, andapublic 
school with about 87 scholars. Pop. 557. 

CHARLESTOWN, Banffshire. See Abee- 

LOUR. 

CHARLETON, seat near Elie, Fife. 

CHARLETON, seat near St. Andrews, 
Fife. 

CHARLETON, seat near Dubton railway 
station, Forfarshire. 

CHARLOTTE (FORT). See Lerwick. 

CHARLOTTE (PORT). See Port-Char- 

LOTTE. 

CHARNAC, lake in Rosskeen parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CHARNAN, sea-loch, with small harbour, 
in South Uist, Outer Hebrides. 

CHARTERHALL, seat in Fogo parish, 
Berwickshire. 

CHARTERS, all Southdean parish, Rox- 
burghshire, the upper section of that 
parish being Southdean-Proper. 

CHARTERS CHESTS, cave in steep shelv- 
ing rock on the Dee, in Braemar, Aber- 
deenshire. 

CHARTERSHALL, hamlet, with distil- 
lery, 3h miles south of Stirling. 

CHATELHERAULT, ducal summer-house 
in ravine of the Avon, within Hamilton 
wood, near Hamilton, Lanarkshire. It was 
built in 1730, has decorations in the style 
of Louis Quatorze, and shows a fantastic 
facade. The Duke of Hamilton bears the 
French title of Duke of Chatelherault, 
dating from 1548. 

CHEESE BAY, natural harbour on north- 
east of North Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

CHEESE WELL, spring, long held in 
superstitious awe, on Minchmoor Moun- 
tain, 7h miles west-north-west of Selkirk. 

CHERRYBANK, village in East Church 
parish, Perth. It has a post office under 
Perth, and a public school with about 135 
scholars. 

CHERRYTREES, seat in Yetholm parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

CHESTERBANK, estate, with site of 
ancient camp, in Ayton parish, Berwick- 
shire. 

CHESTERHALL, seat in Cranston parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

CHESTERHILL, village in Cranston 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

CHESTERHILL, mound, with fine well 
and site of ancient edifice, at west end of 
Anstruther, Fife. 

CHESTERLEES, place, with remains of 
ancient camp, in Dolphinton parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CHESTERPARK, place, with site of 



Roman camp, in Newtyle parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

CHESTERS, seat on the Teviot, in 
Ancrum parish, Roxburghshire. 

CHESTERS, place, with remains of 
Roman camp, in Fogo parish, Berwick- 
shire. 

CHESTERS, steep conical eminence, with 
ancient camp, in Manor parish, Peebles- 
shire. 

CHESTERS, ancient camp in Kirkurd 
parish, Peeblesshire. 

CHESTERS, ancient camp of 5 or 6 acres, 
in Bolton parish, Haddingtonshire. 

CHESTHILL, seat in Fortingal parish, 
Perthshire. 

CHEVIOTS, broad mountain range, about 
45 miles long, on mutual border of Scotland 
and England. It culminates at 2668 feet 
above sea-level on Cheviot-Proper, 13 miles 
south - south - east of Kelso ; it consists 
chiefly of domical or sugar-loafed forms, 
amassed like clustering cones ; it is mostly 
green pasture grazed by the fine-woolled 
sheep called from it the Cheviots ; and it 
includes many scenes of the tumult and 
bloodshed of the Border raids. 

CHICKEN, headland in Stornoway 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CHIRMAT, wooded hill in Borthwick 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

CHIRNSIDE, village and parish in east 
of Merse district, Berwickshire. The 
village stands about a mile east-south-east 
of railway station of its own name, 4f 
miles east-north-east of Dunse ; occupies 
the slope of a rounded, broad-based hill, 
commanding an extensive view, and de- 
clining to the left side of "Whitadder 
river ; consists chiefly of two streets, nearly 
in the lines of the letter T; and has a 
post office with all departments, designated 
of Berwickshire, a banking office, 2 inns, 
Established, Free, and United Presbyterian 
churches, and a public school with about 
116 scholars. Pop. 939. — The parish 
measures 3J miles by 3, and comprises 5553 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £13,222. 
Pop. 1516. The surface, with exception of 
Chirnside Hill, is all a rich plain. The 
seats are Ninewells and Mains. There are 
2 schools with accommodation for 215 
scholars. 

CHISHOLM, large estate in Kilmorack 
parish, Inverness-shire. It exhibits much 
picturesque scenery, and includes a gorge 
called Chisholm's Pass, presenting some 
resemblance to Killiecrankie and the 
Trossachs. 

CHISHOLME, seat in Roberton parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

CHOARIC, island in Loch Eriboll, Suther- 
land. 

CHON, picturesque lake, 2 miles long, 
in Aberfoyle parish, Perthshire. 

CHORRH, lake in Kincardine parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CHRIST'S KIRK, ancient parish, now 
part of Kinnethmont, Aberdeenshire. 

CHRYSTON, village and quoad sacra 



CIL 



CLA 



parish on north border of Lanarkshire. 
The village stands 1J mile north-north- 
east of Garnkirk railway station, and has 
an Established church and a Free church, 
2 public schools with about 252 scholars, 
and a recent monument to "Walter "Watson, 
author of ' Chryston Fair' and other poems. 
Pop. , of the village, with Muirhead, 721 ; 
of the quoad sacra parish, 3179. 

CILLIECHRIST, or KILCHEIST, ancient 
chapelry in Urray parish, Ross-shire. Its 
chapel was the scene, in early part of 17th 
century, of a dreadful tragedy, known as 
the 'Raid of Cilliechrist.' The burying- 
ground of the chapelry still exists. 

CIR-VOHR, mountain-ridge in centre of 
northern half of Arran Island, Buteshire. 
It measures about 1\ miles in length, and 
has a sharp, jagged summit-line, with at 
least 6 peaks upwards of 2000 feet high. 

CLACHAIG, place in Dunoon parish, 
Argyleshire. It has a post office under 
Greenock. 

CLACHAN, Dumbartonshire. See Luss 

and ROSENEATH. 

CLACHAN, hamlet in Portree parish, 
Isle of Skye. It has a public school with 
about 27 scholars. 

CLACHAN, hamlet in Farr parish, 
Sutherland. It contains the parochial 
church. 

CLACHAN, hamlet in Penningham par- 
ish, Wigtonshire. It contains the ruined 
old parochial church, with burying- 
ground. 

CLACHAN, hamlet near Balfron, Stir- 
lingshire. It has a United Presbyterian 
church. 

CLACHAN, Kirkcudbrightshire. See 
Dalry. 

CLACHAN, lake, emitting head streams 
of the river Nairn, in east of Inverness- 
shire. 

CLACHAN, narrow strait between Seil 
Island and Lorn mainland, Argyleshire. 

CLACHAN, Stirlingshire. See Campsie. 

CLACHAN, village in Lismore parish, 
Argyleshire. 

CLACHAN, village in Kilcalmonell par- 
ish, Argyleshire. It has a post office 
under Greenock, and a public school with 
about 58 scholars. 

CLACHANHEUGH, rocky promontory on 
west side of Loch Ryan, Wigtonshire. 

CLACHBEN, hill-summit, 912 feet high, 
in northern part of Jura Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

CLACHLAND, headland on north side of 
Lamlash Bay, Arran Island, Buteshire. 

CLACHNABANE, mountain, 1906 feet 
high, with extensive view, in Strachan 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

CLACHNAHARRY, village at mouth of 
Caledonian Canal, about a mile west of 
Inverness. It has a post office under 
Inverness, a railway station, and a public 
school with about 146 scholars. Pop. 
277. Adjacent rocks gave origin to its 
name, signifying ' Watchman's Stone ; ' 
were the station of a sentinel in the old 



times to announce the approach of marau- 
ders ; and are crowned with a pillar com- 
memorative of a battle, in 14th century, 
between the Munroes and the Clan 
Chattan. 

CLACHOG, headland in south-west of 
Arran Island, Buteshire. 

CLACKMANNAN, town and parish in 
Clackmannanshire. The town stands 2 
miles east-by -south of Alloa ; was for ages 
the seat of the chief of the Bruces ; con- 
tains an ancient, thick - walled tower, 
believed to have been built by King 
Robert Bruce ; is nominally the capital 
of Clackmannanshire, but mostly super- 
seded in that character by Alloa ; includes 
a spacious main street, considerably edi- 
ficed with mean houses ; and has a post 
office under Alloa, a railway station, a 
county hall, Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches, and a public school 
with about 135 scholars. Pop. 1503. — 
The parish contains also the villages of 
Sauchie, Fishcross, New Sauchie, Kennet, 
Westfield, and Forest Mill. Its length 
is 6 miles ; its greatest breadth about 4 
miles ; its area 9427 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £19,003. Pop., quoad civilia, 
4518; quoad sacra, 2758. The Forth 
forms the south-western boundary, and 
the South Devon traverses the interior. 
The land for about \\ mile from the 
Forth is rich, flat carse, and elsewhere is 
partly valley, partly undulated slope, and 
partly low hill. Coal and ironstone 
abound and are largely worked. The 
chief seats are Schaw Park, Kennet 
House, Kennet Pans, Brucefield, Aber- 
dona, and Kilbagie. There are 6 schools 
for 811 scholars, and 1 of them and an 
enlargement for 350 are new. 

CLACKMANNAN POW, harbour on the 
Forth, at mouth of South Devon river, 1J 
mile south-east of Alloa, Clackmannan- 
shire. 

CLACKMANNANSHIRE, county adjacent 
to south-eastern parts of Perthshire. It is 
bounded on the north by water-sheds of 
the Ochil Hills, on the south and the 
south-west by the Forth. Its length is 10 
miles ; its breadth 8 miles ; its area 50 
square miles. Real property in 1880-81, 
£123,849. Pop., in 1871, 23,747 ; in 1881, 
25,677. The surface adjacent to the Forth 
is carse ; farther north is variously valley, 
undulation, and low hill ; among the 
Ochils is glen and brae, with fine sheep 
pasturage. The only parishes are Alloa, 
Clackmannan, Dollar, Tillicoultry, part of 
Logie, and small part of Stirling ; the only 
towns are Alloa, Clackmannan, Tilli- 
coultry, and most of Dollar ; and the only 
villages, with each more than 300 inhabi- 
tants, are Coalsnaughton, Menstrie, Tulli- 
body, Devonside, Fishcross with Sauchie, 
and part of Causewayhead. 

CLADACH, headland in south-west of 
Islay Island, Argyleshire. 

CLADICH, hamlet on east side of Loch 
Awe, 10 miles north of Inverary, Argyle- 



CIA 



89 



CLE 



shire. It has a post office designated of 
Argyleshire, an inn, and a public school. 

CLAGGAN, place, with public school, in 
Morvern parish, Argyleshire. 

CLAIG, ruined ancient fortalice on 
Freuch Isle, in Sound of Islay, Argyle- 
shire. 

CLAIGEAN, bay on east side of Islay 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CLAIRINCH, islet near south side of 
Inchcallioch, in Loch Lomond. 

CLAISTRAN, seat in Orphir parish, 
Orkney. 

CLAMSHELL, basaltic cave, 130 feet long, 
in Staffa islet, Argyleshire. 

CLANYARD, bay and ruined baronial 
fortalice in Kirkmaiden parish, Wigton- 
shire. 

CLAONAIG, rivulet in Saddell parish, 
Kintyre, Argyleshire. 

CLAONARY, village in Inverary parish, 
Argyleshire. 

CLARE, lake, 4 miles south-by-west of 
Kinlochewe, Ross-shire. 

CLAREBAND, village in Crossmichael 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CLARENCEFIELD, village, 2 miles east 
of Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire. It has a post 
office under Annan. 

CLARILAW, place in Wilton parish, 
Roxburghshire. It has a public school 
with about 58 scholars. 

CLARKSTON, suburb of Airdrie and 
quoad sacra parish, Lanarkshire. The 
suburb stands considerably east of Airdrie, 
is conjoint with Drumgelloch, and has a 
post office under Airdrie, a railway station, 
a church originally built as a chapel-of- 
ease, and a public school with about 285 
scholars. The quoad sacra parish contains 
also a chapel - of - ease at Meadowfield. 
Pop. 7073. 

CLARKSTON, railway station, 4 miles 
north of Eaglesham, Renfrewshire. 

CLARKSTONE, seat in Polmont parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CLARKSTON-TOLL, village near Clark- 
ston railway station, Renfrewshire. Pop. 
with Sheddens, 727. 

CLARY, estate, with remains of man- 
sion, in Penningham parish, Wigton- 
shire. 

CLASHBENNIE, large ancient standing- 
stone and sandstone quarry, in Errol 
parish, Perthshire. 

CLASHCARNACH, small harbour, 3 miles 
east of Cape Wrath, Sutherland. 

CLASHMACH, hill in Huntly parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CLASHMORE, hamlet in Dornoch par- 
ish, Sutherland. It has a post office under 
Dornoch, and an inn. 

CLASHNESSIE, bay and village in Assynt 
parish, Sutherland. 

CLASKEN, lake between Glassary and 
Loch Fyne, Argyleshire. 

CLATCHARD, precipitous basaltic crag 
a little south-east of Newburgh, Fife. 

CLATHEY, village in Gask parish, Perth- 
shire. 



CLATHICK, seat in Monivaird parish, 
Perthshire. 

CLATT, village and parish in Garioch 
district, Aberdeenshire. The village stands 
10 miles south of Huntly, and has a post 
office under Kinnethmont. The parish mea- 
sures about 4 miles by 3, and comprises 
5711 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£4101. Pop. 452. Some rising grounds 
are in the north-west, high hills are in the 
south, and a plain, with elevation of about 
600 feet above sea-level, forms all the rest 
of the surface. The church contains 290 
sittings, and the public school has about 
70 scholars. 

CLATTERING BRIGGS, hamlet in For- 
doun parish, Kincardineshire. 

CLATTO, seat and hill in St. Andrews 
parish, Fife. 

CLAVA, place, with public school and 
assemblage of ancient Caledonian stone 
circles, in Croy parish, Inverness-shire. 

CLAVEN, low hill-range in Dundonald 
parish, Ayrshire. 

CLAVERHOUSE, village and estate in 
Mains parish, Forfarshire. The village 
has a post office under Dundee. Pop. 120. 
The estate belonged to Viscount Dundee, 
the persecutor of the Covenanters ; and it 
now has, on the site of his extinct man- 
sion, a monumental structure in form of 
a ruin. 

CLAY, sea-loch in south of Lochs parish, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CLAYBARNS, village in Newton parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

CLAYHOLE, suburb of Stranraer, Wig- 
tonshire. 

CLAYHOUSE, village in Borthwick par- 
ish, Edinburghshire. 

CLAYPOTS, castellated structure of 16th 
century, about a mile north - west of 
Broughty-Ferry, Forfarshire. 

CLAYQUHAT, district of Blairgowrie 
parish, Perthshire. 

CLAYSHANK, old parish, now part of 
Stonykirk, Wigtonshire. 

CLEARBURN, quondam village in Dud- 
dingstone parish, Edinburghshire. 

CLEARBURN, small lake in Yarrow par- 
ish, Selkirkshire. 

CLEAT, seat adjacent to Pierowall 
village, in Westray Island, Orkney. 

CLEEKHIMIN, suburb of Carfin, Lanark- 
shire. 

CLEGHORN, railway station and seat 2* 
mdes west of Carstairs Junction, Lanark- 
shire. The station is on the Caledonian 
Railway, adjacent to deflection of the line 
to Lanark and Douglas. The seat has a 
picturesque, well-wooded park, containing 
vestiges of a very large Roman camp. 

CLEISH, village and parish in Kinross- 
shire. The village stands about 3 miles 
south-south-west of Kinross, and has a 
post office under Kinross. The parish 
measures 6| miles in length, and 2J miles 
in greatest breadth, and comprises 6201 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £7028. 
Pop. 498. The arable land lies from 



CLE 



90 



CLO 



380 to 500 feet above sea-level ; and the 
Cleish Hills, on the boundary with Fife, 
rise to altitudes of from 1030 to 1215 feet. 
The chief seat is Blair-Adam, and the chief 
antiquity is traces of an ancient fort or 
camp on highest of the Cleish Hills. The 
church contains upwards of 400 sittings, 
and the public school has about 37 
scholars. 

CLELAND, town on the South Calder, 3f 
miles south-east of Holytown, Lanark- 
shire. It has a post office under Mother- 
well, a railway station, extensive iron- 
works, a Free church, a Roman Catholic 
church of 1877, and a public school with 
about 195 scholars, and is near an Estab- 
lished church projected in 1877. Pop., with 
Omoa, 1503. Cleland House, in its vicinity, 
crowns a cliff on the South Calder's right 
bank ; and a large cave, said to have been 
a hiding-place in the times of Robert 
Bruce and of the Covenanters, is in the 
cliff. 

CLEMENT (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Aberdeen. Pop. 7528. 

CLEMENT (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Dundee. Pop. 5682. 

CLERKINGTON, seat on the Tyne, 1J 
mile south-south-west of Haddington. 

CLERKSTON. See Claekston. 

CLERMISTON, seat near Corstorphine, 
E dinbur gh shir e. 

CLESHAM, mountain, 2662 feet high, in 
north of Harris, Outer Hebrides. 

CLETT, insulated rock, about 400 feet 
high, adjacent to HolbornHead, Caithness. 

CLEUGH, burn, traversing romantic 
glen, and making fine cascades, in Sorn 
parish, Ayrshire. 

CLEUGHBRAE, hamlet in Mouswald 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CLEUGHEARN, a seat of the Earl of 
Eglinton, on Calder river, in East Kilbride 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CLEUGHHEADS, hill, with vestiges of 
two Roman camps, in Applegarth parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CLEUGHHOUSE, burn in Keir parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CLICKAMIER, lake, with island crowned 
by Scandinavian tower, near Lerwick, 
Shetland. 

CLIFF, hill in Quarff parish, Shetland. 

CLIFF, loch, 3 miles long, in Unst Island, 
Shetland. 

CLIFF, sound, 8J miles long, between 
Burra Islands and Mainland, Shetland. 

CLIFFDALE, seat in Shapinshay Island, 
Orkney. 

CLIFTON, mining village near Tyndrum, 
Perthshire. 

CLIFTON, hamlet in Kirkliston parish, 
Linlithgo wshire. 

CLIFTON, hill, quondam village, and 
ancient chapelry, in Morebattle parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

CLIFTON-HALL, estate in Kirkliston 
parish, Linlithgowshire. 

CLIFTON-PARK, seat in Linton parish, 
Roxburghshire. 



CLIMPY, coal-field in Carnwath parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CLINTMAINS, hamlet in Merton parish, 
Berwickshire. It has a post office under 
Newton St. Boswells. 

CLINTS, hill in Channelkirk parish, 
Berwickshire. 

CLINTS, lofty hill in Kirkmabreck par- 
ish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CLINTWOOD, quondam strong castle, on 
Flight farm, in Castleton parish, Roxburgh- 
shire. 

CLIPPENS, seat in Kilbarchan parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

CLIPPENS-SQUARE, village in Kilbar- 
chan parish, Renfrewshire. Pop. 674. 

CLISHEIM. See Clesham. 

CLOAK, quondam castle in Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

CLOBER, seat in New Kilpatrick parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

CLOCK, small headland, with fine view, 
at sudden bend of Firth of Clyde, 2f miles 
west-south-west of Kempock Point, at 
Gourock, Renfrewshire. A circular light- 
house, 76 feet high, is on it, and shows a 
fixed white light. 

CLOCHAN, place near Fochabers railway 
station, Elginshire. It has a post office 
under Fochabers. 

CLOCHCAN, hamlet in Old Deer parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a public school 
with about 135 scholars. 

CLOCHFOLDICH, seat on the Tay, be- 
tween Logierait and Weem, Perthshire. 

CLOCHODERICK, farm, with ancient 
stone 22 feet long, 17 feet broad, and 12 
feet high, in Kilbarchan parish, Renfrew- 
shire. 

CLOCKSBRIGGS, railway station, 2J 
miles north-east of Forfar. 

CLOGHILL, seat in Newhills parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CLOLA, hamlet in Old Deer parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen, and a Free church. 

CLONAIG, hamlet in Saddell parish, 
Kintyre, Argyleshire. It has an Estab- 
lished church and a public school. 

CLONCAIRD, old seat, with modern 
front, in Kirkmichael parish, Ayrshire. 

CLOON, hill, 5i miles west-by-north of 
Kinross. 

CLOSEBURN, village and parish in 
Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire. The village 
stands 2| miles south-south-east of Thorn- 
hill, and has a post office under Thornhill, 
a railway station, an inn, a mineral spring, 
an Established church, a Free church, and 
a public school with about 65 scholars. 
— The parish measures 10 miles in length, 
and nearly 1\ in greatest breadth, and 
comprises 29,102 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £18,334. Pop. 1505. The Nith 
traces most of the south-western boundary ; 
the Cample most of the western ; and the 
Ae most of the eastern. The surface near 
the Nith is rich, low valley ; farther up is 
slightly diversified arable plain ; in the 
centre is an expanse of moor, partly 



CLO 



91 



CLY 



reclaimed ; in the north is part of the 
Southern Highlands, culminating on 
Queensberry. A striking natural feature 
is Orichup linn. Limestone abounds, and 
is largely worked. Closeburn Hall is a 
fine Grecian mansion, and Closeburn 
Castle is a well-preserved ancient baronial 
tower. "Wallace Hall is a large notable 
endowed school. 

CLOSTERS, burn, passing site of quondam 
ancient nunnery, in Olrig parish, Caith- 
ness. 

CLOUSTA, voe or bay in Sandsting par- 
ish, Shetland. 

CLOVA, quoad sacra parish on north- 
west border of Forfarshire. It is united 
politically to Cortachy ; it consists chiefly 
of lofty portions of the Benchinnan Moun- 
tains ; it includes an inhabited portion 
about 4 miles long, and little more than a 
mile broad ; it communicates by post with 
Kirriemuir, 14 miles south-by-east of its 
church ; and it has a small public school. 
Pop. 105. 

CLOVA, seat in Auchindoir parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

CLOVEN, cluster of abrupt wooded emin- 
ences adjacent to Forres, Elginshire. The 
loftiest one is surmounted by a three- 
storey octagonal tower to the memory of 
Lord Nelson. 

CLOVENFORD, village on Caddon rivulet, 
3J miles west of Galashiels, Selkirkshire. 
It has a post office under Galashiels, a 
railway station, and an inn. 

CLUANY, lake about 6 miles long, and 
an inn, about 25 miles south-west of Inver- 
morriston, Inverness -shire. 

CLUDEN, small river, formed by con- 
fluence of the Cairn and the Glenisland, 
and running about 7 miles east-south-east- 
ward to the Nith at Lincluden, 1J mile 
north of Dumfries. 

CLUDEN, small village in Holywood 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CLU6GY, remnant of strong ancient 
castle in Monivaird parish, Perthshire. 

CLUMLY, lake in Sandwick parish, 
Orkney. 

CLUN, birth-place of Sir James Mack- 
intosh, in Dores parish, Inverness-shire. 

CLUNAS, place about 9 miles from Nairn. 
It has a post office under Nairn. 

CLUNE, eminences, with charming views, 
in Carnock parish, Fife. 

CLUNES, railway station, 7J miles west 
of Inverness. 

CLUNIE, parish in Stormont district, 
Perthshire ; averagely about 4^ miles west- 
by-south of Blairgowrie. It contains 
Forneth post office under Blairgowrie. Its 
length is 8J miles ; its greatest breadth 4 
miles ; its area 11,384 acres. Eeal property 
in 1880-81, £8018. Pop. 582. The surface 
comprises small part of Strathmore, and 
part of the Lower Grampians ; ranges from, 
about 150 to about 1800 feet of altitude above 
sea-level ; and includes about 2500 acres of 
arable land. Loch Clunie, a little south-east 
of its centre, measures about 2 J miles in cir- 



cuit, and contains a beautiful islet with an 
old castle belonging to the Earl of Airlie. 
Clunie Craig is a mass of trap rock, about 
600 feet high. The chief seats are Forneth 
and Goudie ; and the antiquities are 
cairns, tumuli, and vestiges of several for- 
tifications and of 5 religious houses. The 
churches are Established and Free ; and 
the public school has about 142 scholars. 

CLUNIE, rivulet, running about 10 miles 
northward to the Dee, near Castleton- 
Braemar, Aberdeenshire. 

CLUNY, parish, averagely 14 miles west- 
north-west of Aberdeen. It has a post office 
of its own name under Aberdeen. Its 
length is about 10 miles ; its breadth about 
2 miles ; its area 9741 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £7527. Pop. 1298. The surface 
is intersected by Torr burn, running north- 
ward to the Don ; has mostly a warm dry 
soil ; and to about four-fifths of its extent 
is under cultivation. The seats are Cluny 
Castle and Castle-Fraser. The churches 
are Established and Free ; and the public 
school has about 100 scholars. 

CLUNY, seat in Marnoch parish, Banff- 
shire. 

CLUNY, estate in Rafford parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

CLUNY, place in Kinglassie parish, Fife. 
It has a public school with about 143 
sciiolcirs 

CLUNY CASTLE, seat of the representa- 
tive of the chiefs of the clan Macpherson, 
9J miles west-south-west of Kingussie, 
Inverness-shire. 

CLYDE, river and firth in south-west 
of Scotland. The river rises on southern 
verge of Lanarkshire, runs northward to 
east base of Tinto, curves round north 
base of that mountain, and goes thence 
north- westward, past Lanark, Hamilton, 
and Glasgow, to commencement of the firth 
near Dumbarton Castle. The distance 
from its remotest source to head of the 
firth, measured in straight line, is 62 miles, 
and measured along its channel must be 
considerably more than 100 miles. Its 
sources lie in central part of Southern 
Highlands, at least 1400 feet above sea- 
level ; its head-streams are numerous, 
rapid, and well stocked with fish ; and its 
course, down to Tinto, is mostly flanked 
and overhung by bleak tame uplands, con- 
sisting principally of Silurian rocks. Its 
run past Tinto describes a curve of about 20 
miles between points only 7jj miles asunder, 
and is slow and calm, on an average 
elevation of about 572 feet above sea- 
level. It then enters a region of sand- 
stones and shales, becomes about doubled 
in volume by influx of Douglas river, 
changes suddenly into tumultuous 
torrent, performs within 4 miles its 
series of famous falls, makes there an 
aggregate descent of about 300 feet, and 
traverses there a succession of gorges and 
defiles intensely interesting, alike to 
students of geology and to admirers of the 
picturesque. Its flanks, for about 12 



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miles onward from vicinity of Lanark, 
with average breadth of nearly 6 miles, 
form a continuous graduated hollow, aptly 
termed the Trough of Clyde ; have, on 
both sides, successively haugh, rising 
ground, and elevated plateau ; and are 
so richly embellished with gardens, woods, 
and parks as to be well designated the 
Orchard of Scotland. The valley thence, 
to a line about 7 miles below Glasgow, is 
all a very slightly diversified plain on rich 
underlying coal-field, relieved only by 
2 hill-ridges in the near distance, and 
various heights in the far horizon. But 
the channel presents a marvellous change ; 
assumes at Glasgow, for about 2 miles, the 
appearance of a broad continuous dock, 
crowded with shipping ; and has been so 
deepened, widened, straightened, and 
stone-embanked, all the way thence to 
the firth, as to be practically a deep, long, 
open bay, navigated by sea-borne vessels, 
and as uniform as a canal. The banks, at 
from 7 to 11 miles below Glasgow, are 
closely overhung on the right by the 
picturesque range of the Kilpatrick Hills, 
and overlooked on the left by the ornate 
reach of the Bishopton Hills, wbich ter- 
minate the Clydesdale coal-field ; and then 
they suddenly open on the right, around 
Dumbarton Castle, into the long exquisite 
vista of the vale of Leven. 

The firth, in its first section, extends 
about 8 miles in almost direct line with the 
river's prevalent course from Lanark ; ex- 
pands there gradually from a width of 
about 5 furlongs to a width of about 
3J miles ; is flanked on both sides at 
near distance by hill-ranges, with cul- 
minating height of nearly 1000 feet ; and 
splits at the lower end into the main 
channel, striking to the west, and Gareloch 
extending to the north-west. The main 
channel, in the first instance, goes only 
about 3 miles to the west ; sends off Loch 
Long to the north, and Holy Loch to the 
west-north-west ; has a mean breadth of 
about 2 miles ; and at a line from Cloch 
Point to Dunoon turns suddenly to the 
south. The firth thence, for about 20 
miles, expands to a width of about 5 miles, 
sends off the Kyles round the northern 
part of Bute Island ; contains on its east 
side the islands of Big and Little Cum- 
bray; and flings, from its west side, the 
Sound of Bute, with continuation of the 
long, diversified Loch Fyne. It then 
becomes a gulf, averagely about 32 miles 
wide, and from 45 to 48 miles long ; con- 
tains, on its west side, the large island of 
Arran ; curves on its east side, opposite 
Arran, into the large semi-circular bay of 
Ayr ; has in its middle the insulated lofty 
cone of Ailsa Craig ; and merges at its 
south end into the northward wing of the 
Irish Sea. The several lochs, bays, and 
shores of the firth are noticed in separate 

CLYDEBANK, town on right side of the 
Clyde, near Dalmuir railway station, Dum- 



bartonshire. It is of quite recent origin, 
was formed in connection with shipbuilding 
works, and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Glasgow, a quoad sacra parochial church 
of 1875-76, a United Presbyterian church 
of later date, and a public school with about 
175 scholars. Pop. of the town, 1632 ; of 
the quoad sacra parish, 2892. 

CLYDE IRONWORKS, village near the 
Clyde, in Old Monkland parish, Lanark- 
shire. Pop. 670. 

CLYDESDALE, popularly the part of the 
valley of the Clyde within Lanarkshire, but 
anciently either all that valley or the 
entire basin of the Clyde. 

CLYDESDALE-ROWS, village in Cam- 
busnethan parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 785. 

CLYNDER, hamlet on Gareloch, Dum- 
bartonshire. It has a post office under 
Helensburgh, and an iron United Pres- 
byterian church of 1881. 

CLYNE, parish, containing Brora post 
town and railway station, on east side of 
Sutherland. Its length is 19 miles ; its 
greatest breadth 7 miles. Real property 
in 1880-81, £5976. Pop. 1812. The 
coast is low and sandy ; the tract inward 
thence is diversified and arable ; the central 
parts are a picturesque assemblage of glen 
and upland ; and the most inland section 
is a mass of bleak lofty mountain. Much 
of the surface is richly beautified by 
Strathbeg and Brora rivulets, and by Loch 
Brora. Chief objects are Castle Cole and 
Craigbar. The churches are Established 
and Free ; and there are 2 schools with 
accommodation for 290 scholars. 

CLYTH, harbour, headland, and ruined 
ancient strong castle, lOJ miles south-west 
of "Wick, Caithness. 

CNOC. See Knock. 

COAL BURN, streamlet, running to the 
South Calder, in Cambusnethan parish, 

COALCRAIGIE, one of the Ochil Hills on 
mutual border of Perthshire and Kinross- 
shire. 

COALSNAUGHTON, village, inhabited 
chiefly by colliers, in Tillicoultry parish, 
Clackmannanshire. Pop. 899. 

COALSTON, seat on the Tyne, 2 miles 
south of Haddington. 

COALTON, village in Markinch parish, 
Fife. Pop. 419. 

COALTON, village in Kettle parish, 
Fife. 

COALTON, decayed village in Ceres 
parish, Fife. 

COALTOWN, village in Wemyss parish, 
Fife. It has a post office under Dysart. 
Pop. 422. 

COALYBURN, side station on Dolphinton 
railway, and colliery, in Linton parish, 
Peeblesshire. 

COALYLAND, collier village and coal- 
field, in Alloa parish, Clackmannan- 
shire. 

COAT, rained old castle on the Avon, in 
Stonehouse parish, Lanarkshire. 



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93 



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COATBRIDGE, town at convergence of 
railways, and on Monkland Canal, 10 miles 
east-by-south of Glasgow. It is entirely 
modern ; it stands in the centre of many 
ironworks, many collieries, and many 
establishments connected with mineral 
traffic ; it originated, and is maintained, 
by the working of these ; it lies under such 
clouds of smoke, and such glare of numer- 
ous smelting furnaces, as give it, especi- 
ally at night, a startlingly grim appearance; 
it forms, not a compact town, but a nucleus 
of good streets surrounded by straggling 
diverse suburbs ; it comprises, within the 
census limits, Coatbridge-Proper, Lang- 
loan, Gartsherrie, and High Sunnyside, 
but might be regarded as including also 
some other edificed outskirts ; and it has 
a head post office with all departments, 
4 banking offices, 2 hotels, a conspicuous 
Established church, 2 Free churches, 
United Presbyterian, Congregational, 
Evangelical Union, Baptist, Methodist, 
Episcopalian, and Eoman Catholic 
churches, and 2 public schools with about 
666 scholars. Pop. 17,500. 

COATDYKE, town on mutual border of 
Old Monkland and New Monkland par- 
ishes, between Coatbridge and Airdrie, 
Lanarkshire. It has a post office, with 
money order department, under Coat- 
bridge. Pop. 1701. 

COATES, lands, now partly occupied by 
St. Mary's Cathedral, Melville Street, and 
neighbouring places at west end of New 
Town of Edinburgh. 

COATES (WEST), quoad sacra parish in 
west of Coates lands, Edinburgh. The 
church was built in 1869, and cost £7500. 
Pop. 5848. 

COATS, one of the villages or sections of 
Cambuslang town, Lanarkshire. 

COATS, quoad sacra parish adjacent to 
Coatbridge, Lanarkshire. Its church was 
erected in 1875, and is large and hand- 
some. Pop. 4150. 

COATSHILL, eminence, with moat, in 
Moffat parish, Dumfriesshire. 

COATSHILL, seat near Blantyre Works, 
Lanarkshire. 

COATT, farm, with ancient Caledonian 
stone circle, in Eskdalemuir parish, Dum- 
friesshire. 

COBAIRDY, seat in Forgue parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

COBBLER. See Benarthor. 

COBINSHAW, railway station, lake, and 
village, near watershed between the Lo- 
thians and Clydesdale, 18^ miles south- 
west of Edinburgh. The lake was formed 
as reservoir for feeding the Union Canal, 
covers more than 500 acres, and has been 
stocked with trout and salmon ova. The 
village has a public school with about 70 
scholars. 

COCKAIRNEY, seat in Dalgetty parish, 
Fife. 

COCK-BRIDGE, place on the river Don, 
in Strathdon parish, Aberdeenshire. 

COCKBURNLAW, broad -based, lofty, 



conical hill, three-fourths engirt by "Whit- 
adder water, in Dunse parish, Berwickshire. 

COCKBURNSPATH, village and parish 
in north-east corner of Berwickshire. The 
village stands near the coast, 7i miles south- 
east of Dunbar, and has a head post office 
with all departments, a railway station, 
a good inn, an ancient cross, a parochial 
church with 400 sittings, and a public 
school with about 130 scholars. Pop. 233. — 
The parish measures 7J by 4f miles, and 
comprises 12,652 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £12,051. Pop. 1130. The coast 
begins at Dunglass Dean, on boundary 
with Haddingtonshire ; extends 4J miles 
east-south-eastward to within 2 miles of 
Fast Castle ; includes the remarkable 
features of Cove Harbour, Bedheugh, 
Siccar Point, and mouth of Pease Dean ; 
and is all rocky, steep, and bold. The 
interior includes part of the eastern or 
lower Lammermoors ; is diversified by hill 
and dale, and partly intersected by deep 
ravines ; and consists mainly of arable 
lands near the sea, and pastoral heights in 
the centre and the west. Cockburnspath 
Castle, about a mile south-east of the 
village, belonged to the Earls of Dunbar, 
passed to the Earls of Home, answers 
somewhat to the ' Bavenswood Castle' of 
Sir Walter Scott's Bride of Larnmermoor, 
and is now a comparatively small ruin. 
A Free church, designated of Cockburns- 
path, is at Oldhainstocks village, in Had- 
dingtonshire ; and a United Presbyterian 
church stands at Stockbridge, about a mile 
south-west of Cockburnspath village. 

COCKENZIE, seaport town on the Forth, 
about a mile north-east of Prestonpans, 
Haddingtonshire. It includes the suburb 
of Port-Seaton, exports large quantities of 
coal, and has a good harbour, a post office 
under Prestonpans, an Established church, 
a Free church, and a public school with 
about 170 scholars. Its harbour was a 
private one, constructed in 1834 at a cost 
of about £6000, and was about to be 
improved and to acquire a breakwater in 
1880 at a cost of about £11,000. Pop. 1612. 

COCKLAW, burn in Walston parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

COCKLAW, farm, with site of ancient 
round tower, supposed to have been con- 
nected with a Boman station, in Currie 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

COCKLAW, hill in Mordington parish, 
Berwickshire. 

COCKLAW, one of the Cheviots, 1716- 
feet high, on the border of Scotland, 8 
miles south-south-east of Yetholm, Box- 
burghshire. 

COCKLE, long sandy ridge in Benfrew 
parish, Benfrewshire. 

COCKLE, rivulet, running to the Forth, 
at east boundary of Dalmeny parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire. 

COCKLEROI, hill, with extensive view, 
If mile south-south-west of Linlithgow. 

COCKPEN, parish, containing Bonny- 
rigg town, part of Lasswade town, and all 



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94 



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Hunterfield, Dalhousie, Poltonhall, Hill- 
head, Prestonholm, Skiltiemuir, Gowks- 
hill, "Westmill, and Stobhill - Engine 
villages, in Edinburghshire. Its length is 
3J miles ; . its greatest breadth 2J miles ; 
its area 2950 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £21,071. Pop., quoad civilia, 
4544 ; quoad sacra, 3431. The surface 
is undulated, but looks to be flat, and 
consists wholly of fertile land. Coal and 
good sandstone abound. Dalhousie Castle, 
a seat of the Earl of Dalhousie, is a chief 
feature. Cockpen House, the residence of 
the ' Laird of Cockpen ' of Scottish song, 
stood on a romantic spot near the castle. 
The parochial church is a handsome 
edifice of 1820, and contains 625 sittings. 
Free churches are in Bonnyrigg and Stob- 
hill. There are 4 schools with accom- 
modation for 575 scholars. 

COCKPOOL, remnant of old baronial 
castle, in Ruthwell parish, Dumfriesshire. 

COCKS, burn, running eastward to the 
Calder, in Lanarkshire. 

COCKUM, rivulet, running southward to 
the Gala, near Stow village, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

COE, rivulet, traversing Glencoe, and 
entering Loch Leven, in Argyleshire. 

COGRIEBURN, place in Johnstone parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

COICH, or QUOICH, affluent of the Dee, 
in Crathie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

COIGACH, district of Cromartyshire, 
bounded by the Minch, Loch Broom, Ross- 
shire, and Sutherland. It is included in 
Lochbroom parish, contains Ullapool vil- 
lage, has a post office of its own name 
under that village, measures 22 miles by 
8, is mostly mountainous, and contains the 
fine vales of Strathceannard and Rhidorch. 

COIGNAFEARN, mountain near source 
of Findhorn river, Inverness-shire. 

COILA. See Coyl. 

COILANTOGLE, ford on Vennachoir 
rivulet, at effluence from Loch Venna- 
choir, 2\ miles south-west of Callander, 
Perthshire. It was ' Clan Alpine's out- 
most guard,' the place to which Roderick 
Dhu led Fitz-James ; but, for its use as 
a ford, it has been superseded by a bridge. 

COILSFIELD, seat, f mile south-east 
of Tarbolton, Ayrshire. It was Burns' 
' Castle o' Montgomery,' where his 'High- 
land Mary ' served as dairymaid ; it be- 
longed, in his time, to Colonel Hugh 
Montgomery, who became Earl of Eglinton ; 
and it is now called Montgomery. 

COILTIE, rivulet, rising on lofty shoulder 
of Mealfourvounie Mountain, and running 
impetuously about 7 miles to Loch Ness, in 
Inverness-shire. 

COINICH, seat and streamlet in Kingair- 
loch, Argyleshire. 

COINNEAG, lake in Rosskeen parish, 
Ross-shire. 

COIRE, lake in Daviot parish, Inverness- 
shire. 

COIR-NA-FEARN, lake in Farr parish, 
Sutherland. 



COIR-NAN-URISKIN, large, deep, cir- 
cular hollow, engirt by acchvitous lofty 
rocks, on face of Benvenue, overlooking 
Loch Katrine, in Perthshire. 

COIRUISK. See Corriskin. 

COLDBACKY, terminal part of mountain- 
range, in Tongue parish, Sutherland. 

COLDINGHAM, village and parish on 
coast of Berwickshire. The village stands 
3 miles north-north-east of Reston Junc- 
tion, and has a post office under Ayton, 
an inn, a Volunteer hall of 1872, interest- 
ingremainsof an ancient priory, a parochial 
church, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a public school with about 121 scholars. 
Pop. 572. — The parish contains also 
Reston, Auchincraw, and Coldingham- 
Shore villages, and Houndwood and 
Grants House hamlets. Its length is 8^ 
miles ; its greatest breadth 7^ miles ; its 
area 24,021 acres. Real property in 1880- 
81, £32,579. Pop., quoad civilia, 3173 ; 
quoad sacra, 1644. The coast measures 
65 miles in direct line, but fully 9 miles in 
line of sinuosities ; is all bold and rocky, 
has numerous caves and fissures, and in- 
cludes St. Abb's Head and Fast Castle. 
The interior is mostly uneven, contains 
lower terminal ranges of the Lammermoors, 
and consists partly of fertile vales and 
hollows, but largely of pastoral or barren 
moorland. Coldingham Loch, with an 
area of about 30 acres, lies about 300 yards 
from the sea, and has an elevation of about 
300 feet above sea-level. The seats are 
Coldingham Law, Homefield, Templehall, 
Press, Highlaws, Houndwood, Fairlaw, 
Coveyheugh, Newmains, Berrybank, 
Stoneshiel, Sunnyside, and Renton ; and 
the chief antiquities are vestiges of 2 
ancient Caledonian camps, vestiges of 2 
Roman canrps, ruins of Fast Castle, and 
traces or sites of numerous Border peels. 
Established and Free churches are at 
Houndwood ; and there are within the 
parish 6 schools with accommodation for 
572 scholars. 

COLDINGHAMSHIRE, ancient district, 
comprehending Coldingham, Eyemouth, 
Ayton, and Aldcanibus parishes, and 
parts of Mordington, Foulden, Chirnside, 
Bunkle, and Cockbumspatk, in Berwick- 
shire. 

COLDINGHAM-SHORE, fishing village 
in Coldingham parish, Berwickshire. It 
has a public school with about 54 scholars. 
Pop. 298. 

COLDROCHIE, streamlet on boundary 
between Redgorton and Monedie parishes, 
Perthshire. 

COLDSTONE. See Logie-Coldstone. 

COLDSTREAM, town and parish on 
southern border of Berwickshire. The 
town stands on high bank overlooking the 
Tweed, 9J miles north-east-by-east of 
Kelso ; was the place of an. international 
truce in 1491 ; gave origin to the regiment 
called the Coldstream Guards, raised by 
General Monk ; is near a ford of the 
Tweed, crossed by many armies, both 



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Scotch and English, in the international 
wars ; gave interment, in the cemetery of 
an ancient wealthy nunnery, to most of 
the distinguished Scottish officers who fell 
at the battle of Flodden ; presents a well- 
built but irregularly-aligned appearance ; 
and has a head post office with most de- 
partments, a railway station If mile 
distant, 2 banking offices, 3 hotels, an 
elegant five-arched bridge on the Tweed, 
a recent lofty monument to Mr. Charles 
Marjoribanks, a Volunteer hall of 1872, an 
Established church, a Free church, 2 
United Presbyterian churches, and 2 
public schools with about 279 scholars. 
Pop. 1616. — The parish contains also the 
village of Lennel, and measures about 4f 
miles by 3h. Acres, 8320. Eeal property 
in 1880-81, £20,499. Pop. 2561. The 
surface is flat and well cultivated. The 
seats are the Hirsel, the Lees, Lennel 
House, Milne-Graden, Hope Park, and 
Oastle-Law. There are 4 schools for 550 
scholars, and 2 of them for 250 are new. 

COLE CASTLE. See Castle-Cole. 

COLFIN, railway station and glen, 3 
miles north-east of Portpatrick, "Wigton- 
shire. 

COLGEAVE, sound, 3 miles broad, 
between Yell and Fetlar, in Shetland. 

COLIGARTH, section of Lady parish, 
Sanday Island, Orkney. 

COLIN. See Collin. 

COLINESS, headland, projecting into 
Otters wick Bay, in Sanday Island, Orkney. 
A very large ancient artificial mound is 
on it. 

COLLNSBUEGH, village, 4 miles east of 
Largo, Fife. It has a post office with money 
order and telegraph departments, designated 
of Fife, a banking office, a good inn, a 
United Presbyterian church, and a public 
school with about 100 scholars. Pop. 366. 

COLIN'S ISLE, islet in mouth of river 
Cart, Eenfrewshire. 

COLLNTON, village and parish in Edin- 
burghshire. The village stands on "Water 
of Leith, 4 miles south-west of Edinburgh, 
is small but charming, was the head- 
quarters of the Covenanters' army on the 
eve of the battle of Eullion Green, and has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Midlothian, a 
railway station, a parochial church, and 2 
public schools, male and female, with 
about 130 scholars. The parish contains 
also the village of Juniper Green, the 
hamlets of Hailes Quarry, Swanston, and 
Longstone, and most of the village of 
Slateford. Its length is about 4 miles ; 
its greatest breadth about 3f mdes ; its 
area 5640 acres. Eeal property in 1880-81, 
£33,595. Pop. 4347. The surface includes 
Craiglockhart Hill, part of the Pentlands, 
a winding reach of the ravine of "Water 
of Leith, arable lands at from 250 to 600 
feet above sea-level, and a profusion of 
groves and hedge-rows, and exhibits in the 
aggregate a richly diversified appearance. 
Chief seats are Colinton House, Bonally 



Castle, Craiglockhart House, Comiston 
House, and Dreghorn Castle ; an in- 
teresting new feature is Craiglockhart 
hydropathic establishment ; and chief 
things of antiquarian interest are the site 
of Eedhall Castle, and a road very nearly 
on the line of part of the Roman road 
from York to Carriden. A Free church 
and 2 public schools are at Juniper Green ; 
and a United Presbyterian church and a 
public school are at Slateford. 

COLLNTRAIVE, place on north side of 
Kyles of Bute, south verge of Cowal, 
Argyleshire. It has a post office under 
Greenock, and is a place of call by 
steamers. 

COLIPOLE, village on Luing Island, 
Argyleshire. 

COLL, village in Stornoway parish, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. Pop. 491. 

COLL, island, 2 miles north-east of 
Tyree, and 7 north - west of Mull, 
Argyleshire Hebrides. It lies parallel to 
Mull, and measures 13 miles in length, 
and 3J in extreme breadth. It was 
formerly in the parish of Tyree, but was 
constituted a separate parish in 1866. 
Real property in 1880-81, £4181. Pop. 
643. It contains the village of Arinan- 
gour, and has a post office of its own name 
under Oban. Its coast is mostly bold and 
rocky ; its interior rises nowhere higher 
than about 300 feet ; and its surface, to 
the extent of about two-thirds, is barren. 
Its chief residence is the seat of its prin- 
cipal landowner ; and its antiquities are 
a castle, probably built by one of the 
Lords of the Isles, vestiges of S Scandina- 
vian forts, and remains of 3 ancient 
religious houses. The churches are Es- 
tablished and Free ; and there are 3 public 
schools with accommodation for 134 
scholars. 

COLLABOL, place, with post office under 
Lairg, Sutherlandshire. 

COLLAGE, village and parish in Gowrie 
district, Perthshire. The vdlage stands 8 
miles north-east of Perth, and is near 
Woodside railway station and Balbeggie 
vdlage, with post office under Perth. The 
parish contains Kinrossie and Saugher 
hamlets, and comprises 2927 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81. £3740. Pop. 409. 
The southern section is fiat, and the 
northern one includes part of the Sidlaw 
Hills. The chief seat and antiquities are 
on Dunsinnan estate. The churches are 
Established and Free. The public school 
has accommodation for 103 scholars. 

COLLAFIRTH, voe or bay in North- 
maven parish, Shetland. 

COLLAIRNEY, ruined ancient strong 
fortalice in Dunbog parish, Fife. 

COLLEGE, parish in north-east of Glas- 
gow. Pop. , quoad sacra, 2409. 

COLLEGE, hamlet in Duffus parish, 
Elginshire. 

COLLEGE, rising ground, crowned with 
Roslin chapel, near Roslin village, Edin- 
burghshire. 



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96 



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COLLESSIE, village and palish in north- 
west of Fife. The village stands 4J miles 
south-east-by-south of Newburgh, and has 
a post office under Ladybank, a railway 
station, an old Established church, a Free 
church of 1876, and a public school with 
about 146 scholars. The parish contains 
also the villages of Ladybank, Monkston, 
Edenton, Giffordton, and Kinloch. Its 
length is 6 miles ; its greatest breadth 
3J miles ; its area 8699 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 18S0-81, £13,182. Pop. 1989. 
The river Eden traces the southern bound- 
ary. The land thence, and through the 
centre, is flat, but in the north and north- 
west slopes upward to a bordering range of 
heights. The chief seats are Rankeilor, 
Pitlair, Kinloch, Lochiehead, and Rossie ; 
and the chief antiquities are remains of 2 
castles, thought to have been erected for 
defending the pass from Perth to Central 
Fife. There are 3 schools with accommo- 
dation for 516 scholars, and a class-room in 
1 of them with accommodation for 100 is 
new. 

COLLIEMORE, lofty hill on boundary of 
Blairgowrie parish, Perthshire. 

COLLIESTON, estate in Dunscore parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

COLLIN, field of battle between the 
Scotch and the Danes, near Scone, Perth- 
shire. 

COLLIN, seat in Rerrick parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

COLLIN, village, 3J miles east of Dum- 
fries. It has a post office under Dumfries, 
and a public school with about 123 scholars. 
Pop. 309. 

COLLISTON, village, on romantic bay, 
in Slains parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a 
post office under Ellon, and is chiefly a 
fishing place, but also a resort of summer 
visitors. Pop. 421. 

COLLISTON, village and quoad sacra 
parish, 3^ miles north-west of Arbroath, 
Forfarshire. The village has a railway 
station, an Established church, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 72 
scholars. Colliston House, near the village, 
is said to have been built by Cardinal 
Beaton. The quoad sacra parish was con- 
stituted in 1876. Pop. 659. 

COLLOCKBURN, one of the villages or 
sections of Cambuslang town, Lanark- 
shire. 

COLLUTHIE, old seat in Moonzie parish, 
Fife. 

COLMELLIE, place, with 2 ancient 
Caledonian stone circles, on skirt of Mount 
Battock, in Edzell parish, Forfarshire. 

COLMONELL, village and parish in 
Carrick district, Ayrshire. The village 
stands on Stinchar river, 7J miles south of 
Girvan, and has a post office under Girvan, 
an Established church, a Free church, a 
United Original Secession church, and a 
public school with about 132 scholars. 
— The parish contains also the village 
of Barrhill, and the hamlets of Pinwherry 
and Lendalfoot. Its length is about 19 



miles; its greatest breadth about 7 miles; its 
area 47,490 acres. Real property in 1880- 
81, £25,502. Pop., quoad civilia, 2191 ; 
quoad sacra, 1132. The surface is an 
assemblage of vales and hills, and rises no- 
where higher than about 700 feet above sea- 
level. The chief seats are Knockdolian, 
Dalgerrock, Ballochmorie, Drumlamford, 
and Penmore ; and the chief antiquities are 
cairns, forts, and ruined Craigneil Castle. 
An Established church is at Arnsheen, and 
a Free church is at Barrhill. 6 schools 
for 496 scholars are within the parish, and 
1 of them for 60 is new. 

COLMSLIE, hill in Melrose parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

COLONSAY, island and parish in Argyle- 
shire Hebrides. The island lies 4 miles 
north-west of northern extremity of Islay; 
extends 8 miles north-north-eastward, with 
extreme breadth of about 3J miles ; rises 
nowhere higher than 493 feet above sea- 
level ; is partly fertile, but more largely 
moorish and rugged ; contains the modern 
mansion of the Macneills, and remains of 
several ancient chapels ; and has a post 
office under Greenock, and a public school 
with about 34 scholars. A monument to 
the late Lord Colonsay, a granite obelisk 
fully 30 feet high, was erected on a head- 
land on its east side in 1876. The parish 
includes also Oronsay Island, almost con- 
tiguous on the south. Real property in 
1880-81, £3132. Pop. 395. 

COLONSAY (LITTLE), small island in 
mouth of Loch-na-Keal, west side of Mull, 
Argyleshire. 

COLPORT. See Coulpokt. 

COLPY, hamlet and burn in Culsamond 
parish, Aberdeenshire. The hamlet has a 
post office under Insch. 

COLQUHALZIE, seat on the Earn, near 
Innerpeffray, Perthshire. 

COLQUHINNY, place on the Don, 5§ 
miles east-north-east of Strathdon church, 
Aberdeenshire. 

COLSAY, small island, 8 miles north- 
north-west of Sumburgh Head, Shetland. 

COLTBRIDGE, suburban village on 
"Water of Leith, St. Cuthbert's parish, 
Edinburgh. It communicates by tramway 
with the city, and has a public school with 
about 97 scholars. 

COLTFIELD, railway station and hamlet 
in Alves parish, Elginshire. 

COLTNESS, village and quoad sacra 
parish in Cambusnethan parish, Lanark- 
shire. The village is suburban to New- 
mains, and has extensive ironworks. 
Coltness House, in its vicinity, is a large 
handsome mansion. Pop. of Newmains 
and Coltness town, 2682 ; of Coltness 
quoad sacra parish, 2896. 

COLTSTON, village in New Monkland 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

COLUMBA (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Paisley. Pop. 1981. 

COLUMBA (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Glasgow. Pop. the Gaelic speaking in- 
habitants. 



COL 



97 



CON 



COL VEND, seaboard parish, with church 
6 miles south-by-east of Dalbeattie, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. It has a post office of its 
own name under Dalbeattie, and contains 
Southwick, with a post office under Dum- 
fries and a railway station. Its length is 
nearly 9 miles ; its greatest breadth 1\ 
miles ; its area 18,666 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £12,488. Pop. 1281. 
The coast is rocky, bold, precipitous, and 
romantic, and has caverns and crevices 
formerly used by smugglers, and supposed 
to have suggested to Sir "Walter Scott 
some scenes and incidents in his Guy 
Mannering. The interior includes part 
of Criffel Mountain ; is mostly hilly, wild, 
and pastoral ; and contains a number of 
small lakes well stocked with fish. The 
antiquities are a ruined castle, a vitrified 
fort, and remains of two camps. The 
churches are Established and United 
Presbyterian. There are 5 schools for 394 
scholars, and 2 of them for 190 are new. 

COLZEAN, castellated seat of the Mar- 
quis of Ailsa, on sea-cliff If mile north- 
north-west of Kirkoswald, Ayrshire. 6 
caves, one of them about 200 feet long, 
pierce the face of the cliff. 

C0L2IUM, seat of Sir William Edmond- 
stone, Bart., glen, and ruined castle, in 
Kilsyth parish, Stirling. 

COMARAICH. estate in Applecross par- 
ish, Ross-shire. 

COMBS (ST.), fishing village, 6 miles 
south-east of Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire. 
It has a public school with about 131 
scholars. Pop. 614. 

COMELY BANK, suburban village, com- 
prising chain of villas, in St. Cuthbert's 
parish, Edinburgh. 

COMELY BANK, village in Melrose par- 
ish, Roxburghshire. 

COMELY GREEN, small north-eastern 
suburb of Edinburgh. 

COMESTON, farm, with ancient battle 
field, in St. Cyrus parish, Kincardineshire 

COMISTON, seat of Sir John Forrest 
Bart., in Colinton parish, Edinburghshire 

COMLONGAN, ancient, strong, well-pre 
served baronial castle, in Ruthwell parish 
Dumfriesshire. 

COMMONDYKE, village in Auchinleck 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 1048. 

COMMONHEAD, railway station, \ mile 
north-east of Airdrie, Lanarkshire. 

COMORE, reservoir, 16 acres in area, 24 
feet deep, in Neilston parish, Renfrewshire. 

COMPASS, hill, powerfully disturbing 
the magnetic needle, in Canna Island, 
Inner Hebrides. 

COMPSTON, modern seat and ruined 
ancient baronial fortaliee, in Twynholm 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

COMRIE, town and parish in Strathearn 
district, Perthshire. The town stands on 
the Earn, at influx of the Lednock and 
the Ruchill, 6 miles west of Crieff ; con- 
sists of Comrie Proper on the left bank, 
and Dalginross and Ross on the right ; 
is surrounded, to a wide extent, with 



remarkably picturesque scenery ; possesses 
strong attractions for tourists and summer 
visitors ; includes a principal street about 
two-thirds of a mile long, and a six-arched 
bridge ; and has a post office, with all 
departments, under Crieff, a banking 
office, a hotel, a public reading-room, a 
spacious steepled Established church of 
1805, a large Gothic Free church of 1881, 
a handsome United Presbyterian church 
of 1867, a public school with about 164 
scholars, and an industrial school with 
about 89. A branch railway from Crieff, 
possibly with continuation to Lochearn- 
head, was projected in 1880. The town is 
notable for frequent earthquakes,but never 
with any seriously damaging effect. Pop. 
1038. — The parish contains also the 
village of St. Fillans, and is 13 miles 
long and 10 miles broad. Acres, 60,593. 
Real property in 1880-81, £16,247. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1726 ; quoad sacra, 1844. 
The northern and southern boundaries are 
formed by lofty mountain water-sheds, 
with culminating summits 2922 and 3180 
feet high ; and the interior is a many- 
featured assemblage of mountain, glen, and 
valley. The chief waters are Loch Earn 
and the river Earn along the centre, and 
the rivulets Lednock and Ruchill down 
the flanks. The scenery, especially along 
the centre, is surpassingly rich and diver- 
sified. The views from Lord Melville's 
Monument, li mile north of the town, and 
from other elevated spots, are among the 
most splendid in Britain. The arable land 
comprises not more than about one -eighth 
of the entire area, and has mostly a light, 
gravelly soil. The chief residences are 
Comrie House, Dunira, Dalhonzie, Aber- 
uchill, and Ardvoirlich ; and the first and 
second are seats of Sir Sidney Dundas, 
Bart. The chief antiquity is the vestige 
of a large Roman camp, adjacent to Dalgin- 
ross. 4 schools for 364 scholars are in the 
parish, and 2 of them for 75 are new. 

COMYN'S CASTLE, extinct residence 
of the Red Comyn, in Kirkmahoe parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CON. See Chon. 

CONA, rivulet, glen, and mansion in 
Ardgour, Argyleshire. 

CONACHAN, loftiest summit of St. 
Kilda Island, Outer Hebrides. 

CONACHAN, pastoral hills in Fowlis- 
Wester parish, Perthshire. 

CONAIT, rivulet in Fortingal parish, 
Perthshire. 

CONAN, river and mansion in south of 
Ross-shire. The river runs about 35 miles 
eastward to head of Cromarty Firth ; 
receives in its progress the affluents of Fan- 
nich, Garve, Meig, and Orrin ; and affords 
excellent salmon fishing, but is preserved. 
The mansion stands near Conan-Bridge,ancl 
is a seat of Sir Kenneth S. Mackenzie, Bart. 

CONAN-BRIDGE, village on Conan river, 
2i miles south-south-west of Dingwall, 
Ross-shire. It has a post office with money 
order and telegraph departments, desig- 

G 



CON 



COE 



nated of Boss-shire, a railway station, a 
good inn, a five-arched bridge, and a public 
school with about 112 scholars. Pop. 385. 

CONANSYTHE, seat in Carmylie parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CONDIE, hill, adjacent to May rivulet, 
and seat near Forgandenny, Perthshire. 

CONDORRAT, village, 2| miles south- 
west of Cumbernauld, Dumbartonshire. 
It has a post office under Airdrie, and an 
Established church of 1875. Pop. 620. 

CONGALTON, barony in Dirleton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

CONGHOILLIS, ancient parish, now 
called Inverkeilor, Forfarshire. 

CONGLASS, affluent of the Aven, in 
Kirkmichael parish, Banffshire. 

CONHEATH, seat in Oaerlaverock par- 
ish, Dumfriesshire. 

CONICAVAL, hamlet in Edenkillie par- 
ish, Elginshire. 

CONIGLEN, streamlet and vale in South- 
end parish, Kintyre, Argyleshire. 

CONINGSBURGH, hamlet and ancient 
parish in south of Shetland. The hamlet 
lies on the coast, 9 miles south-south-west 
of Lerwick, and has a Free church. The 
parish is now annexed to Dunrossness. 

CONNAGE, fishing village in Petty par- 
ish, Inverness-shire. 

CONNEL, lake in Kirkcolm parish, 
"Wigtonshire. 

CONNEL, place adjacent to Connel Ferry, 
Argyleshire. It has a post office under Oban. 

CONNEL FERRY, strait in Loch Etive, 
3 miles east of Dunstaffnage, Argyleshire. 
It takes across the communication from 
Oban to Appin, has an inn on each side, 
gives name to an adjacent railway station 
6 miles from Oban, and is swept by a tidal 
cataract believed to be the Lora of Ossian, 
and noticed in Sir Walter Scott's Lord of 
the Isles. 

CONNEL PARK, village in New Cumnock 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 495. 

CONRY, affluent of the Don in Strathdon 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CONTENT, north-eastern suburb or sec- 
tion of Ayr, Ayrshire. 

CONTIN, hamlet and parish in south- 
east of Boss-shire. The hamlet lies on 
Garve river, near influx to the Conan, 
about 8 miles south-west of Dingwall, 
and has a post office under Dingwall, an 
inn, a parochial church, and a public 
school with about 80 scholars. The parish 
measured along roads is 33 miles in length, 
and not much less in breadth. Beal pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £17,949. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 1422 ; quoad sacra, 708. The 
surface is mostly mountainous and sterile, 
yet includes numerous glens and vales, and 
is much diversified by lakes and streams. A 
chief object is Coul, the seat of Sir Arthur 
G. B. Mackenzie, Bart. Two quoad sacra 
parish churches, 2 Free churches, and 2 
schools for 138 scholars, are in the parish, 
and 1 of the schools for 100 scholars is new. 

CONTULLICH, burn in Aboyne parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 



CONVAL, hill, with vestiges of Danish 
camp, in Mortlach parish, Banffshire. 

CONVETH, estate in Laurencekirk par- 
ish, Kincardineshire. 

CONVINTH, old parish, now part of 
Kiltarlity, Inverness-shire. 

COODHAM, estate in Symington parish, 
Ayrshire. 

COOKNEY, quoad sacra parish, with 
church and public school, 4J miles north 
of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. The 
church contains about 700 sittings, and the 
school has about 80 scholars. Pop. 1976. 

COPAY, island in Sound of Harris, 
Outer Hebrides. 

COPINSHAY, island in St. Andrew par- 
ish, Orkney. Pop. 5. 

COPPERCLEUCH, place, with post office 
under Selkirk. 

COQUET, river, running about a mile on 
south-east boundary of Oxnam parish, 
Boxburghshire, but belonging everywhere 
else to England. 

CQRAFUAR, mountain in Luss parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

CORAH, vestige of ancient castle, a seat 
of Lord Herries, in Kirkgunzeon parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CORBELLY, roundish hill contiguous to 
Maxwelltown suburb of Dumfries. It 
commands a delightful panoramic view ; 
has, on its east shoulder, an observatory 
and museum ; and is edificed, on its town- 
ward slopes, by new streets. 

CORBET, renovated old Border tower 
in Morebattle parish, Boxburghshire. 

CORBIE, burn in Inverarity parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CORBIEHALL, farm, with vestiges of 
Boman camp, in Carstairs parish, Lanark- 
shire. 

CORBIEHALL, suburb of Borrowstown- 
ness, Linlithgowshire. 

CORBIEHILL, hamlet in Balmerino par- 
ish, Fife. 

CORBIE POT, glen in Maryculter parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

CORBIE'S KNOWE, artificial mound, with 
traces of ancient fort, on Lunan Bay, 
Forfarshire. 

CORCHINNAN, head -stream of Bogie 
river, Aberdeenshire. 

CORE, head-stream of the Tweed, in 
Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire. 

CORE, one of the Ochil Hills, 2\ miles 
south of Blackford, Perthshire. 

COREEN, hill-range on northern bound- 
ary of Alford district, Aberdeenshire. 

COREHOUSE, modern mansion and 
ruined ancient castle on the Clyde, adja- 
cent to Corra Linn, Lanarkshire. 

COR-ELLAN, islet in South Knapdale 
parish, Argyleshire. 

CORF, seat near Newburgh, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

CORFHOUSE, bay in Kintail parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CORGARF, quoad sacra parish around 
sources and head-streams of the Don, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 



COR 



99 



COR 



Aberdeen, a military station, a church, 
with 350 sittings, and a small Roman 
Catholic chapel. An ancient castle occupied 
the site of the military station ; was for 
ages a hunting-seat of the Earls of Mar, and 
was burnt in 1551 by Sir Adam Gordon, 
when 27 persons perished in the flames. 

CORHABBIE, hill in Mortlach parish, 
Banffshire. 

CORICHBAD, deer preserve of the Earl 
of Breadalbane, in upper part of Glen- 
orchy, Argyleshire. 

CORINAHENCHAR, bay in Torosay par- 
ish, Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

CORINESSIE, vale in Durness parish, 
Sutherland. 

CORKINDALE LAW, hill, with magnifi- 
cent panoramic view, in Neilston parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

CORERIE, bay in Kirkmaiden parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

CORLIE, loftiest hill-summit in Green- 
ock parish, Renfrewshire. It commands 
a rich, diversified, extensive view. 

CORMIE, eminence crowned with Raith 
Tower in Abbotshall parish, Fife. 

CORMILLIGAN, lofty hill in Tynron 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CORMORANTS' CAVE, basaltic cavern, 
224 feet long and 50 feet high, in Staffa 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CORNACHANTIAN, mountain in Luss 
parish, Dumbartonshire. 

CORNAIG, place, with public school, in 
Coll Island, Argyleshire. 

CORNAL, ruined baronial fortalice on 
Moffat river, in Moffat parish, Dumfries- 
shire. 

CORNAMAUGH, lake in Kildonan par- 
ish, Sutherland. 

CORNCAIRN, village, 8 miles south-west 
of Banff. 

CORNCOCKLE, moor, 2 miles north of 
Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire. A building- 
stone is quarried on it notable for peculiar 
fossd footprints. 

CORNHILL, place, 12 miles north-east 
of Keith, Banffshire. It has a post office 
under Banff, and a railway station. 

CORNHILL, seat in Culter parish, Lan- 
arkshire. 

CORNHILL, seat in Old Machar parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CORNIE, burn in Abercorn parish, Lin- 
lithgowshire. 

CORNISH, lake, 7 miles south of Straiton, 
Ayrshire. 

CORNTOWN, battle-field near Stirling. 
It was the scene of the battle in 1297 
commonly called the Battle of Stirling. 

CORODALE, cave on east side of South 
TJist Island, Outer Hebrides. It was, for 
some days in 1746, the abode of Prince 
Charles Edward. 

CORPACH, village at south-west end of 
Caledonian Canal, 2^ miles north of Fort- 
William, Inverness-shire. It is the land- 
ing-place for steamboat passengers, and it 
has a pier, an Established church, and an 
. obeliskal monument to Colonel Cameron. 



CORR, islet off mouth of Loch Swin, 
Argyleshire. 

CORR, lake, 5 miles long, adjacent to 
south-east side of Benclybric, in centre of 
Sutherland. 

CORRACHREE, seat in Logie-Coldstone 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CORRA-DHUN, vestige of ancient castle 
in Canna Island, Inner Hebrides. 

CORRAL, burn in Auchtergaven parish, 
Perthshire. 

CORRA LINN, second fall of Clyde, in 
vicinity of Lanark. It occurs within a 
picturesque amphitheatre, with maxhrmm 
height of 120 feet ; it includes first a fall 
of a few feet, next a fall of about 30 feet, 
next a cataract of about 90 feet, next a 
grand final leap ; and it makes, in these, a 
total descent of 81 feet. 

CORRAN, rivulet, running to the sea, in 
Jura Island, Argyleshire. 

CORRAN, ferry across lower part of 
"West Loch Tarbert, Argyleshire. 

CORRAN, ferry across foot of Loch Eil, 
between Ardgour district, Argyleshire, 
and Lochaber district, Inverness-shire. 

CORRENNIE,hill-range,1578 feet high, in 
Cluny and Tough parishes, Aberdeenshire. 

CORRICHIE, vale on mutual border of 
Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire, 14 
miles west-by-south of Aberdeen. It was 
the scene of the battle in 1562 between 
the forces of Queen Mary and those of 
her antagonists. 

CORRIE, coast village, 4J miles north 
of Brodick, Arran Island, Buteshire. It 
has a post office under Brodick, and a 
small harbour with a quay. 

CORRIE, ancient parish, now united to 
Hutton, Dumfriesshire. Corrie Burn in 
it is an affluent of the Mdk ; Corrie Law 
is a beautiful hill, with fine view ; and 
Corrie public school has about 63 scholars. 

CORRIE, hill in Kilsyth parish, Stirling- 
shire. 

CORRIE, place, with remains of ancient 
Caledonian stone circle, in Rogart parish, 
Sutherlandshire. 

CORRIEDOW, glen in Kiltarlity parish, 
Inverness-shire. A cave in it is said to 
have been inhabited for some days by 
Prince Charles Edward. 

CORRIEDOWN, heights, with notable 
cairn, in Rathven parish, Banffshire. 

CORRIEMONY, plain, seat, and public 
school in Urquhart parish, Inverness-shire. 

CORRIEMUCKLOCK, place, with inn, 
about a mile south of Amulree, Perthshire. 

CORRIEMULZIE, burn, entering the Dee 
3 milesabove Castleton-Braemar, Aberdeen- 
shire. It makes a beautiful snow-white 
cascade within a wooded precipitous ravine. 

CORRIEVRECKAN, tortured tidal cur- 
rent, popularly regarded as a dreadful 
whirlpool, in strait between Jura and 
Scarba Islands, Argyleshire. 

CORRISEL, seat in Penningham parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

CORRISKIN, or CORUISK, lake, about 
3 miles in circuit, among Cuchullin Moun- 



COR 



100 



COT 



tains, Isle of Skye. Its scenery is dis- 
mally wild, dark, and stern, and is 
graphically described by Sir Walter Scott 
in his Lord of the Isles. 

CORRYARRICK, steep lofty mountain- 
ridge, from vicinity of Loch Oich to south- 
west end of Monadhleadh Mountains, In- 
verness-shire. It is traversed, in zigzag- 
course, by the road from Fort-Augustus 
into Badenoch ; and that road over it was 
Prince Charles's route at commence- 
ment of the rebellion in 1745. The height, 
at highest summit, is 2922 feet ; at 
summit of the pass, 1864 feet. 

COEEYAUE, bleak barren hill-range in 
Muthill parish, Perthshire. 

COREYBEOUGH, seat in Moy parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

CORRYFEARN, hills in Eddertoun 
parish, Ross-shire. 

CORRYGILL, headland at south side of 
Brodick Bay, Arran Island, Buteshire. 

CORRYHABBIE, mountain, 2563 feet 
high, 8 miles south-by-west of Dufftown, 
Banffshire. 

CORRYVARLEGAN, wild lofty mountain- 
pass, on the way from Loch Hourn in 
Inverness-shire to Glenshiel in Boss-shire. 

CORSANCONE, Mil, 1547 feet high, in 
New Cumnock parish, Argyleshire. 

COESBIE, seat near Newton-Stewart, 
"Wigtonshire. 

COESBIE, barony in Legerwood parish, 
Berwickshire. 

COESE, seat in Forgue parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

COESE, hill, 21 miles west-by-north of 
Aberdeen. Numerous small tumuli and 
remains of military works are on it, and 
are associated by tradition with the closing- 
scenes of the career of Macbeth. Corse 
Castle, in its vicinity, was built in 1581, 
and is now a ruin. 

COESEDAEDEE, hill in Birse parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

COESEGLASS, place, with public school, 
in Dairy parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CORSEMILL, village, 3 miles south-east 
of Paisley, Renfrewshire. 

CORSEWALL, small headland, modern 
mansion, and ruined strong ancient fort- 
alice, in Kirkcolm parish, Wigtonshire. 
The headland lies 2J miles west-south- 
west of mouth of Loch Ryan, confronts the 
North Channel, and has a lighthouse with 
revolving light visible at the distance of 
15 nautical miles. 

CORSOCK, village and quoad sacra 
parish in Kirkcudbrightshire. The village 
stands on Urr river, 10 miles north of 
Castle-Douglas, and has a post office under 
Dalbeattie, an Established church and a 
Free church. Corsock Castle is the ruined 
seat of Robert Nelson, who figured pro- 
minently among the persecuted Covenan- 
ters. Corsock lake contains large trout, 
and has two boats, but is preserved. Pop. 
of the quoad sacra parish, 611. 

CORSTON, hill -ridge in Kirknewton 
parish, Edinburghshire. 



CORSTORPHINE, village and parish in 
the north-west of Edinburghshire. The 
village stands 3J? miles west of Edinburgh, 
is a summer resort of Edinburgh families, 
commands a charming view to the Pent- 
land Hills, and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Mid-Lothian, a railway sta- 
tion, a second-pointed parochial church of 
1492, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 193 scholars. Pop. 952. — The 
parish contains also the hamlets of Gogar, 
Stanhope-Mills, and Four-Mile-Hill. Its 
length is,about 4 miles ; its greatest breadth 
about 2J miles ; its area 3654 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £21,515. Pop. 2156. 
Most of the surface is level ; but a ridge, 
called Corstorphine Hill, extends from 
the skirt of the village about f mile to a 
wooded eastern crest about 474 feet high, 
and commands there a superb view of 
Edinburgh, and of the country eastward to 
the German Ocean. The chief residences 
are Corstorphine House, Clermiston, 
Beechwood, Belmont, Ravelston, Gogar 
House, Gogar Burn, and Gogar Mount. 

CORTACHY, parish in north of Forfar- 
shire, extending southward to within 3 
miles of Kirriemuir. It has a post office 
under Kirriemuir ; and it forms of itself 
a quoad sacra parish, but is united politi- 
cally to Clova. Acres of the united parish, 
42,322. Real property in 1880-81, £7516. 
Pop. 442. Length and greatest breadth 
of Cortachy-Proper, 13 and 5J miles. Pop. 
337. The surface consists mostly of a 
portion of the Benchinnan Mountains, but 
includes some meadow land along the 
course of the South Esk. Cortachy 
Castle, on that river, is the favourite seat 
of the Earl of Airlie, and is partly ancient, 
but chiefly modern. The parochial church 
was built in 1829, and contains 650 sittings. 
3 schools, with accommodation for 198 
scholars, serve for Cortachy and Clova. See 
Clova. 

CORTES, estate with modern mansion 
and ancient Caledonian stone circle, in 
Ruthven parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CORUISK. See Corriskin. 

CORWAR, seat in Colmonell parish, 
Ayrshire. 

COSHEVILLE, place, with inn, 3J miles 
north of Kenmore, Perthshire. 

COSSINS, quondam old castle in Glam- 
mis parish, Forfarshire. 

COSTA, headland and hamlet at northern 
extremity of Pomona, Orkney. The head- 
land is the bold, precipitous, rocky face of 
a considerable hill ; and the hamlet has a 
public school with about 44 scholars. 

COTBURN, hill in Turriff parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

COTCHET, hill-ridge in Eccles parish, 
Berwickshire. 

COTHAL, place, with woollen mills, in 
Fintray parish, Aberdeenshire. 

COTHIEMUIR, hill, with ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle, in Keig parish,. 
Aberdeenshire. 



COT 



101 



COV 



COTHILL, lake in Slains parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

COTTACK, village in Dunscore parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It contains the parochial 
church. 

COTTON, village in St. Madoes parish, 
Perthshire. 

COTTON, village in Dunnichen parish, 
Forfarshire. 

COTTON, two quondam villages, Cotton- 
Ingliston and Cotton - Invereighty, in 
Kinnettles parish, Forfarshire. 

COTTS, lake in Urquhart parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

COUFFURACH, village in Enzie section 
of Rathven parish, Banffshire. 

COUL, seat of Sir Arthur G. JR. Macken- 
zie, Bart. , near Conan-Bridge, Ross-shire. 

COULALT, bum in Inveraven parish, 
Banffshire. 

COULALT, lake in Knockando parish, 
Elginshire. 

GOULARD, hill in Drainie parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

COULAX, hill, 1407 feet high, in north- 
west of Hoy, Orkney. 

COULBEG, hill in Coigach district, 
Cromartyshire. 

COULBEG, mountain in Assynt parish, 
Sutherland. 

COULL, parish adjacent to north side of 
Aboyne, Aberdeenshire. Its post town is 
Aboyne, under Aberdeen. Its length is 
about 5 miles ; its greatest breadth about 
3i miles ; its area 9044 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £4007. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 783 ; quoad sacra, 526. The 
land is partly flat and partly a bordering 
hill-range. Chief objects are an ancient 
Caledonian stone circle, traces of an 
ancient chapel, vestiges of Coull Castle, 
and ruins of Corse Castle. The public 
school has about S3 scholars. 

COULMONY, seat in Ardclach parish, 
Xairnshire. 

COULMORE, hill in Coigach district, 
Cromartyshire. 

COULPORT, village on east side of Loch 
Long, 5 miles north-north-west of Cove, 
Dumbartonshire. It was the place where 
the Kibble Crystal Palace, now in Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, was originally erected ; 
it now contains many residences of wealthy 
Glasgow merchants ; and it underwent 
extension and acquired a pier in 1880. 

COULTER, railway station, 1J mile 
south-west of Biggar, Lanarkshire. 

COULTER, small lake in St. Ninian's 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

COULTRY, village in Balmerino parish, 
Fife. 

COUMFELL, hill, 1009 feet high, 6 
miles north-east of Langholm, Dumfries- 
shire. 

COUNTESSWELLS, seat in Petereulter 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

COUPAR-ANGUS, town and parish partly 
in Forfarshire, but chiefly in Perthshire. 
The town stands near the Isla, on a small 
affluent of that river, 12J miles by road, 



but 15f miles by railway, north-east-by- 
north of Perth ; adjoins the site of a 
Roman camp and vestiges of an ancient 
abbey ; dates from old times, and has 
undergone much recent improvement ; 
carries on linen manufacture and other 
industries ; and has a head post office with 
all departments, a railway station, 3 
banking offices, a hotel and inns, a town 
hall, a new water supply of 1874, Estab- 
lished, Free, United Presbyterian, Original 
Secession, Evangelical Union, and Episco- 
palian churches, and a public school of 
1877 for about 500 scholars. Pop. 2154 
— The parish contains also the villages 
of Balbrogie, Longluis, and Washington, 
and measures about 5 miles in length 
and from 1J to 2J miles in breadth. 
Acres in Forfarshire, 184 ; in Perthshire, 
4515. Real property in 1880-81, £1790 
and £14,312. Pop. 265 and 2281. The 
surface is part of Strathmore, bisected 
by a ridge commanding a splendid view. 

COURANCE, hamlet in Kirkmichael par- 
ish, Dumfriesshire. It has a post office 
under Lockerby. 

COURTHILLS, mounds or rising-grounds, 
formerly used as seats of justice, in Auch- 
tergaven, Bellie, Cathcart, Dairy (Ayr- 
shire), Lunan, Pettie, Rosemarkie, Tar- 
bolton, and other parishes. That in 
Rosemarkie gives name to a public school 
with about 77 scholars. 

COUSLAND, village, 3 miles east of 
Dalkeith, Edinburghshire. It has a post 
office under Dalkeith. 

COUTHALLY. See Cowthallt. 

COVANT, burn in Hamilton parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

COVE, fishing village, 4 miles south-by- 
east of Aberdeen. It stands near a large 
cavern opening from the sea, and has a 
post office under Aberdeen, a railway sta- 
tion, a slightly improved natural harbour, 
and a public school with about 69 scholars. 
Pop. 464. 

COVE, seat in Kirkpatrick -Fleming par- 
ish, Dumfriesshire. 

COVE, small bay, engirt by lofty cliffs, 
and possessing a small harbour for fishing- 
boats, in Cockburnspath parish, Berwick- 
shire. 

COVE, watering-place on east side near 
mouth of Loch Long, Dumbartonshire. 
It forms part of the police burgh of Kil- 
creggan and Cove ; consists chiefly of 
villas and ornate cottages ; and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Dumbarton- 
shire, and a steamboat pier. Pop. 432. 

COVE-A-CHIARAN, cave, anciently a 
residence of St. Kiaran, in Campbelton 
parish, Argyleshire. 

COVESEA, popularly CAUSEA, coast 
village, hill, and skerries, in Drainie parish, 
Elginshire. The hill has a deep, mural, 
fissured, and cavernous sea front ; and the 
skerries have a lighthouse, with revolving 
light visible at the distance of 18 nautical 
miles. 



COY 



102 



COY 



COVINGTON, village and parish in upper 
ward of Lanarkshire. The village stands 
about 1J mile north of Thankerton railway 
station, and adjoins a ruined castellated 
tower of 1442. The parish contains also 
Thankerton village, with post office desig- 
nated Thankerton, Lanarkshire ; and it 
measures about 4 miles by 2f, and 
comprises 5114 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £6295. Pop. 444. The Clyde 
traces the eastern and north - eastern 
boundary. Part of Tinto Mountain is on 
the southern border ; pastoral uplands go 
northward from it ; and arable and meadow 
lands form the rest of the surface. The 
only seat is St. John's Kirk ; and the 
antiquities, besides the ruined tower at 
the village, are 4 circular camps. Coving- 
ton Mill was the place where the famous 
Covenanter Donald Cargill was taken 
prisoner. The public school has about 
55 scholars. 

COWAL, eastern district of Argyleshire. 
It is bounded, except on the north, by 
Loch Fyne, the Kyles of Bute, the Firth 
of Clyde, and Loch Long ; contains the 
sea-lochs Riddan, Striven, and Goil, and 
the fresh water Loch Eck ; and includes 
some low tracts of land, but is mainly 
mountainous. 

COWBRAE, lofty hill, with extensive 
view, on southern boundary of Borthwick 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

COWCADDENS, city section in middle of 
northern border of Glasgow. It sprang 
from an isolated hamlet on the pasture- 
common of the city ; was surrounded and 
absorbed by the city's street extensions ; 
is now a mixture of irregular and regular, 
ill-built and well - built thororighfares ; 
presents a better appearance than that of 
many second-rate manufacturing towns ; 
and contains an arcade of 1852, a theatre, 
the Free Church Normal school, a Free 
church, and a United Presbyterian church. 

COWCASH, natural harbour, about a 
mile south of the harbour of Aberdeen. 

COWDEN, coal-field in Dalkeith parish, 
E dinbur gh shire . 

COWDEN, seat, <L\ miles east-north-east 
of Dollar, Clackmannanshire. It occupies 
the site of an ancient fortalice of the 
Bishop of St. Andrews. 

COWDENBEATH, town, 5J miles north- 
east of Dunfermline, Fife. It has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Fif eshire, a rail- 
way station, and a Free church. Pop. 2769. 

COWDENHILLS, village in Carriden 
parish, Linlithgowshire. Pop. 272. 

COWDENKNOWES, seat and hill on east 
side of Leader "Water, between Earlston 
and the Tweed, in Berwickshire. The 
hill is now bare and verdant, but was 
formerly covered with brushwood, and is 
celebrated in the song of 'The Broom o' 
the Cowdenknowes.' 

COWDONHILL, estate in New Kilpat- 
rick parish, Dumbartonshire. 

COWGASK, farm, with site of ancient 



chapel, in Trinity - Gask parish, Perth- 
shire. 

COWGATE, thoroughfare, about 800 
yards long, from Grassmarket to South 
Back of Canongate, in Edinburgh. It 
was originally a rural ravine, traversed by 
an open road ; it became, and long con- 
tinued, a densely and elegantly edificed 
aristocratic quarter ; it is now a crowded, 
squalid retreat of the poor, but retains 
many defaced features of its former gran- 
deur; and it contains two Free churches, 
a large Roman Catholic church, and a 
Heriot school. 

COWGATE, modernized ancient street, 
running eastward to the line of the 
quondam town walls of Dundee. Its port 
or archway in these walls is notable for 
the famous Wishart having preached on it 
during the prevalence of plague in 1544. 

COWGLEN, coal-field in Eastwood parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

COWHILL, seat in Holy wood parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

COWIE, small river, running about 9 
miles east- south-eastward to the sea at 
Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. It descends 
from the frontier Grampians, often in 
strong freshet ; and it is crossed by the 
Caledonian Railway on a lofty fourteen- 
arched viaduct. 

COWIE, fishing village, \\ mile north- 
north-east of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. 
It dates from at least the time of Mal- 
colm Canmore ; is near the vestiges of a 
fortalice said to have been built by that 
sovereign ; and has ruins of an ancient 
chapel, which passed to Marischal College, 

COWIE'S LINN, cascade of about 30 
feet, on a burn running to upper part of 
Eddlestone river, Peeblesshire. 

COWLAIRS, railway station and depot 
on Edinburgh and Glasgow line of North 
British system, at deflection of the branch 
to Helensburgh, \\ mile north-north-east 
of Glasgow. 

COWPITS, village in Inveresk parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

COWSHAVEN, coast cave in Aberdour 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It was Lord Pit- 
sligo's hiding-place after the battle of 
Culloden. 

COWSRIEVE, hill in Peterhead parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

COWTHALLY, ruined strong castle, 
about lv mile north-west of Carnwath, 
Lanarkshire. 

COXTON, small, square, turreted fort- 
alice, south-east of Elgin. 

COYL, small river, running about 10 
miles north-westward to Ayr river, at 4 
miles east of Ayr town. It has a cascade 
of about 15 feet. 

COYLTON, village and parish in Kyle 
district, Ayrshire. The village stands 6 
miles east-south-east of Ayr, and has a 
post office under Ayr, a jDarochial church 
containing 744 sittings, and a public school 
with about 194 scholars. The parish con- 



CRA 



103 



CRA 



tains also the villages of Craigliall, Bank- 
foot, Gadgirthholm, Knockshoggleholm, 
and Joppa. Its length is about 12 miles ; 
its breadth nearly 2 miles ; its area 11,584 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £20,947. 
Pop. 3100. The river Ayr traces much 
of the north-western boundary ; the Coyl 
traverses the interior ; and the Doon 
drains part of the south-eastern end. The 
lower section is partly flat and partly 
undulating ; the middle section contains 
the Craigs of Coyl, rising to a height of 798 
feet above sea-level ; and the upper section 
is hilly, rises to a height of more than 1100 
feet above sea-level, and commands there 
extensive views. About 8110 acres are 
arable. Coal, limestone, sandstone, and 
trap rock abound, and are extensively 
worked. The chief seats are Sundrum, 
Gadgirth, and Rankinston; and a chief 
antiquity is a large stone popularly re- 
garded as a monument of 'Auld King 
Coil,' — a fabulous monarch from whom a 
false tradition derived the names of Coyl, 
Coylton, and Kyle. 

CRACHIE, mountain affluent of the 
Shochie, Perthshire. 

CRAGGACH, glen, with millstone quarry, 
in Reay parish, Caithness. 

CRAGGANESTER, hamlet in Weem 
parish, Perthshire. 

CRAGGANTOUL, hamlet in Weem parish, 
Perthshire. 

CRAGGIE, lake in Tongue parish, Suther- 
land. 

CRAIBSTONE, seat on Buxburn rivulet, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CRAICHIE, village in Dunnichen parish, 
Forfarshire. It has a post office under 
Forfar, and a public school with about 137 

CRAICK, hill, 1482 feet high, in Roberton 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

CRAIG, parish on east coast of Forfar- 
shire. It contains Ferryden town, with 
post office under Montrose, and Usan 
village, and includes Inchbrayock Island. 
Its length is nearly 6 miles ; its breadth 
3 miles ; its area 4371 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £10,824. Pop. 2589. 
The mainland is partly a peninsula, 
bounded on the north by Montrose basin 
and South Esk river, on the east and 
south-east by the German Ocean ; and 
rises gradually from the north and the 
east toward the south-west, till it reaches 
an elevation of about 400 feet above sea- 
level. The northward slope is ornate, and 
commands a magnificent view ; and the 
sea-coast is very rocky and partly preci- 
pitous. The chief seats are Rossie, Dun- 
ninald, and Usan ; and the chief anti- 
quities are vestiges of Craig Castle, a 
strong structure, often mentioned in 
Scottish history ; and the sites of another 
old castle and an old fort. The churches 
are Established and Free ; and the former 
is a handsome conspicuous edifice with 
800 sittings. There are 5 schools with 
accommodation for 467 scholars. 



CRAIG, estate in Madderty parish, 
Perthshire. It once contained a village of 
Craig, ranking as a burgh of barony ; and 
it now contains the modern village of St. 
David's. 

CRAIG, seat and burn in Auchindoir 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CRAIG, seat in Kilmaurs parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

CRAIG, seat in Colmonell parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

CRAIG, quondam baronial fortalice in 
Glenisla parish, Forfarshire. 

CRAIG, hill in Troqueer parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

CRAIGABODDICK, hill-range on mutual 
border of Loth and Kildonan parishes, 
Sutherland. 

CRAIGACHROCHCAN, lofty bank and 
bridge on the Aven, in Inveraven parish, 
Banffshire. 

CRAIGAIRIE, high moorish hill, 10 miles 
north of Glenluce, Wigtonshire. 

CRAIGALLEON, lake in Strathblane 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

CRAIGAMMEL, curious object on coast 
of Wick parish, Caithness. 

CRAIGANDARROCH, lofty hill in Glen- 
muick parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CRAIGANFHIACH, precipitous crag, 
giving off a loud echo, in Fodderty parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CRAIGANOIN, hill and pass on mutual 
border of Moy and Daviot parishes, In- 
verness-shire. The pass was the scene 
of what is called the ' Rout of Moy ' in the 
rebellion of 1745-46. 

CRAIGANROY, commodious safe harbour 
in Loch Duich, Glenshiel parish, Ross-shire. 

CRAIGBANK, village in New Cumnock 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 302. 

CRAIGBAR, steep rocky precipice, with 
remains of ancient fortification, at side of 
Loch Brora, in Clyne parish, Sutherland. 

CRAIGBARNET, seat in Campsie parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CRAIGBEG, mountain in Durris parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

CRAIGBENYON, mountain, 3 miles 
north-east of Callander, Perthshire. 

CRAIGBHOKIE, lofty precipitous cliff 
at narrow part of Loth glen, in Loth 
parish, Sutherland. 

CRAIGBINNY, hill, 3J miles south-east 
of Linlithgow. 

CRAIGBODDICH, lofty precipitous cliff 
in Loth glen and parish, Sutherland. 

CRAIGCAFFIE, old castle, transmuted 
into farmhouse, in Inch parish, Wigton- 
shire. 

CRAIGCHAILLEACH, picturesque peaked 
mountain - range, in vicinity of Killin, 
Perthshire. 

CRAIGCLEUGH, burn on mutual bound- 
ary of Westerkirk and Langholm parishes, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CRAIGCROOK, seat on east skirt of 
Corstorphine Hill, 2\ miles west of Edin- 
burgh. It was long the residence of Lord 
Jeffrey. 



CRA 



104 



CRA 



CRAIGDAIMVIE, islet off Keils Point, 
in Knapdale, Argyllshire. 

CRAIGDALLIE, village in Kinnaird 
parish, Perthshire. 

CRAIGDAM, village in Tarves parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a United Presby- 
terian church, and a public school -with 
about 94 scholars. 

CRAIGDARROCH, seat and head-stream 
of the Cairn, in Glencairn parish, Dum- 
friesshire. 

CRAIGDARROCH, seat in Contin parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CRAIGDHU, mountain in Port-of-Men- 
teith parish, Perthshire. 

CRAIGDHU, lofty seriated height, flank- 
ing part of Truim river, Inverness-shire. 
It was the gathering place of the Clan 
Macpherson. 

CRAIGDHULOCH, cliff, upwards of 1000 
feet high, overhanging Loch Dhuloch, at 
head of Glenmuick, on mutual border of 
Aberdeenshire and Forfarshire. 

CRAIGELLACHIE, hamlet, one -arched 
bridge of 150 feet span, and bold rocky 
romantic height on the Spey, 1^ mile 
north-east of Aberlour, Banffshire. The 
hamlet has a head post office with money 
order and telegraph departments, a station 
at junction of Strathspey and Morayshire 
railways, and a hotel. 

CRAIGELLACHIE, bold rocky romantic 
height on the Spey, adjacent to Aviemore, 
Inverness-shire. The Clan Grant took 
from it their war-cry, ' Standfast, Craigel- 
lachie.' 

CRAIGENCALLIE, scene of successful 
stratagem by King Robert Bruce, at head 
of Loch Dee, in Minnigaff parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

CRAIGENCRUNE, hill in Creich parish, 
Fife. 

CRAIGEND, village in East Church 
parish, Perth. It has a United Presby- 
terian church and a public school. 

CRAIGEND, village in Crosshill district 
of Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. 

CRAIGEND, hill in north-west corner of 
Lanark parish, Lanarkshire. 

CRAIGEND, lake and farm in Newabbey 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. The lake is 
small but beautiful, and the farm has a 
large easily-moved rocking-stone. 

CRAIGEND, seat in Strathblane parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CRAIGENDORAN, railway station and 
steamboat harbour about a mile east of 
Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire. They were 
formed in 1880-82 at a cost of £50,000. 

CRAIGENDS, seat in Kilbarchan parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

CRAIGENFEICH, place, with crags of 
Osmond stone, in Eaglesham parish, Ren- 
frewshire. 

CRAIGENGAR, hill, 1700 feet high, with 
very large cave, at meeting point of Lanark- 
shire, Edinburghshire, and Peeblesshire. 

CRAIGENGELT, estate, with seat and 
numerous artificial hillocks, in St. Ninian's 
parish, Stirlingshire. 



CRAIGENGOWER, hill, 1086 feet high, 
crowned with monument to Colonel Blair, 
and commanding a grand view, in Straiton 
parish, Ayrshire. 

CRAIGENSCORE, mountain in Glen- 
bucket parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CRAIGFOODIE, seat and hill in Dairsie 
parish, Fife. 

CRAIGFORTH, seat and bold picturesque 
wooded crag, about 1J mile west of 
Stirling. 

CRAIG GHARTIN, crag at west end 
of hill-range commencing in Craigellachie, 
near Aviemore, Inverness-shire. 

CRAIG GIBBON, hill, crowned by ob- 
elisk, in Auchtergaven parish, Perthshire. 

CRAIGGIES, section of Rogart parish, 
Sutherland. 

CRAIG GOWAN, hill, overlooking Bal- 
moral Castle, Aberdeenshire. 

CRAIGHALL, two villages, New and 
Old, about 2 miles south-south-west of 
Musselburgh, Edinburghshire. Coal mines 
are adjacent, and an Established church 
for the miners was opened in 1877, and 
contains 500 sittings. Pop. 1365. 

CRAIGHALL, village in Coylton parish, 
Ayrshire. A coal mine is in its vicinity. 

CRAIGHALL, seat in Ceres parish, Fife. 

CRAIGHALL, seat, surmounting lofty 
cliff, on Ericht river, in Rattray parish, 
Perthshire. 

CRAIGHEAD, place in Campsie parish, 
Stirlingshire. It has a public school with 
about 108 scholars. 

CRAIGHEAD, seat in Blantyre parish, 

CRAIGHEAD, headland in Firth of Tay, 
near Newport, Fife. 

CRAIGHOLM, residence in vicinity of 
Burntisland, Fife. It was occupied for 
several summers by Rev. Dr. Chalmers. 

CRAIGHOUSE, place on Jura Island, 
Argyleshire. It has a post office, with 
money order department, under Greenock. 

CRAlGIE, parish, averagely about 3J 
miles south of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. It 
has a post office of its own name under 
Kilmarnock. Its length is 7 miles ; its 
average breadth about 1J mile ; its area 
6576 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£10,752. Pop. 590. The surface is 
mostly level and fertile, but includes some 
pastoral eminences, one of them about 500 
feet high, commanding an extensive view. 
The seats are Cairnhill, Barnwell, and 
Underwood ; and the chief antiquity is 
the ruined Craigie Castle, once the resi- 
dence of the "Wallaces of Craigie. The 
public school is new, and has accommoda- 
tion for 100 scholars. 

CRAIGIE, village and site of old castle, 
in East Church parish, Perth. 

CRAIGIE, village in Caputh parish, 
Perthshire. 

CRAIGIE, village and hill in Dalmeny 
parish, Linlithgowshire. 

CRAIGIE, hamlet in Belhelvie parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a public school 
with about 53 scholars. 



CRA 



105 



CRA 



CRAIGIE, hill in Leuchars parish, 
Fife. 

CRAIGIE, estate on the Tay, between 
Dundee and Broughty - Ferry, Forfar- 
shire. 

CRAIGIE, lake, continuous with Loch 
Loyal, in Sutherland. 

CRAIGIEBARNS, hill, about 1000 feet 
high, in northern vicinity of Dunkeld, 
Perthshire. It has very striking and 
diversified features, both natural and 
artificial, and commands a rich, extensive 
view. 

CRAIGIEBURN, seat, with wooded 
grounds, 2§ miles east of Moffat. It is 
sung by both Burns and Hogg. 

CRAIGIEHALL, estate on Almond river, 
in Dalmeny parish, Linlithgowshire. 

CRAIGIEHOW, hill in Avoch parish, 
Ross-shire. 

CRAIGIELANDS, modern village, adja- 
cent to Beattockrailway station, Dumfries- 
shire. It has a post office under Moffat. 

CRAIGIEVAR, mansion and hamlet in 
Leochel parish, Aberdeenshire. The man- 
sion is Craigievar Castle, a renovated old 
structure, a seat of Sir William Forbes, 
Bart. ; and the hamlet has a post office 
under Aberdeen. 

CRAIGIEVINEAN. See Ckaigvinean. 
CRAIGINLENUE, mountain in Luss par- 
ish, Dumbartonshire. 

CRAIGLAND, burn on boundary of 
Avoch parish. Boss-shire. 

CRAIGLAW, seat in Kirkcowan parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

CRAIGLEA, slate quarry in Fowlis- 
Wester parish, Perthshire. 

CRAIGLEITH, great sandstone quarry 
and new villa village, about 2 miles north- 
west of Edinburgh. 

CRAIGLEITH, islet, about a mile north 
of North Berwick, Haddingtonshire. 

CRAIGLIOCH, cliff, at romantic gorge of 
Ericht river, 2 miles north of Blairgowrie, 
Perthshire. 

CRAIGLOCKHART, hill, seat, hydro- 
pathic establishment, and Established 
church, about 2 miles south-west of Edin- 
burgh. The hill is wooded, partly basaltic, 
and about 540 feet high. The hydropathic 
establishment was opened in 1880, cost 
about £45,000, presents a frontage of 280 
feet to the west, and has fully 13 acres of 
recreation grounds. The church was in 
course of erection in the same year, and 
serves for Slateford and Gorgie districts. 

CRAIGLOCKHART, ruined strong lofty 
tower, on Mouse rivulet, near Lanark. 

CRAIGLUG, hill in Creich parish, 
Fife. 

CRAIGLUSCAR, hill, 2J miles north- 
west of Dunfermline, Fife. 

CRAIGLUSH, lake in course of Lunan 
river, in Caputh parish, Perthshire. 

CRAIGMADDIE, estate, with modern 
mansion, fragment of ancient castle, and 
group of memorial cairns, 2J miles north- 
east of Milngavie, south border of Stirling- 
shire. 



CRAIGMARK, village in Dalmellington 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 383. 

CRAIGMARLOCH, village on the Kelvin, 
at boundary between Kilsyth and Cum- 
bernauld. 

CRAIGMILE, seat near Kincardine 
O'Neil, Aberdeenshire. 

CRAIGMILL, village at south base of 
Abbey-Craig, near Stirling. 

CRAIGMILL, place in Rattray parish, 
Perthshire. It has a public school with 
about 79 scholars. 

CRAIGMILLAR, ruined grand castle, 2J 
miles south-east of Edinburgh. It dates 
from unknown times ; belonged for many 
ages to private parties ; was the prison 
of a brother of James III., and the 
residence of James V. in his minority; 
became the chief country retreat of Queen 
Mary ; and now, as a ruin, is large, strong, 
well preserved, and strikingly pictur- 
esque. 

CRAIGMON, mountain on north side of 
Loch Miulie, in Glenfarrar,Inverness-shire. 
CRAIGMONY, prominent rocky hill in 
Urquhart parish, Inverness-shire. 

CRAIGMORE, seat near Ascog, Isle of 
Bute. 

CRAIGMORE, mountain, 2306 feet high, 
14 miles north-north-east of Lairg, Suther- 
land. 

CRAIGMORE, precipitous hill, flanking 
part of Aberfoyle vale, in Aberfoyle par- 
ish, Perthshire. 

CRAIG-NA-COHELIG, great mural crag 
at side of Loch Lubnaig, Perthshire. 

CRAIG -NA-FEILE, insulated natural 
pillar, looking like a statue, near Loch 
Staffin, Isle of Skye. 

CRAIGNAIR, hill, with granite quarry, 
in Buittle parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CRAIGNEIL, ruined ancient fortalice, 
believed to have been a retreat of King 
Robert Bruce, in Colmonell parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

CRAIGNETHAN, ruined ancient castle, 
on Nethan river, about a mile from the 
Clyde, in Lesmahagow parish, Lanarkshire. 
It was built by an ancestor of the Duke of 
Hamilton ; figured long as both a noble 
residence and a strong fort ; is said to 
have been inhabited by Queen Mary for 
several days, on the eve of the battle of 
Langside ; suffered removal of most of its 
walls for erection of neighbouring build- 
ings ; and, as depicted by his imagination, 
was Sir Walter Scott's ' Tillietudlem 
Castle ' in his Old Mortality. 

CRAIGNEUK, town, about J mile east of 
Motherwell, Lanarkshire. It has a public 
school with about 450 scholars, and is near 
an excellent flagstone quarry. 
• CRAIGNISDALE, hill in Kilmuir parish, 
Isle of Skye. It is partly precipi- 
tous and basaltic, has a height of about 
1000 feet, and is crowned by the Quir- 
aing. 

CRAIGNISH, sea-loch and parish in Lorn 
district, Argyleshire. The loch opens from 
lower part of Loch Crinan ; extends 6 miles 



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106 



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to the north-east ; has a width of from 3 miles 
at the mouth to 7 furlongs near the head ; 
and is sprinkled with numerous islands, 
islets, and rocks. The parish comprises a 
peninsula, widening from a point to 2J 
miles between the loch and Jura Sound ; 
extends thence to a total length of about 
11 miles ; and has an average breadth of 
about 2 miles. Its post town is Orinan, 
under Lochgilphead. Real property in 
1880-81, £3950. Pop. 451. The surface 
is partly flat, partly rugged, and partly an 
assemblage of moors and hills, with ex- 
treme altitude of about 700 feet. The 
seats are Barbreck, Dail, and Craignish 
Castle, the last variously ancient and 
modern, notable for resisting a long siege 
by Colkitto ; and the antiquities include 
vestiges of eleven Scandinavian forts and 
remains of two religious houses. The 
church contains 500 sittings, and the public 
school has about 71 scholars. 

CRAIGNISTON, hill and burn in Fordoun 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

CRAIGNURE, small bay and hamlet on 
east side of Mull Island, Argyleshire. 
The bay goes inward from Duart Castle ; 
and the hamlet lies near its head, and 
has a post office under Oban, an inn, and a 
church. 

CRAIGO, village and seat on the North 
Esk, 21J miles north-east of Forfar. The 
village is a seat of manufacture, and has a 
railway station, and a public school with 
about 110 scholars. Pop. 124. 

CRAIGOBNEY, hill in Auchtergaven 
pai'ish, Perthshire. 

CRAIGOCH, burn in Portpatrick parish, 
"Wigtonshire. 

CRAIGOWL, hill, 1100 feet high, in 
Tealing parish, Forfarshire. It is one of 
the loftiest of the Sidlaws. 

CRAIG-PHADRICK, hill, 1150 feet high, 
2 miles west of Inverness. It commences 
the north-west hill-flank of the Great 
Glen ; has wooded acclivities, rocky escarp- 
ments, and a tabular summit ; is crowned 
by a large, oblong, double-walled vit- 
rified fort ; and commands an extensive 
view. 

CRAIGROSSIE, mountain, culminating 
4 miles east-south-east of Auchterarder, 
Perthshire. It has a height of 2359 feet 
above sea-level, and is one of the most pro- 
minent of the Ochils. 

CRAIGROTHIE, village, 2 miles west of 
Ceres, Fife. 

CRAIGROWNIE, quoad sacra parish, with 
church between Kilcreggan and Cove, on 
Roseneath peninsula, Dumbartonshire. 
Pop. 1136. 

CRAIGROYSTON, cave on east side of 
Loch Lomond, If mile north of Inversnaid. 
It is said to have given shelter to King 
Robert Bruce, and to have been used by 
Rob Roy for holding council with his sub- 
alterns ; and it is often called Rob Roy's 
Cave. 

CRAIGS, village at boundary between 
Polmont and Muiravonside parishes, 



Stirlingshire. Pop. with Compthall and 
Rumford, 314. 

CRAIGS, place near Old Kilpatrick, 
Dumbartonshire. It has a United Presby- 
terian church. 

CRAIGS, estate in "Westerkirk parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CRAIGSIMMY, hill in Creich parish, Fife. 

CRAIGS OF KYLE. See Cotlton. 

CRAIGSPARROW, hill in Newburgk 
parish, Fife. 

CRAIGSTON, castellated seat in King- 
Edward parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CRAIGSTON, place in Barra parish, 
Outer Hebrides. It has a public school 
with about 56 scholars. 

CRAIGTHORNHILL, seat in Glassford 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CRAIGTON, village in Monikie parish, 
Forfarshire. It has a post office under 
Carnoustie. 

CRAIGTON, place within Peterhead 
burgh, Aberdeenshire. It has a public 
school with about 142 scholars. 

CRAIGTON, place in New Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire. It has a public 
school with about 56 scholars. 

CRAIGTON, seat near the railway, west 
of Pollockshields, Renfrewshire. 

CRAIGTON, estate in Abercorn parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

CRAIGTURRAH, acclivitous hill in 
Tynron parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CRAIGVINEAN, long rugged wooded 
hill-ridge in Little Dunkeld parish, Perth- 
shire. It figures prominently in the grand 
scenery around Dunkeld, and commands 
extensive views. 

CRAIKMOOR, hill in Roberton parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

CRAIL, town and parish in south-east 
corner of Fife. The town stands on the 
coast, 4 miles east-north-east of An- 
struther ; is a seaport and a royal burgh, 
uniting with St. Andrews and 5 other Fife 
burghs in sending a member to Parliament ; 
had anciently a royal castle, inhabited by 
David I. ; retains in many of its houses an 
antique aspect ; contains an ancient fine 
Gothic church, famous as the place where 
John Knox preached the sermon which 
created the popular rush against the 
monasteries ; figures more in fisheries than 
in commerce or manufactures ; and has a 
post office with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Fifeshire, a 
banking office,apublic library, some ruins of 
an ancient priory, a Free church, a United 
Presbyterian church, and 2 public schools 
with about 263 scholars. Real property in 
1880-81, £3441. Pop. 1145.— The parish 
includes Fifeness, has about 4 miles of 
coast, and measures 6 miles in length, and 
about 2| miles in extreme breadth. Acres, 
6383. Real property of landward part in 
1880-81, £11,766. Pop. of the whole, 1752. 
The coast is mostly bold and rocky ; and the 
interior rises abruptly thence to elevations 
of from 20 to 80 feet, swells gradually 
thence to the west, and has a prevailingly 



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107 



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flat and naked appearance. The seats are 
Airdrie, Kingsmuir, Kirkmay, Wormi- 
stone, and Balcomie ; and a curious object 
is a dry-stone dyke about § mile in length, 
enclosing a triangular space at Fifeness, 
and traditionally alleged to have been con- 
structed by the Danes. 

CRAILING, village and parish in north 
centre of Roxburghshire. The village 
stands on Oxnain rivulet, 4 miles north- 
east of Jedburgh, and has a post office 
under Kelso, a parochial church, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 
71 scholars. — The parish contains also 
the village and railway station of Nisbet, 
is bisected by the Teviot, and measures 
about 4 by 3f miles. Acres, 9997. Real 
property in 1880-81, £10,156. _ Pop. 638. 
The land is mostly fine valley, rising gently 
from both sides of the Teviot, but includes 
Penielheugh Hill, with its surmounting 
conspicuous monument. The chief re- 
sidences are Crailing House and the Mar- 
quis of Lothian's seat of Mounteviot. 

CRAILSTON, seat in Newhills parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CRAMMAG, headland in Kirkmaiden 
parish, "Wigtonshire. 

CRAMOND, village and island in 
Edinburghshire, and parish partly also in 
Linlithgowshire. The village stands on 
the coast at mouth of Almond river, 5| 
miles west-north-west of Edinburgh ; oc- 
cupies the site of a Roman station ; and 
has a post office under Cramond-Bridge, 
a small harbour, a cruciform parochial 
church of 1656, a burying-ground in which 
an ancient Runic ring was recently found, 
and a public school with about 95 scholars. 
Pop. 952. — The island lies f mile north- 
north-east of the village, is accessible on 
foot at low water, comprises about 19 acres, 
and is pastured by sheep. — The parish con- 
tains also Granton, Davidson's Mains, and 
"Wardie villages, Cramond-Bridge hamlet, 
and small part of Leith burgh. Its length 
is 6 miles ; its greatest breadth 2 miles ; 
its area 4747 acres in Edinburghshire, and 
530 in Linlithgowshire. Real property 
in 1880-81, £38,870 and £969. Pop. 2877 
and 84. The Almond runs between the 
Edinburghshire and the Linlithgowshire 
sections, and has here finely embellished 
banks. The land includes part of Corstor- 
phine Hill, is elsewhere either flat or 
undulating, possesses a large aggregate of 
wood, and presents on the whole a very 
rich appearance. Ironstone and coal are 
found, and iron is forged at works on the 
Almond. Chief residences are Barnton 
House, Cramond House, Caroline Park, 
Lauriston Castle, Craigcrook, New Saugh- 
ton, Braehead, and numerous other 
mansions and villas. An Established 
church is at Granton, and Free churches 
are at Davidson's Mains and Wardie. 6 
schools for 483 scholars are in the parish, 
and 1 of them for 114 is new. 

CRAMOND-BRIDGE, hamlet on Almond 
river, 6 miles west-by-north of Edinburgh. 



It has a post office designated -of Mid- 
lothian, and a hotel. 

CRAMOND - REGIS, ancient hunting- 
seat of the kings of Scotland, on ground 
now occupied by Barnton House, in 
Cramond parish, Edinburghshire. 

CRANE, lake in Dunsyre parish, Lanark- 
shire. It lies amid moors and marshes at 
about 800 feet above sea-level. 

CRANNICH, section of Weem parish, on 
north-west side of Loch Tay, Perthshire. 

CRANSHAW, hill in Hounam parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

CRANSHAWS, parish on north border of 
Berwickshire, with church 8 miles north- 
west of Dunse. It has a post office under 
Dunse. It consists of two sections lying 
from f mile to 2\ miles apart ; it measures 
nearly 6 miles from end to end ; and it 
comprises 8708 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £2484. Pop. 106. The surface 
lies all among the Larnmermoors, has 
summits from 1049 to 1522 feet high, and 
includes only about 900 acres of cultivated 
land. Cranshaws Castle is a modernized 
ancient fortalice, and may have been the 
' Ravens wood Castle ' of Sir Walter Scott's 
Bride of Lammermoor. The public school 
has about 56 scholars. 

CRANSTON, parish, containing the post 
office village of Cousland, the villages of 
Preston, Chesterhill, and Sauchanside, and 
part of the post office village of Ford, on 
east border of Edinburghshire. Its length 
is 5 miles ; its greatest breadth 3 miles ; 
its area 5100 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £9178. Pop. 998. The surface 
is uneven but not hilly, and presents a 
cultivated, embellished, and beautiful 
appearance. Coal, limestone, and sand- 
stone abound. Chief objects are Oxen- 
ford Castle and Prestonhall, the former a 
seat of the Earl of Stair. The parochial 
church is a handsome Gothic edifice of 
1826 ; a United Presbyterian church is at 
Ford ; and the public school has about 156 
scholars. Cranston gave the peerage title 
of baron to a family of its own name from 
1609 till 1869. 

CRANSTONHILL, eminence on right 
bank of the Clyde, immediately above 
Glasgow. It gave name to waterworks 
constructed in 1806. 

CR AN YARD, hill in Kingoldrum parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CRASK, hill in Loth parish, Sutherland. 

CRASPUL, lake in Durness parish, 
Sutherland. 

CRATHES, hamlet and mansion, 3 miles 
east of Banchory, Kincardineshire. The 
hamlet has a post office under Aberdeen, 
a railway station, and a public school with 
about 70 scholars. The mansion is the 
seat of Sir Robert Burnett, Bart., and is a 
castellated, stately ancient edifice, figuring 
in the old ballad of the ' Baron o' Leys. ' 

CRATHIE, parish in extreme south- 
west of Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office of its own name under Aberdeen, 
and contains the villages of Auchendryne 



CRA 



108 



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and Castleton - Braemar, and the royal 
seat of Balmoral Castle. Its length is 28 
miles ; its greatest breadth 15 miles ; its 
area 182,257 acres. Beal property in 
1880-81, £14,430. Pop., quoad civilia, 
1611 ; quoad sacra, 735. The entire area 
is the upper part of the basin of the Dee ; 
the boundary all round, except on the east, 
is an alpine watershed ; the section around 
the Dee's sources includes a main portion 
of Cairngorm Mountains ; and the rest of 
the surface is an imposing assemblage of 
lofty upland, picturesque crag, deep glen, 
and ornate valley. Not less than about 
10,500 acres are under wood. The seats, 
besides Balmoral Castle, are Abergeldie, 
Invercauld, Mar Lodge, and Corrymulzie 
Cottage. The parochial church was built 
in 1806, and contains about 900 sittings. 
A Free church is near the parochial one ; 
and Established, Free, and Roman Catho- 
lic churches are in Castleton. 7 schools 
are in the parish, and have accommodation 
for 430 scholars. 

CRATHIE, headland in Fordyce parish, 
Banffshire. 

CRAWFORD, village and parish in 
southern extremity of Lanarkshire. The 
village stands on the Clyde, 2 miles south- 
east of Abington, and was once of some 
importance, but has now a poor appear- 
ance. The parish contains also Leadhills 
town, and measures about 18 miles in 
length and 1H in greatest breadth. Acres, 
65,407. Real property in 1880-81, £22,063. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 1763 ; quoad sacra, 
698. The surface lies wholly among the 
Southern Highlands ; includes main part 
of the Lowther Mountains ; consists of 
uplands with many intersecting vales ; and 
has prevailingly a bleak and bare appear- 
ance. An ancient estate, comprehending 
all the parish, gave to the family of 
Lindsay in 1398 the title of earl, now 
borne jointly with that of Earl of Bal- 
carres. Crawford Castle, now a ruin, 
called Tower Lindsay, stands on the 
Clyde, opposite Crawford village ; and 
either it, or a previous structure on the 
same site, is said to have been the scene 
of a notable exploit by Sir William Wal- 
lace. Newton House is the only modern 
mansion. The parochial church is at 
Crawford village, and a quoad sacra parish 
church is at Leadhills. 3 schools for 168 
scholars are in the parish, and 1 of them 
and an enlargement for 85 are new. 

CRAWFORDJOHN, village and parish in 
upper ward of Lanarkshire. The village 
stands on Duncaton rivulet, 3f miles from 
its influx to the Clyde, and has a post 
office under Abington, a parochial church 
with 310 sittings, and a public school with 
about 72 scholars. The parish contains 
also Abington village, and measures 11 
miles in length and about 9 miles in 
greatest breadth. Area, 26,357 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £11,088. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 843 ; quoad sacra, 836. 
The surface comprises about 3200 acres of 



arable land, but is chiefly pastoral upland, 
and includes part of Cairntable Mountain. 
A feudal tower stands at Snar, and vestiges 
of a great camp are on Netherton Hill. A 
Free church is at Abington ; and 4 schools 
with accommodation for 220 scholars are 
within the parish. 

CRAWFORD PRIORY, modern Gothic 
castellated seat of the Earl of Glasgow, 
2 miles south-west of Cupar, Fife. It was 
built in 1813, and enlarged in 1871, and 
has a spired tower 115 feet high. 

CRAWFURDLAND, castellated seat, 
partly ancient and partly modern, 2f 
miles east of Kilmaurs, Ayrshire. 

CRAWFURDSBURN. See Cartsburn. 

CRAWHILL, seat in Torphichen parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

CRAWICK, rivulet, running about 9 
miles south-westward to the Nitb, near 
Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire. 

CRAWICK-BRIDGE, hamlet in Sanquhar 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CRAWICK-MILL, suburb of Sanquhar 
burgh, Dumfriesshire. 

CRAWLEY, copious spring and Edin- 
burgh waterworks, among the Pentlands, 
about 3 miles north-west of Penicuick, 
Edinburghshire. 

CRAWTON, fishing village 4 miles south 
of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. 

CRAY, place, with Free church, in 
Blairgowrie parish, Perthshire. 

CRAYINCH, island, i mile north-east of 
Inchmurrin, Loch Lomond. 

CREACHBEN, mountain, 2344 feet high, 
in south-east of Mull Island, Argyleshire. 

CREACHBEN, lofty mountain in Sunart 
district, Argyleshire. 

CREAGACH, headland on south side of 
Laggan Bay, Islay Island, Argyleshire. 

CREAGARRY, place in North Uist, 
Outer Hebrides. It has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Lochmaddy. 

CREANWALL, two islets in Barra parish, 
Outer Hebrides. 

CREE, river, rising in Ayrshire, running 
chiefly between Kirkcudbrightshire and 
Wigtonshire, expanding there into a 
narrow lake nearly 3 miles long, forming 
a long narrow estuary below Newton- 
Stewart, achieving a total course of about 25 
miles.and entering the head of WigtonBay. 

CREEBRIDGE, village on Cree river, in 
Minnigaff parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. It 
has a public school with about 134 scholars. 

CREED, rivulet, running eastward to 
Loch Stornoway, in Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

CREETOWN, seaport village on Cree 
estuary, 1\ miles south-south-east of New- 
ton-Stewart. It dates chiefly from 1785, 
presents a pleasing intermixture of houses 
and gardens, and has a post office with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Kirkcudbrightshire, a railway 
station, an inn, a town hall, an Established 
church, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a public school with about 76 scholars. 
Pop. 973. 



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109 



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CREGGAN, ferry on Loch Fyne, at 
Strachur, Argyleshire. 

CREICH, parish, averagely about 4 
miles north-west of Cupar, Fife. It 
contains the post office villages of Brunton 
and Luthrie, and comprises 2341 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £4069. Pop. 
386. The land is chiefly an assemblage 
of hills, varying in bulk and form, and 
nowhere higher than 550 feet above sea- 
level. Creich Castle, the ancient residence 
of the Bethunes, is now a ruin ; and Par- 
broath Castle is now represented by only 
part of an arch. The parochial church 
stands at Luthrie, and there is a Free 
church for Creich and Flisk. The public 
school has accommodation for 79 scholars. 

CREICH, place in Kilfinichen parish, 
Mull Island, Argyleshire. It has a public 
school with about 120 scholars. 

CREICH, Sutherland. See Criech. 

CREID. See CREED. 

CREIGH, hill in Lintrathen parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CREIGRIABHACH, mountain - range in 
Durness parish, Sutherland. 

CRERAN, rivulet and sea-loch in north 
of Argyleshire. The rivulet runs about 12 
miles west -south-westward to the loch's 
head, and forms, in its lower reach, the 
lake of Fasnacloich. The loch strikes 10 
miles west-south-westward and westward 
to Loch Linnhe, opposite Lismore Island ; 
has nowhere a greater breadth than 1J 
mile ; and is crossed in its lower part by a 
ferry, on the line of road from Oban to 
Fort-William. 

CRIANLARICH, place at meeting-point 
of Glendochart, Strathfillan, and Glenfal- 
loch, in Killin parish, Perthshire. It has 
a railway station, a post office under Stir- 
ling, and a hotel. 

CRIBHOPE, small vale in Hounam par- 
ish, Roxburghshire. 

CRIBLAW, hill in Eoberton parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

CRICHIE, village, now better known as 
Steuartfield, in Old Deer parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

CRICHIE, hill near Inverury, Aberdeen- 
shire. It has traces of an ancient camp, 
and it figures in the history of King 
Robert Bruce. 

CRICHTON, village and parish on east- 
ern border of Edinburghshire. The village 
stands 2 miles north-east of Fushiebridge 
railway station, and has a cruciform church 
of 1449, and a public school with about 
205 scholars. — The parish contains also the 
village of Pathhead, part of the post 
office village of Ford, and part of the 
village of Fala-Dam. Its length is 5^ 
miles ; its greatest breadth 4J miles ; its 
area 4821 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£8754. Pop. 1094. The surface is a 
continuous series of hill and dale, of such 
average character that about five-sixths of 
it are arable. Limestone is extensively 
worked. Crichton Castle was founded 
by Sir William Crichton, Chancellor of 



Scotland in the time of James II ; made 
resistance to the Douglases, and gave 
entertainments to Queen Maiy ; is now 
a massive ruin with veiy striking architec- 
tural features ; and was graphically de- 
picted by Sir Walter Scott in his Marmion. 
A rising ground with extensive view has 
distinct vestiges of a Roman camp. A 
Free church is at Pathhead, and a United 
Presbyterian church is at Ford. 

CRICHUP, waterfall, with leap of 85 
feet, 4J miles north-east of Thornhill, 
Dumfriesshire. The fall occurs on a 
brook within a deep, dark, cavernous 
chasm, of character depicted by Sir Walter 
Scott in his Old Mortality as the haunt of 
Balfour of Burley. 

CRIECH, parish, containing the post 
office village of Bonar-Bridge, in south of 
Sutherland. It extends from Benmore- 
Assynt to within 2j miles of Dornoch, and 
is 28 miles long, but nowhere more than 9 
miles broad. Real property in 1880-81, 
£10,584. Pop. 2223. _ The surface is 
mostly hilly or mountainous ; and only 
about one-thirtieth of it is under cultiva- 
tion. Chief seats are Rosehall and Ospis- 
dale ; and chief antiquities are a vitrified 
fort on Criech Hill, and numerous tumuli 
on a supposed great battlefield about the 
year 1100 at Drinleah. The churches are 
1 Established and 2 Free. There are 4 
schools for 385 scholars, and 2 of them and 
an enlargement for 241 are new. 

CRIEFF, town and parish in Strathearn 
district, Perthshire. The town stands on 
left bank of the Earn, 17f miles west- 
south-west of Perth, and has a small 
suburb within Muthill parish, on the right 
bank. It dates from at least the early 
part of 13th century ; made a conspicuous 
figure in the feudal times ; and was long 
the seat of both the civil and the criminal 
courts of the Stewards of Strathearn. It 
has charming environs ; stands chiefly on 
the face of a brae overhung by a wooded 
hill ; comprises 3 main streets diverging 
from a central square ; has undergone 
recent great extension and improvement ; 
commands delightful views over a wide 
extent of picturesque country ; and attracts 
great numbers of tourists, summer visitors, 
and invalids. It has a head post office 
with all departments, railway communica- 
tion toward both Perth and Stirling, 4 
banking offices, 2 hotels, a town hall, a 
large and costly hydropathic establish- 
ment erected in 1866 and enlarged in 1879, 
a drainage system constructed in 1877, 
several public libraries, 2 Established 
churches, Free and United Presbyterian 
churches, an elegant Episcopalian church 
of 1877, Congregational, Baptist, and 
Roman Catholic chapels, and 2 great public 
schools. A new East parish church was 
projected in 1881 ; and a railway to Comrie, 
probably with continuation to Lochearn- 
head, was projected in 1880. Pop. of the 
town, 4579. — The parish consists of 4 
sections, all detached from one another, 



CRT 



110 



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and comprises 20,385 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £29,805. Pop., quoad civilia, 
4852 ; quoad sacra, 2864. The section con- 
taining the town measures about 4 miles 
by 3, contains no higher ground than the 
wooded hill called the Knock of Crieff, 
and exhibits the beauty and luxuriance 
which so extensively prevail on the low 
grounds of Strathearn. Two other sections, 
Callander and Achalhanzie, lie in the low 
country, but are of small extent. The 
fourth section, comprising Corriemucklock 
and the greater part of Glenalmond, lies 
north of Monzie parish, and is mostly 
highland, or even alpine, romantic, and 
wild. Both the seats and the interesting 
natural objects are numerous. 4 schools 
for 848 scholars are in the parish, and an 
enlargement of 1 of them for 345 is new. 

CRIEFF JUNCTION, railway station, 11J 
miles south-east of Crieff, Perthshire. 

CRIEFF (WEST), quoad sacra parish, 
with church, in Crieff town, Perthshire. 
Pop. 2114. 

CRIEVE, hill in Tundergarth parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CRIFFEL, mountain, about 6 miles long 
and 1830 feet high, culminating at 10 
miles south of Dumfries, overhanging 
right side of the Nitk's influx to Solway 
Firth, and commanding an extensive view. 

CRIMELS, place on coast of Eyemouth 
parish, Berwickshire. 

CRIMOND, parish on coast of Buchan, 
midway between Peterhead and Fraser- 
burgh, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office of its own name under Peterhead. 
Its length is about 5J miles ; its greatest 
breadth about 3J miles ; its area 5892 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £5998. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 832 ; quoad sacra, S10. 
The coast includes Rattray Head, is mostly 
a broad belt of flat beach and sandy hills, 
and rises thence abruptly to a height of 
about 200 feet : and the interior first 
descends gradually from that height, and 
then ascends gently to the south and the 
south-west. Excellent building stone is 
quarried. The church is modern, and con- 
tains 500 sittings ; and the public school 
has about 139 scholars. 

CRIMONBMOGATE, seat of Sir George 
Bannerman, Bart., in Lonmay parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

CRINAN, seaport village, sea-loch, and 
canal in Argyleshire. The village stands 
on upper part of the loch, 9 miles west- 
north-west of Ardrishaig, and has a post 
office under Lochgilphead, a hotel, a 
wharf, and a lighthouse. The loch ex- 
tends 4£ miles south-westward to Sound 
of Jura, and is tame and narrow at the 
head, but very picturesque lower down, 
and 3 miles wide at the mouth. The 
canal goes from the village on the loch to 
vicinity of Ardrishaig on Loch Gilp ; was 
formed in 1793-1801, and much improved 
at successive times ; and conveys vessels 
of less than 200 tons burden direct from 
Greenock to the Western seas. 



CRINGLETIE, seat, 3| miles north of 
Peebles. 

CRIOMABHAL, hill, 1500 feet high, on 
north side of Loch Resort, in Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. 

CROACHY, place, with Episcopalian 
chapel, in Daviot parish, Inverness-shire. 

CROCKETFORD, village, 10 miles north- 
east of Castle-Douglas, Kirkcudbright- 
shire. It has a post office under Dumfries, 
and a public school with about 70 scholars. 

CROE, short river, running impetuously 
to east end of Loch Duich, Ross-shire. 

CROFTDYKE, suburb of Ceres, in Fife. 

CROFTHEAD, town, 3f miles south-west 
of Whitburn, Linlithgowshire. It stands 
amid a bleak, moorish mineral field, is of 
recent origin, consists of Crofthead-Pro- 
per and Fauldhouse, and has a post office 
of Fauldhouse, with money order and 
telegraph departments, designated of Lin- 
lithgowshire, railway stations of Crofthead 
and Fauldhouse, a banking office, and 
Established, Free, and Roman Catholic 
churches. Pop. of Crofthead-Proper and 
Fauldhouse, 3000. 

CROFTHEAD, village, f mile south-west 
of Neilston, Renfrewshire. It had a 
cotton factory so early as 1792, and was 
the terminus of Glasgow and Neilston 
Railway till formation of the continued 
line thence to Kilmarnock. Pop. with 
Levernbank, 609. 

CROFTHEAD, place, with cave, in Kirk- 
mahoe parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CROFTINLOAN, seat, between Pitlochrie 
and Moulinearn, Perthshire. 

CROFTON, seat near Lanark. 

CROFTS, estate in Carmylie parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CROFTS, place, with interesting oval 
camp, in Crossmichael parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

CROGLIN, craggy precipitous hill in 
Tynron parish, Dumfriesshire. 

CROGO, hamlet in Balmaclellan parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CROICK, quoad sacra parish within Kin- 
cardine quoad civilia parish, Ross-shire. 
Its church stands in a sequestered vale, 
about 12 miles from Bonar-Bridge. The 
public school has about 20 scholars. Pop. 
194. 

CROKACH, lake, 2h. miles north of 
Lochinver, Sutherland. 

CROMALT, hiUs, 12 miles south of 
Assynt church, Sutherland. 

CROMAR, section of Mar district, Aber- 
deenshire. It comprehends Coull, Tar- 
land, Migvie, Logie-Coldstone, and part 
of Tulloch parishes, and has a Free 
church. 

CROMARTY, town and parish in Cro- 
martyshire, and firth partly also in Ross- 
shire. The town stands on fine bay, on 
south side of the firth, near the firth's 
mouth, 21^ miles north-north-east of In- 
verness ; is a seaport and a parliamentary 
burgh, uniting with Dingwall, Tain, Dor- 
noch, Wick, and Kirkwall in sending a 



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CRO 



member to Parliament ; adjoins Cromarty 
Hill, the scene of a victory of Sir William 
Wallace, with magnificent view ; figures as 
the seat of the thaneship of Macbeth, and 
as the birth-place of Hugh Miller ; consists 
of close irregular streets ; and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Cromartyshire, 
2 banking offices, 2 hotels, an obeliskal 
monument to Hugh Miller, 2 Established 
churches, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 200 scholars. Real property in 
18S0-81, £1905. Pop. 1352.— The parish is 
7 miles long, and from 1 to 4 miles broad. 
Real property in 1880-81, £5447. Pop. 2009. 
The coast on Moray Firth is abrupt, precipit- 
ous,and lofty, but on Cromarty Firth islow; 
and the interior, as seen from the north, 
presents a bold high outline, rising toward 
the lofty eastern coast and declining in 
long ridge toward the west. Cromarty 
House is a chief residence. 3 schools for 
186 scholars were formerly in the parish, 
but gave place to 2 new ones for 370. — The 
firth is the estuary of Conan river ; com- 
mences near Dingwall ; goes curvingly 
north-eastward to Moray Firth ; measures 
about 20 miles in length, and mostly from 
\\ to 2i miles in breadth ; makes a north- 
ward expansion in its lower part to the 
extent of 6 miles by 4 ; and terminates in 
a narrow mouth between two bold pro- 
montories, called the Sutors of Cromarty. 

CROMARTYSHIRE, county, comprehend- 
ing Ardmeanach, Coigach, most of north- 
ern acclivity of Stratkpeffer, and several 
small tracts, all detached from one another, 
some of them at wide distances, the whole 
so interspersed with Ross-shire as to be 
identified for almost every practical pur- 
pose with that county. 

CROMBIE, small headland, harbour, 
village, and estate, in old parish now 
united to Torryburn, in Fife. 

CROMBIE, old castle, now of three 
storeys, but formerly much higher, in 
Marnoch parish, Banffshire. 

CROMBIE, burn in Kingoldrum parish, 
Forfarshire. 

CROMDALE, parish containing Gran- 
town, and intersected by the Spey, in 
Elginshire. Part of it, prior to 1870, was 
in Inverness-shire. It has a post office of its 
own name designated of Morayshire, and a 
railway station. Its length is 17 miles; its 
extreme breadth 10 miles. Real property 
in 1880-81, £11,926. Pop., quoad civilia, 
3642; quoad sacra, 1145. Low grounds 
lie adjacent to the Spey ; sloping wooded 
hills rise on the north ; and the moun- 
tain range called Cromdale Hill occupies 
the south. The low grounds, known and 
sung as the Haughs of Cromdale, were the 
scene of a famous skirmish in 1690. The 
only mansion is Castle-Grant, a seat of the 
Earl of Seafield ; and the chief antiquities 
are the ruined castles of Muckerach and 
Lochindorb. ' The churches are 2 Es- 
tablished, a Free, and a Baptist. There 
are 7 schools for 802 scholars, and 3 of 



them and an enlargement for 350 are new. 
A suspension passenger bridge was erected 
in 1881. 

CROMLIX, place, with 2 mineral springs, 
lj mile north of Dunblane, Perthshire. 

CROMORE, harbour in mouth of Loch 
Erisort,east coast of Lewis,Outer Hebrides. 

CROMWELL PARK, village on Almond 
river, in Redgorton parish, Perthshire. 

CROMWELL'S MOUNT, small mound in 
Broxmouth Park, near Dunbar, Hadding- 
tonshire. Oliver Cromwell stood on it 
when directing the advance to the battle 
of Dunbar. 

CRONA, flat islet, adjoining Oldney, in 
Assynt parish, Sutherland. 

CRONBERRY, village in Auchinleck 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 799. 

CROOK, hamlet in Alves parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

CROOK, place on the Tweed, 15 miles 
south-west of Peebles. It has a post office 
under Biggar, and an inn. 

CROOK, affluent of the North Esk, in 
Forfarshire. 

CROOKEDHOLM, suburb of Hurlford, 
Ayrshire. It has a large spinning-mill, 
and a large public school. Pop. 657. 

CROOKHOLM, seat in Canonbie parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

CROOK OF DEVON, small ancient village, 
with railway station, contiguous to sharp 
turn of the river Devon, 6 miles west of 
Kinross. 

CROOKSTON, ruined castle, 3 miles 
south-east of Paisley, Renfrewshire. It 
belonged to the Lennox branch of the 
Stewarts, and is believed to have been the 
scene of Lord Darnley's betrothment to 
Queen Mary. 

CROOKSTON, seat on the Gala, 5^ miles 
north-north-west of Stow, Edinburghshire. 

CROSBY, ancient chapelry in Monkton 
parish, Ayrshire. Its burying-ground and 
remains of its church still exist. 

CROSS, quoad sacra parish within 
Barvas quoad civilia parish in Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. It has 2 churches, Es- 
tablished and Free. Pop. 2725. 

CROSS, affluent of Luce river, Wigton- 
shire. 

CROSSAIG, rivulet and seat in Saddell 
parish, Kintyre, Argyleshire. 

CROSS AND BURNESS, parish in north 
of Orkney. It comprehends the south- 
western and north-western limbs of Sanday 
Island and all North Ronaldshay. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1677 ; quoad sacra, 1130. 
Churches are in both Sanday and North 
Ronaldshay, and public schools are in both 
Cross and Burness. 

CROSS ARTHURLEE, suburb of Barr- 
head, in Renfrewshire. 

CROSSBANK, seat near Crossford, 
Lanarkshire. 

CROSSBASKET, seat in East Kilbride 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CROSSBOST, place in Lochs parish, Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. It has a post office under 
Stornoway, and a Free church of 1882. 



CRO 



112 



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CROSSBURN, seat in Douglas parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CROSSCHAIN, rising ground, historically 
connected with Soutra ancient hospital, 
and situated near it in the south-western 
extremity of Haddingtonshire. 

CROSSCROIN, hill in Culter parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CROSSDARDAR, hill, with large cairn, 
in Birse parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CROSSFORD, village on left side of the 
Clyde, 4§ miles north-west of Lanark. It 
has a post office under Lanark, a Free 
church, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a public school with about 129 scholars. 
Pop. 816. 

CROSSFORD, village, 1J mile west of 
Dunfermline, Fife. It has a public school 
with about 52 scholars. Pop. 282. 

CROSSFORD, place in Glencairn parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a public school with 
about 50 scholars. 

CROSSGATES, town, 3J miles east-north- 
east of Dunfermline, Fife. It has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Fif eshire, a rail- 
way station, waterworks of 1874, a United 
Presbyterian church, and a public school 
with about 138 scholars. Pop. 932. 

CROSSGATES, hamlet in Cults parish, 
Fife. 

CROSSHALL, collier village, 2J miles 
south-south-east of Falkirk, Stirlingshire. 

CROSSHALL, sculptured ancient monu- 
ment in Eccles parish, Berwickshire. 

CROSSHANDS, place, with public school, 
in Mauchline parish, Ayrshire. 

CROSSHILL, suburb, 2 miles south of 
Royal Exchange, Glasgow. It adjoins the 
Queen's Park, and communicates by tram- 
way with the city ; it arose in recent 
years around the site of a small old village, 
and became a police burgh in 1871 ; it 
comprises both irregular thoroughfares 
and fine rows of villas ; it contains 2 
public halls, opened in respectively No- 
vember 1876 and December 1879 ; and it 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, under Glasgow, 
and 3 handsome churches, Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian. Pop. 2960. 

CROSSHILL, village and quoad sacra 
parish in Carrick district, Ayrshire. The 
village stands on Girvan river, 3 miles 
south-west of Maybole, presents a neat 
appearance, and has a post office, with 
money order department, under Maybole, 
Established and Free churches, and 2 
public schools with about 222 scholars. 
Pop. 740. The quoad sacra parish has a 
public school also at Hillside. Pop. 1285. 

CROSSHILL, north-west section of Old 
Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. It con- 
tains a village of its own name, the town 
of Baillieston, and the villages of Swinton, 
West Marystown, Barachnie, and Craig- 
end. 

CROSSHILL, rjlace in Avondale parish, 
Lanarkshire. It has a public school with 
about 256 scholars. 



CROSSHILL, hamlet in East Kilbride 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CROSSHILL, eminence, with fine view, 
near Bishopton, in Erskine parish, Ren- 
frewshire. 

CROSSHOUSE, village, with railway 
station, If mile north-west of Kilmarnock, 
Ayrshire. It has a quoad sacra parochial 
church of 1882. Pop. 631. 

CROSSLEE, village, 7 miles north-west 
of Paisley, Renfrewshire. Pop. 406. 

CROSSLEE, hamlet, 4 miles south of 
Stow, Edinburghshire. It has a post 
office under Stow. 

CROSSMICHAEL, village and parish near 
centre of Kirkcudbrightshire. The village 
stands 4 miles west of Castle - Douglas, 
presents a pleasant appearance, and has a 
post office, designated of Kirkcudbright- 
shire, a railway station, a parochial church 
with about 650 sittings, and a public school 
with about 65 scholars. — The parish con- 
tains also Ringanwhey and Clarebrand, 
includes an outskirt of Castle-Douglas, and 
measures 5J miles in length, and 4 miles in 
greatest breadth. Acres, 9919. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £15,046. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 1333 ; quoad sacra, 1260. The 
river Dee traces the western boundary, 
and the river Urr the eastern. The land 
comprises extensive meadows adjacent to 
the rivers, and a finely-diversified fertile 
ridge between. Antiquities are numerous, 
and include moats, an oval camp, and re- 
mains of fortifications. 

CROSSMOUNT, seat near Mount Alex- 
ander, in Strathtummel, Perthshire. 

CROSSMYLOOF, suburb, 2 miles south- 
south-west of centre of Glasgow. It has a 
post office under Glasgow. Pop. 1475. 

CROSSPOL, bay in Coll Island, Argyle- 
shire. 

CROSSRAGUEL, extensive striking ruins 
of abbey of 13th century, 2 miles south- 
west of Maybole, Ayrshire. 

CROSSRIDGE, hill in Carmichael parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CROSSROADS, place in Riccarton parish, 
Ayrshire. It has a public school with 
about 65 scholars. 

CROSSROADS, hamlet in Slamannan 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

CROSSROADS, place in Dreghorn parish, 
Ayrshire. It has a public school with 
about 120 scholars. 

CROSSROADS, place, 3 miles from 
Grange railway station, Banffshire. It 
has a post office under Fochabers. 

CROSS-STREET, suburb of Stornoway, 
Outer Hebrides. 

CROSSTON, hamlet in Aberlemno 
parish, Forfarshire. 

CROULIN, group of islets in Applecross 
parish, Ross-shire. 

CROVIE, fishing village inGamrie parish, 
Banffshire. Pop. 258. 

CROY, parish in Nairnshire and Inver- 
ness-shire. It has a post office of its own 
name under Fort - George station. Its 
length is about 21 miles, but is intersected 



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113 



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by parts of 3 other parishes ; its greatest 
breadth is 9 miles ; and its area is 11,528 
acres in Nairnshire, and 11,251 acres in 
Inverness-shire. Real property in 1880-81, 
£3728 and £6775. Pop. 634 and 1075. Part 
of the land is fine strath, traversed by 
river Nairn ; and part is bleak naked moor, 
including Culloden. The seats are Kil- 
ravock, Leys, Holme, Cantray, and Dal- 
cross ; and the antiquities include a great 
group of cairns and ancient Caledonian 
stone circles. The churches are Estab- 
lished and Free ; and there are 2 new 
public schools for 220 scholars. 

CROY, hamlet, with railway station, If 
mile south-south-east of Kilsyth, and 10 
miles west-south-west of Falkirk. 

CRUACH, lofty mountain on western 
border of Fortingal parish, Perthshire. 

CRUACH-LUSSA, broad-based mountain, 
1530 feet high, with extensive view, in 
North Knapdale, Argyleshire. 

CRUCIFIELD, hill, with ancient concen- 
tric circles, in TJnst Island, Shetland. 

CRUCKIE, hill, with fine view, in Parton 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

CRUDEN, fishing village and parish in 
Buchan district, Aberdeenshire. The vil- 
lage stands at mouth of rivulet of its own 
name, on fine bay, 9 miles north-east-by- 
east of Ellon, has a post office under Ellon, 
and is sometimes called Ward. The parish 
contains also the villages of Finnyfold and 
Bullers-Buchan, and extends about 8^ 
miles along the coast, and about 7^ miles 
inland. Acres, 18,236. Beal property in 
1880-81, £16,073. Pop., quoad civilia, 
3444 ; quoad sacra, 2835. The northern 
half of the coast consists of lofty, precipi- 
tous, fissured cliffs, and includes the Bul- 
lers of Buchan ; and the southern part 
first opens into Cruden Bay, and then is 
flanked by a range of sunken rocks called 
Scares. The interior is cut into two nearly 
equal parts by Cruden rivulet ; and the 
northern border has a great extent of bog. 
Slains Castle, the seat of the Earl of 
Errol, stands on the southern part of the 
bold coast. The churches are Established, 
Free, and Episcopalian, There are 6 
schools for 501 scholars, and 1 of them 
and an enlargement for 184 are new. 

CRUDIE, place in Newbyth parish, Aber- 
deenshire. It has a public school with 
about 164 scholars. 

CRUGGLETON, old parish, with head- 
land and fragment of ancient castle, now 
united to Sorbie, Wigtonshire. 

CRUICK, rivulet, running about 12 miles 
eastward to the North Esk, near Stricka- 
throw, in Forfarshire. 

CRUIKSFIELD, seat in Buhkle parish, 
Berwickshire. 

CRUMSTANE, hill, with large cairn, in 
Langton parish, Berwickshire. 

CRUTHERLAND, seat in Glassford par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. 

CRYSTON. See Chryston. 

CUAN, narrow strait and ancient parish 
in Argyleshire. The strait separates Seil 



Island from Luing ; and the parish is now 
part of Kilbrandon. But all Kilbrandon 
is popularly called Cuan. 

CUCHULLIN, great, stern, pinnacled 
mountain-group, in extreme south of Skye 
Island, Inverness-shire. They occupy an 
area of about 45 square miles ; consist 
chiefly of bare, dark hypersthene rock ; 
are intersected by wild ravines ; and lift 
their three highest summits to altitudes 
of 3180, 3200, and 3220 feet. 

CUCKOLD-LE-ROI. See Cockxeroi. 

CUEN, lake, with islets, in Kildonan 
parish, Sutherland. 

CUFFABOUTS, hamlet in Carriden par- 
ish, Linlithgowshire. 

CUIL, bay on north-west coast of Appin, 
Argyleshire. 

CUILHILL, village in Old Monkland 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

CUL, headland on west coast of Islay 
Island, Argyleshire. 

CULAG, rivulet, running to Loch Inver, 
in Assynt parish, Sutherland. 

CULAIRD, hamlet in Dores parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

CULARDACH, mountain, 2953 feet high, 
6 miles north-north-east of Castleton- 
Braemar, Aberdeenshire. 

CULBEN, tract of about 9500 acres, on 
coast westward from outlet of Findhorn 
river, Elginshire. It was formerly very 
fertile, but is now a sandy desert. 

CULBLEAN, hill-range in Tullich section 
of Glenmuick parish, Aberdeenshire. It 
was the scene of a battle in 1335 between 
the forces of King David Bruce and those 
of the Earl of Athole. 

CULBOCKIE, village in TJrquhart parish, 
Boss-shire. It has a post office under 
Dingwall. 

CULBURNIE, pLice in Kiltarlity parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a public school 
with about 70 scholars. 

CULCABOCK, village about a mile 
south-east of Inverness. 

CULCREUCH, seat in Fintry parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CULDEES, seat in Muthill parish, Perth- 
shire. 

CULDUTHEL, village in Inverness par- 
ish, and moor in Inverness and Croy par- 
ishes, Inverness-shire. The village has a 
post office under Inverness, and a public 
school. 

CULFARGIE, estate in Abernethy par- 
ish, Perthshire. 

CULFREICH, lake in Assynt parish, 
Sutherland. 

CULHORN, seat, 2 miles south-east of 
Stranraer, "Wigtonshire. 

CULISH, place in Knockbain parish, 
Boss-shire. It has a public school with 
about 117 scholars. 

CULKEIN, place in Assynt parish, 
Sutherland. It has a public school with 
about 87 scholars. 

CULLALO, hill-range, a little south-east 
of Cowdenbeath, in Fife. Nearly 750 feet 
high, and its southern face is precipitous. 



CUL 



114 



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CULLEN, town and parish on coast of 
Banffshire. The town stands at mouth of 
rivulet of its own name, on crescent bay. 
14 miles west-north-west of Banff ; was 
mostly rebuilt on a new site subsequent to 
1822 ; is a seaport and a royal burgh, 
uniting with Banff, Elgin, Peterhead, 
Inverury, and Kintore in sending a member 
to Parliament ; presents a regular, well- 
built appearance ; and has a x^ost office, 
with money order and- telegraph depart- 
ments, under Fochabers, 2 banking offices, 
a large hotel, a good harbour, Established, 
Free, and Congregational churches, and 2 
public schools with about 451 scholars. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £3535. Pop. 
2033. — The parish comprises 881 acres. 
Eeal property of landward part in 1880-81, 
£1219. Pop. 2236. The land has a bold 
rocky coast, includes Bin of Cullen Hill, 
1048 feet high, is mostly rolling and pic- 
turesque, and comprises Seafield estate, 
giving the titles of viscount and earl to 
the family of Ogilvy. Cullen House, a 
seat of the Earl, stands near the town. 
Cullen rivulet comes in from Deskford, 
and has a total run of about 7 miles. 
There are 3 public schools for 542 scholars, 
and 1 of them for 430 is new. 

CULLEN, seat near Strathaven, Lanark- 
shire. 

CULLERLIE, estate in Echt parish, 
Aberdeenshire. A public school is on it, 
and has about 65 scholars. 

CULLICUDDEN, ancient parish, now 
forming western section of Resolis, in 
Boss-shire. It has a post office, with money 
order department, under Conan-Bridge, a 
fragment of its ancient church, and a public 
school with about 115 scholars. 

CULLIN See Cuchullin. 

CULLISAID, lake in Tongue parish, 
Sutherland. 

CULLIVOE, hamlet and bay in North 
Yell, Shetland. The hamlet has a post 
office under Lerwick, and the bay is a 
tolerably good open roadstead. 

CULLODEN, estate on north-east verge 
of Inverness-shire. It has a railway station 
3J miles east of Inverness, and gives name 
to the famous battle of 1746. The mansion 
on it belonged then to Lord President 
Forbes, and was for several days the head- 
quarters of Prince Charles Edward. Drum- 
mossie Moor, where the battle was fought, 
is 2 miles south-east of the railway station, 
and has an obeliskal monument of 1850, 
commemorative of the battle. 

CULLOW, place where fairs are held, 
near Kirriemuir, Forfarshire. 

CULLYCAN, ravine on coast of Gamrie 
parish, Banffshire. 

CULM, hill in Roberton parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

CULMALLIE, ancient parish, now called 
Golspie, in Sutherland. 

CULNAGREIN, suburb or section of 
Stornoway town, Outer Hebrides. 

CULNOAG, place, with site of ancient 
church, in Sorbie parish, "VVigtonshire. 



CULRAIN, hamlet on north verge of 
Ross-shire, 3J miles north-west-by-west of 
Bonar-Bridge. It has a post office desig- 
nated of Ross-shire, and a railway station. 

CULROSS, town and parish in detached 
district of Perthshire. The town stands 
on face of a brae near Firth of Forth, 6 
miles west of Dunfermline ; has declined 
from ancient importance to the condition 
of a village ; ranks as a royal burgh, 
uniting with Dunfermline, Inverkeithing, 
Queensferry, and Stirling in sending a 
member to Parliament ; was long famous 
for hammermen, as noticed in Sir Walter 
Scott's Heart of Midlothian; had an 
ancient abbey, notable for extensive coal- 
mining, and now represented by the reno- 
vated choir, used as the parochial church ; 
and has now a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Alloa, 2 inns, a Free church, and a public 
school with about 112 scholars. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £1583. Pop. 373.— The 
parish contains also the villages of Blairburn 
and Low Valleyfield, and measures about 
4 miles in both length and breadth. Acres, 
7584. Real property in 1880-81, £7121. 
Pop. 1130. The land rises abruptly from the 
shore, and is mostly undulating, but attains 
considerable elevation toward the northand 
north-west. Coal mines were formerly 
extensive, but are now nearly or quite ex- 
hausted. Culross Abbey House was visited 
by James VI., who called it 'a collier's 
house,' and went from it to see the mines, 
but took fright in them, and raised a cry 
of treason ; and it was built in 1590 by 
Lord Colville of Culross, and rebuilt by 
Sir Robert Preston. Other seats are 
Castlehill, Blair Castle, and Valleyfield; 
and the first occupies the site of Duna- 
marle, a stronghold of the Macduffs, thanes 
of Fife. An Episcopalian church of 1876 
adjoins Castlehill. 

CULROY, village, 3J miles north of May- 
bole, Ayrshire. 

CULSALMOND, parish, averagely about 
9 miles east-south-east of Huntly, Aber- 
deenshire. It contains the post office of 
Colpy, under Insch. Its length is about 
4J miles ; its breadth about 3 miles ; its 
area 6994 acres. Real property in 1880- 
81, £6416. Pop. 828. The surface is 
bisected by the Ury, and, with exception 
of two small hills, is level. The chief seat is 
Newton ; and the chief antiquities are re- 
mains of a Caledonian camp, vestiges of two 
Caledonian stone circles, part of an ancient 
highway, and an inscribed ancient stand- 
ing-stone. The churches are Established, 
Free, Congregational, and Episcopalian ; 
and there are 2 schools with accommodation 
for 213 scholars. 

CULSH, hill, with extensive view, in 
New Deer parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CULSTERNESS, headland, with large 
cave, in Delting parish, Shetland. 

CULTER, village in upper ward of 
Lanarkshire, and parish partly also in 
Peeblesshire. The village stands on 



CUL 



115 



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rivulet of its own name, about 2i miles 
south-west of Biggar, and has a post office 
under Biggar, a railway station, Estab- 
lished and Free churches, and a public 
school with about 72 scholars. The parish 
is about 7 miles long, and 4 miles broad, 
and comprises 10,175 acres in Lanark- 
shire, and 1708 in Peeblesshire. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6763 and £2142. 
Pop. 428 and 146. The northern sec- 
tion is bounded by the Clyde, and is 
either level or undulating ; and the 
southern section rises abruptly into ver- 
dant hills, and ascends rapidly into lofty 
mountains. The rivulet Culter rises in 
the extreme south, runs along the centre, 
makes several fine cataracts and cascades, 
and glides into the Clyde. The seats are 
Culterallers, Cultermains, Birthwood, 
Cornhill, and Hartree ; and the chief 
antiquities are two moats and the site of a 
Knight Templars' house. 

CULTER, railway station, 7f miles west- 
south-west of Aberdeen. Culter rivulet 
enters the Dee in its vicinity, runs thither 
from Skene parish, has picturesque banks, 
and makes a fine waterfall. Culter House, 
a little to the north-east, is a mansion 
said to have been built in the time of 
Queen Mary. 

CULTERCULLEN, place near Ellon, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen. 

CULTER FELL, mountain, 2454 feet high, 
4 miles south-south-east of Culter village, 

CULTOQUHEY, seat in Crieff parish, 
Perthshire. 

CULTS, parish, averagely 3^- miles south- 
west of Cupar, Fife. It contains the 
villages of Pitjessie, Crossgates, Cults 
Mill, Hospital Mill, and Walton, and 
comprises 2924 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £6438. Pop., quoad civilia, 704 ; 
quoad sacra, 640. The land is hilly to- 
ward the south and east, declines thence 
or is flat toward the north, and is bounded 
there by the river Eden. Crawford Priory, 
a seat of the Earl of Glasgow, is a promi- 
nent feature. The churches are Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian ; and the 
public school has accommodation for 150 
scholars. 

CULTS, estate in Kinnethmont parish, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen. 

CULZEAN. See Colzean. 

CUMBERNAULD, town and parish in 
detached district of Dumbartonshire. The 
town stands 13 miles north-west of Glas- 
gow, is adjoined by the pleasure-grounds 
of Cumbernauld House, and has a post 
office under Glasgow, a railway station, a 
large inn, Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches, and 2 public schools 
with about 299 scholars. Pop. 1064. — 
The parish contains also the village of 
Condorrat and the hamlet of Croy. Its 
length is about 8 miles ; its greatest 
breadth about 4 miles ■ its area 11,635 



acres. Real property in 1880-81, £25,190. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 4270; quoad sacra, 
inclusive of 81 in Falkirk parish, 4351. 
The surface is mostly a fine diver- 
sity of small hills and fertile dales, but 
includes Fannyside Moor. Coal, lime, • 
ironstone, and sandstone are extensively 
worked. Cumbernauld House is a chief 
feature, but was almost destroyed by fire 
in 1877. The antiquities are traces of 
Antoninus' Wall and vestiges of a Roman 
road. An Established church is at Con- 
dorrat. There are 3 schools for 767 
scholars, and 2 of them for 520 are new. 
Cumbernauld station is on the Caledonian 
railway, and has also a post office under 
Glasgow. 

CUMBRAY, parish, consisting of Great 
Cumbray Island, in Buteshire. The island 
is separated from Ayrshire by a sound 
1£ mile wide ; commences opposite Largs ; 
measures 3£ miles in length southwards, 
with a breadth of about 2 miles ; comprises 
2841 acres ; has a low fiat beach, steep 
banks, and a hilly interior, with extreme 
altitude of about 450 feet above sea-level ; 
and contains on its south end the town 
of Millport. Real property in 1880-81, 
£15,947. _ Pop. 1856. Established, Free, 
and United Presbyterian churches, a 
Baptist chapel, and a cathedrine Episco- 
pal church are in Millport. There are 
2 schools for 389 scholars, and 1 of them 
for 325 is new. 

CUMBRAY (LITTLE), island in West 
Kilbride parish, but within Buteshire. 
It lies fully a mile soutb-west of Great 
Cumbray ; is about a mile long and \ 
mile broad ; rises to a height of 420 feet 
above sea-level ; had anciently a Culdee 
cell, succeeded by a Romish chapel ; and 
has now a lighthouse of 1826, a disused 
previous lighthouse, and a ruined ancient 
watch tower. Pop. 23. 

CUMBRIA, ancient kingdom, compre- 
hending Strathclyde, Ayrshire, and Gal- 
loway, and extending over the greater part 
of Cumberland. It was formed about 508 
by the Romanized Caledonians, and be- 
came part of the Scottish kingdom in the 
latter part of 10th century. It gave origin 
to the names Cumbray and Cumberland ; 
but is often called by historians Strathcluyd 
or Strathclyde. 

CUMHILL, mountain in Coigach district, 
Cromartyshire. 

CUMINESTONE, village, 6 miles north- 
west of New Deer, Aberdeenshire. It has 
a post office, with money order depart- 
ment, under Turriff, and an Episcopalian 
chapel. Pop. 525. 

CUMLODDEN, quoad sacra parish on 
north-west side of upper part of Loch 
Fyne, Argyleshire. It has a church with 
309 sittings, and a public school. Pop. 
890. 

CUMLODEN, a seat of the Earl of Gal- 
loway, in Minnigaff parish, Kirkcudbright- 
shire. 

CUMMERTREES, village and parish in 



CUM 



116 



CUP 



Annandale district, Dumfriesshire. The 
village stands 3J miles west of Annan, and 
has a post office ixnder Annan, a railway 
station, a parochial church, and a public 
school with about 100 scholars. — The par- 
ish contains also the villages of Powfoot 
and Kelhead. Its length is 5 miles ; its 
greatest breadth 4 miles ; its area 9466 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £9107. 
Pop. , quoad civilia, 1094 ; quoad sacra, 
1068. The surface includes a ridge 
nearly 200 feet high, but otherwise is a 
gently inclined plain bounded by Solway 
Firth, and has a flat sandy shore. Hoddam 
Castle, the Tower of Repentance, and the 
Marquis of Queensberry's seat of Kin- 
mount are chief objects ; and the shore is 
part of the scene of Sir Walter Scott's 
Eedgauntlet. There are 4 schools for 
332 scholars, and 1 of them for 190 is new. 

CUMMING, or POET-CUMMING, village 
in Duffus parish, Elginshire. Pop. 244. 

CUMMIN'S CAMP, remains of notable' 
ancient fortification on Barra Hill, in 
Bourtie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

CUMNOCK, town, 16 miles south-east of 
Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. It stands at con- 
fluence of Glasnock and Lugar waters ; 
includes a central square and 3 principal 
streets ; is near a magnificent railway 
viaduct across the Lugar ; and has a head 
post office with money order and telegraph 
departments, a railway station, 3 banking 
offices, 3 chief inns, Established, Free, 
United Presbyterian, Congregational, and 
Roman Catholic churches, a public school 
of 1876 for 600 scholars, and 2 other schools. 
Pop. 3345. 

CUMNOCK (NEW), village and parish in 
Kyle district, Ayrshire. The village stands 
adjacent to confluence of the Afton and the 
Nith, 5 \ miles south -south-east of Cum- 
nock, and has a post office with money order 
and telegraph departments, designated of 
Ayrshire, a railway station, a banking office, 
Established and Free churches, and a public 
school with about 203 scholars. — The parish 
contains also Afton-Bridgend, Castle Connel 
Park, Craigbank, and Pathhead villages. Its 
length is 12 miles ; its breadth fully 8 
miles ; its area 48,096 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £36,832. Pop. 3781. Most 
of the surface is hilly, and the southern 
district is mountainous, and includes 
Black Craig, 2298 feet high, and part of 
Black Larg, 2231 feet high.' Coal and 
limestone abound, and are extensively 
worked. A Free church is at Afton. 
There are 3 schools for 731 scholars, and 
2 of them for 610 are new. 

CUMNOCK (OLD), parish, containing 
most of Cumnock and small part of Lugar 
towns, in Ayrshire. Its length is about 10 
miles ; its mean breadth about 2 miles ; 
its area 14,140 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £26,987. Pop. 4861. The sur- 
face is partly flat and well cultivated, 
partly hilly and either heathy or mostly 
verdant. Coal and lime are extensively 
worked; and bluish marble and black- 



band ironstone are found. Chief re- 
sidences are Dumfries House, Garrallan, 
Logan, and Glasnock, the first a seat of 
the Marquis of Bute ; and chief antiquities 
are ruins of Terringzean Castle and traces 
of Boreland Castle. The churches are in 
Cumnock. There are 4 schools for 785 
scholars, and 2 of them for 700 are new. 

CUMRUE, quondam hamlet and small 
lake in Kirkmichael parish, Dumfries- 
shire. 

CUNIACK. See Quinag. 

GUNNER, hill, with fine view, on west 
border of Carnbee parish, Fife. 

CUNNIGAR, artificial mound, on which 
persons accused of witchcraft were burnt, 
near Mid-Calder village, Edinburghshire. 

CUNNINGHAM, northern district of 
Ayrshire. It is bounded on the south by 
the river Irvine, and it measures about 25 
miles by 13. 

CUNNINGHAMHEAD, railway station 
and seat, 4 miles west-north-west of Kil- 
marnock, Ayrshire. 

CUNNINGHAR, hill, with remains of 
ancient Caledonian stone circle, in Tilli- 
coultry parish, Clackmannanshire. 

CUNNINGSBURGH, old parish, now part 
of Dunrossness, in Shetland. It lies north 
of Dunrossness-Proper, and has a post 
office under Lerwick. 

CUPAR, town and parish in east centre 
of Fife. The town stands on the river 
Eden, 33f miles north-north-east of Edin- 
burgh ; dates from ancient times, but pre- 
sents a modern appearance ; had once a 
strong castle, which figured in the wars of 
the Succession, and was visited by several 
of the Scottish kings ; ranks now as the 
capital of Fife, and as a burgh uniting 
with 6 other Fife burghs in sending a 
member to Parliament ; presents from the 
exterior a pleasant appearance, amid beau- 
tiful environs studded with mansions ; 
comprises 3 principal streets, several minor 
thoroughfares, and some suburbs ; has a 
head post office with all departments, a 
railway station, 6 banking offices, 3 hotels, 
county buildings, a town hall, a corn 
exchange, new waterworks, opened in 
December 1876, a large modern Established 
church, with elegant ancient spire, a Free 
church of 1S78, erected at a cost of nearly 
£10,000, 2 United Presbyterian churches, 
a Baptist chapel, a handsome Episcopalian 
church on or near the site of an ancient 
Dominican monastery, a Madras academy, 
a large public library, and a museum ; and 
publishes 4 weekly newspapers. Real 
property in 1880-81, £20,698. Pop. 5010. 
■ — -The parish contains also the village of 
Springfield and the Glaidney section of 
Ceres. Its length is 4^ miles ; its greatest 
breadth 3f miles ; its area 5736 acres. 
Real property of landward part in 1880-81, 
£15,407. Pop., quoad civilia, 7404 ; quoad 
sacra, 6088. The surface is intersected 
by the Eden, and beautifully diversified 
with rising grounds. Chief seats are Kil- 
maron, Tarbit, Springfield, Dalzell, Hil- 



CUP 



117 



CYR 



ton, Cairnie, Pitblado, Prestonhall, Fox- 
ton, Balas, Ferrybank, Bellfield, Blalowne, 
and Westfield. A new school for 50 scholars 
stands beyond the burgh. 

CUPAR-ANGUS. See Coupak- Angus. 

CUPAR-GRANGE, estate about 2 miles 
north of Coupar - Angus, Perthshire. It 
contains the site of a quondam consider- 
able village, and was found, some time in 
last century, to contain two peculiar ancient 
Caledonian circles. 

CUPPASETTER, place, with brough, on 
south-west corner of Yell Island, Shetland. 

CUR, rivulet, running about 10 miles 
to head of Loch Eck, in Cowal district, 
Argyleshire. 

CURGIE, small port on west side of 
Luce Bay, Wigtonshire. 

CURLEE, hill in Innerleithen parish, 
Peeblesshire. 

CURLINGHALL, place in Largs parish, 
Ayrshire. It has a sculptured stone com- 
memorative of the battle of Largs, fought 
in 1263. 

CURR, hill in Morebattle parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

CURRIE, village and parish in Edin- 
burghshire. The village stands on the 
Water of Leith, 6 miles south-west of 
Edinburgh, and has a post office with all 
departments under Edinburgh, a railway 
station, a parochial church with about 800 
sittings, and a public school with about 
108 scholars. Pop. about 300. — The parish 
contains also Balerno and Hermiston 
villages. Its length is 8 miles ; its 
breadth 4i miles ; its area 11,103 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £32,091. Pop. 
2390. The surface includes a portion of 
the Pentlands, with maximum altitude of 
about 850 feet, and descends thence through 
great irregularities to an extensive plain. 
The chief seats are Riccarton, Baberton, 
and Malleny ; and chief antiquities are 
Lennox and Curriehill Castles, and re- 
mains of two Roman stations. A United 
Presbyterian church is at Balerno, and 
4 schools, with accommodation for 471 
scholars, are within the parish. 

CURRIEHILL, railway station and old 
castle, 5 J miles south-west of Edinburgh. 

CURRYSIDE, coal-field in Shotts parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

CUSHIEVILLE. See Coshevtlle. 

CUSHLETTER, place, 10 miles north-west 
of Portree, Isle of Skye. 

CUSHNIE, old parish, now united to 
Leochel, in Aberdeenshire. It contains a 
bill of its own name, 1883 feet high, and 
has a public school with about 118 
scholars. 

CUTHBERT'S (ST.), parish, partly urban 
and partly landward, in Edinburghshire. 
It includes much of Edinburgh, and ex- 
tends from Braid Hills to Trinity, and 
from Queen's Park to within a mile of 
Corstorphine village. Its length is 5 
miles ; its breadth 3| miles. It contains 
all parts of the Old Town of Edinburgh 
beyond the ancient royalty and Canon- 



gate ; all parts of the New Town outside 
the city parishes of St. George, St. Stephen, 
St. Andrew, St. Mary, and Greenside ; the 
suburb of Roseburn ; part of the parlia- 
mentary burgh of Leith : parts of Wardie, 
Granton, Echobank, and Slatef ord villages ; 
and all Col tbridge, Murray field, and Comely- 
Bank semi-suburbs. Poj)., quoad civilia, 
157,743 ; quoad sacra, 11,967. The urban 
section comprises every variety of Edin- 
burgh thoroughfare, both ancient and 
modern ; and the landward section abounds 
in the rich diversities and beauties of the 
city's environs. The parochial church, 
stands in a cemetery, with many famous 
monuments, between West Princes Street 
Gardens and Lothian Boad ; occupies the 
site of successively a Culdee cell and an 
ancient cruciform church ; was erected in 
1775 at a cost of £4231, but afterwards 
acquired a steeple on its front, and con- 
tains about 3000 sittings. The Culdee cell 
was founded about the end of 7th century, 
and took name from the celebrated mis- 
sionary Cuthbert ; and the subsequent 
church was large, had a massive tower, 
and figured greatly in the Romish times 
for wealth and influence. Ten quoad 
sacra parish churches, 5 chapels-of-ease, 
and numerous churches of nearly all de- 
nominations, are within the parish. Ten 
of the city's public schools also are within 
it, and 2 others are at respectively Colt- 
bridge and Gorgie. The workhouse for 
St. Cuthbert's and Canongate stands off 
Queensferry Road, about 2 miles west- 
south-west of west end of Princes Street ; 
was erected about 1866-67 at a cost of 
about £40,000 ; underwent extension in 
1880 at a further cost of nearly £10,000 ; 
and, for a structure of its class, is remark- 
able for fineness of both situation and 
feature. 

CUTHILL, suburb of Prestonpans, Had- 
dingtonshire. Pop. 529. 

CUTTYFIELD, village in Larbert parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

CYRUS (ST.), village and parish on 
southern border of Kincardineshire. The 
village stands on an eminence near the 
coast, 5£ miles north of Montrose, and has 
a post office under Montrose, a railway 
station, Established and Free churches, 
and a public school with about 172 scholars. 
— The parish contains also the hamlets of 
Roadside, Burnside, Lochside, Whitehill, 
Milton, and Tangle-ha'. Its length is 5 
miles ; its breadth 3^ miles ; its area 8249 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £18,258. 
Pop. 1487. About one-half of the boun- 
dary is formed by North Esk river and the 
sea. The coast is partly flat beach and 
partly three low rocky promontories, but 
mostly steep escarpment from 50 to nearly 
300 feet high ; and the interior consists of 
hills from 450 to 630 feet high, and deep 
intersecting vales and ravines. The chief 
seats are Lauriston, Mount Cyrus, Kirkside, 
and Bridgeton ; and the chief antiquities 
are an ancient obelisk, vestiges of a sea- 



DAA 



118 



DAL 



girt fortalice, and remains of Lauriston 
Castle. 



DAAL. See Loch-in-Daal. 

DAAN, rivulet in Eddertoun parish, 
Ross-shire. Two low tracts contiguous to 
it are named Meikle Daal and Little 
Daal. 

DAER. longest head-stream of the Clyde. 
It rises on Queensberry Hill, and runs 
about 10 miles northward to the Little 
Clyde, near Elvanfoot ; and it gives the 
peerage title of baron to the Earl of 
Selkirk. 

DAIGLEN, burn in Tillicoultry parish, 
Clackmannanshire. 

DAIL, seat in Craignish parish, Argyle- 
shire. 

DAILLY, village and parish in Carrick 
district, Ayrshire. The village stands on 
Girvan river, 5| miles north-east of Girvan, 
presents a neat appearance, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Maybole, a railway 
station, an inn, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
125 scholars. Pop. 696. — The parish is 
nearly 7 miles long, and from 4 to 6 miles 
broad, but includes also Ailsa-Craig, and 
comprises 17,962 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £19,078. Pop. 2226. The sur- 
face is traversed from end to end by 
Girvan river, and consists partly of fertile 
valley and partly of considerably high 
flanking hills. Coal and limestone are 
worked. The seats are Bargany, Kil- 
kerran, Dalquharran, Penkill, and Kil- 
lochan ; and the antiquities are an oval 
camp, vestiges of an ancient church, and 
ruins of Kilkerran and Penkill Castles. 
A new parochial church, in lieu of the old 
one, was projected in September 1881. 
There are 6 schools for 596 scholars, and 
1 of them for 75 is new. 

DAILNANCEANN, battlefield between 
the Danes and the natives, with 2 cairns, 
in Craignish parish, Argyleshire. 

DAIRSIE, village and parish in north- 
east of Fife. The village stands 3| miles 
east-north-east of Cupar, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph de- 
partments, under Cupar, a railway station, 
a fine old Gothic parochial church, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 152 
scholars. — The parish is 3^ miles long and 
2y miles broad, and comprises 2555 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £6522. Pop. 
693. The surface is mostly an inclined 
plain, but includes two hills, cultivated 
nearly to their summits, and commanding 
extensive views. The seats are Craigfoodie, 
Pitormie, Newmill, and Dairsie Cottage ; 
and the chief antiquity is the roofless ruin 
of Dairsie Castle, said to have been the 
place where Archbishop Spottiswood wrote 
his Church History. 

DAL, salmon stream entering Balnakiel 
Bay, in Durness parish, Sutherland. 

DALARNAN, place within Campbelton 



burgh, Argyleshire. It has a public school 
with about 167 scholars. 

DALAROSSIE, old parish, now united to 
Moy, in Inverness-shire. 

DALARRAN, supposed battlefield, with 
huge standing - stone, in Balmaclellan 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DALAVICH, ancient parish, now united 
to Kilchrenan, Argyleshire. It contains 
Loch Avich, and has a public school. 

DALAWOODIE, seat near Holywood, 
Dumfriesshire. 

DALBEATTIE, town and quoad sacra 
parish in Kirkcudbrightshire. The town 
stands on a burn of its own name, near 
Urr river, 5J miles east-south-east of 
Castle-Douglas ; was founded in 1780, and 
advanced rapidly to prosperity ; is built of 
lively-coloured granite, and exports quan- 
tities of that stone ; and has a head post 
office with money order and telegraph de- 
partments, a railway station, a banking 
office, 2 chief inns, a small harbour, 
various manufacturing establishments, a 
town hall, an Established church of 1880, 
a Free church founded in 1881, United 
Presbyterian, Evangelical Union, Episco- 
palian, and Roman Catholic churches, a 
Mechanics' Institute, and 3 public schools 
with about 518 scholars. Dalbeattie Loch, 
about li mile from the town, has great 
store of darkish-coloured trout. Pop. of 
the town, 3851 ; of the quoad sacra parish, 
4110. 

DALBETH, seat and Roman Catholic 
convent on the Clyde, in eastern environs 
of Glasgow. 

DALBLAIR, place in glen between Ward- 
law Hill and Cairntable, Ayrshire. 

DALBOG, place, with remnant of ancient 
Caledonian stone circle, in Edzell parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DALCHALLIE, glen in Glenisla parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DALCHONZIE,seat on the Earn inComrie 
parish, Perthshire. 

DALCHOSNIE, seat, and scene of a 
victory of King Robert Bruce over the 
English, in Fortingal parish, Perthshire. 

DALCHREICHARD, place in Urquhart 
parish, Inverness-shire. It has a public 
school with about 45 scholars. 

DALCROSS, old parish, now united to 
Croy, Inverness-shire. It has a railway 
station, an estate, and a decayed castle of 
its own name ; and its castle was built in 
1620 by the eighth Lord Lovat, and sold in 
1702 to the head branch of the Mackintosh 
family. 

DALCRUIVE, place, with handsome 
modern bridge, on the Almond, in Red- 
gorton parish, Perthshire. 

DALDAWN, seat in Kelton parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

DALGAIN, estate in Sorn parish, Ayr- 
shire. The parish itself was formerly called 
Dalgain. 

DALGAIRN, seat near Cupar, Fife. 

DALGARNO, old parish, now united to 
Closeburn, Dumfriesshire. 



DAL 



119 



DAL 



DALGARVEN, village on Garnock river, 
in Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire. 

DALGETTY, parish, containing the vil- 
lages of St. David's and Fordel Square, 
and part of the post town of Crossgates, on 
south-west coast of Fife. Its length north- 
ward is fully 5 miles ; its greatest breadth 
about li mile ; its area 3340 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £7602. Pop. 1321. 
The coast lies immediately east of Inver- 
keithing Bay, and presents a beautiful 
appearance. The interior ascends gradually 
to the north, and attains a maximum 
altitude of about 436 feet. Coal is exten- 
sively mined and exported. The seats are 
Donibristle, Fordel, and Cockairney. The 
parochial church is a handsome modern 
edifice, with about 500 sittings ; and a 
quoad sacra parish church is at Mossgreen. 
There are 2 public schools for 336 scholars, 
and 1 of them and a class-room for 250 are 
new. 

DALGINCH, quondam castle, said to 
have belonged to Macduff, on site of 
Barnslee House, near Markinch, Fife. 

DALGINROSS, suburb of Comrie, Perth- 
shire. 

DALGUISE, village on the Tay, A\ miles 
north-north-west of Dunkeld, Perthshire. 
It has a post office under Dunkeld, a rail- 
way station, and a Free church, and is 
near a long handsome railway viaduct 
across the Tay. Dalguise House, in its 
vicinity, is partly ancient, partly modern, 
and was long the residence of Fox Maule, 
who became Earl of Dalhousie. 

DALHALAVAIG, place, with public 
school, in Reay parish, Caithness. 

DALHARROLD, place, with ancient 
standing-stone, in Strathnaver, Sutherland. 

DALHOUSIE, railway station and noble 
mansion in Cockpen parish, Edinburgh- 
shire. The station is 9 miles south-east 
of Edinburgh. The mansion, Dalhousie 
Castle, a seat of the Earl of Dalhousie, 
stands on the South Esk, about a mile 
south of the station, was originally a strong 
fortalice of the 12th century, and presents 
now an elegant modern appearance. 

DALIBURGH, place in south-west of 
South Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. It 
has a post office under Lochmaddy. 

DALINTOBER, suburb of Campbelton, 
Argyleshire. 

DALJARROCH, hamlet and seat on 
Stinchar river, Carrick, Ayrshire. The 
hamlet lies 4 miles north-east of Colmonell, 
and has a post office designated of Ayrshire. 

DALKEITH, town, ducal mansion, and 
parish, in east of Edinburghshire. The 
town stands on a gently swelling peninsula 
between the North Esk and the South 
Esk, 6 miles by road, but 8 by railway, 
south-east of Edinburgh ; has been a 
market town from unrecorded ancient 
times ; comprises a main street about 
two - thirds of a mile long, partly very 
spacious, extending parallel to the rivers ; 
includes a handsome new suburb adjacent 
to Eskbank railway station ; and has a 



head post office with all departments, a 
railway station at terminus of short 
branch railway to its centre, 4 banking 
offices, 5 hotels, a covered corn market 
of 1855, an elegant Foresters' hall of 1877, 
the nave and ruined choir of a church 
of 1384, a conspicuous steepled church of 
1844, a Free church, 3 United Presbyterian 
churches, Congregational, Evangelical 
Union, and Wesleyan chapels, Episco- 
palian and Roman Catholic churches, and 
4 public schools with aggregately about 785 
scholars. Pop. 6931. — The ducal man- 
sion, Dalkeith Palace, is the chief seat of 
the Duke of Buccleuch ; has a grandly 
wooded park of more than 1000 acres, ex- 
tending along the Esks from lower end of 
the town ; occupies the site of an ancient 
castle, captured by the English in the time 
of Edward ill. ; stands on a steep rock 
adjacent to the North Esk, in upper part 
of the park ; was built about commence- 
ment of last century, and visited by George 
IV. and Queen Victoria ; and is a large 
Grecian structure, with recessed centre and 
projecting wings. — The parish contains 
also the village of Lugton and greater part 
of "Whitehall. Its length is 3j miles; its 
greatest breadth less than 2 miles ; its 
area 2344 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£36, 889. Pop. , quoad civilia, 7707 ; quoad 
sacra, 3973. The surface, except in dells 
along the Esks, is mostly a plain, rising 
gently to the south-east ; and, excepting 
edificed parts, thoroughfares, and the ducal 
park, is all disposed in fields and gardens. 
The rocks are carboniferous, and include 
rich seams of coal and limestone. 

DALKEITH (WEST), quoad sacra parish, 
with church in Dalkeith town, Edinburgh- 
shire. Pop. 3734. 

DALKS, hill on border of Coldingham 
Moor, Berwickshire. 

DALL, seat on south side of Loch Ran- 
noch, Perthshire. 

DALLACHY, divided estate in Bellie 
parish, Elginshire. 

DALLAS, village and parish in centre of 
Elginshire. The village stands 9 miles 
south-east of Forres, and has a post office 
under Forres. Pop. 212. The parish com- 
prises a main body and a detached district, 
measures about 12 miles by 9, and com- 
prises 22,903 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £5543. Pop. 915. The river 
Lossie, issuing from a small lake at south- 
western extremity, cuts the parish length- 
wise into nearly equal parts, and receives 
several burns in its progress. The land 
consists of a strath on that river, some 
vales on the burns, and a number of 
flanking or bordering hills. Dallas Lodge 
is a chief residence; and the ruin of Tor 
Castle is a chief antiquity. The churches 
are Established and Free. There are 2 
schools for 190 scholars, and 1 of them for 
100 is new. 

DALLAVAIRD, place, with blue slate 
quarry, in Glenbervie parish, Kincardine- 
shire. 



DAL 



120 



DAL 



DALMAHOY, noble mansion and craggy 
hill in Ratho parish, Edinburghshire. The 
mansion stands near Caledonian Railway, 
2J miles north-east of Kirknewton, is a 
seat of the Earl of Morton, and has an 
Episcopalian chapel and a very fine park. 
The hill is 680 feet high, presents a pre- 
cipitous front to the west, and figures 
prominently in a great extent of land- 
scape. 

DALMALLY, village on Orchy river, 3 
miles from Loch Awe, and 16 miles north- 
north-east of Inverary, Argyleshire. It 
has picturesque environs ; is a resort of 
anglers, a centre for tourists, and a good 
starting-point for ascending Bencruachan ; 
and has a head post office with money 
order and telegraph departments, a railway 
station, a hotel, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
90 scholars. 

DALMARNOCK, suburban locality, on 
the Clyde, in south-eastern outskirts of 
Glasgow. It has a United Presbyterian 
church of 1881. 

DALMARNOCK, village, Z\ miles north- 
by- west of Dunkeld. Perthshire. 

DALMELLINGTON, town and parish in 
Kyle district, Ayrshire. The town stands 
near the Doon, 15 miles south-east of Ayr ; 
dates from llth century, but rose into 
modern importance as a centre of mineral 
traffic ; and has a post office with money 
order and telegraph departments, desig- 
nated of Ayrshire, a terminal railway sta- 
tion, a banking office, waterworks of 1876, 
a towered Saxon parochial church of 1846, 
Free, Evangelical Union, and Roman 
Catholic churches, and a public school with 
about 200 scholars. Pop. 1437.— The parish 
contains also the towns of Burnfoothill and 
"Waterside, the village of Craigmark, and 
part of the village of Patna. Its length 
is nearly 9 miles ; its greatest breadth about 
4^ miles ; its area 17,783 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1879-80, £20,446. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 6383 ; quoad sacra, 6170. Doon 
lake and river form the boundary with 
Carrick. The ground traversed by the 
river, for about a mile from the lake, is a 
ravine so very deep and narrow as to 
appear like a rent torn through a lofty 
hill-ridge by a vertical earthquake. A 
tract adjacent to the river, for about 3 
miles farther on, is a plain or very slight 
slope, beginning and ending with a mere 
point, measuring about a mile in breadth 
at its middle, and shaped altogether in 
nearly the form of a crescent. The rest of 
the surface, away to the eastern bound- 
aries, is a series of hill- ridges and mountains 
with intervening glens and gorges ; and the 
front ridge terminates, to the north-east of 
the town, in a basaltic colonnade about 300 
feet high and 600 feet long. Coal, lime- 
stone, and ironstone are plentiful ; and 
extensive ironworks, commenced in 1847, 
give employ men t to a large proportion of the 
inhabitants. The chief seat is Berbeth; 
and chief antiquities are traces of a 



Roman road, the moated site of an ancient 
castle, and spots associated with affecting 
scenes in the persecutions of the Cove- 
nanters. Established and United Presby- 
terian churches are at Patna. There are 
4 schools for 1297 scholars, and 1 of them 
for 300 is new. 

DALMENY, village and parish in north- 
east of Linlithgowshire. The village stands 
about f mile from the Forth, and 12 miles 
west-north-west of Edinburgh, is a small 
place, and has a post office under Edin- 
burgh, a railway station, a richly-sculp- 
tured ancient Norman parochial church, 
and a public school with about 137 scholars. 
— The parish contains also part of Queens- 
ferry town, surrounds Queensferry parish, 
and consists of a main body and a detached 
district. The main body is 5^ miles long, 
and nearly 3 miles broad ; the detached 
district lies about a mile from it to the 
west of "Winchburgh, and measures about 
If mile by 7 furlongs ; and the whole 
comprises 5985 acres. ' Real property in 
1880-81, £17,273. Pop. 1660. The sur- 
face is mostly undulating, includes 3 emi- 
nences averagely about 380 feet high, and 
exhibits uncommon beauty of both natural 
and artificial feature. Dalmeny Park, the 
chief seat of the Earl of Rosebery, has a 
splendid mansion and exquisite grounds, 
and was visited by Queen Victoria. Dun- 
das Castle and Craigie Hall also are in- 
teresting seats, and Barnbougle Castle is 
a palatial structure of 1880-81, with small 
remnant of ancient, picturesque ruin. 

DALMIGAVIE, estate with romantic dell, 
in Moy parish, Inverness-shire. 

DALMONACH, place, with print-fields, 
near Bonhill, Dumbartonshire. 

DALMONY, valley in Urquhart parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

DALMORE, place in Alva parish, Stir- 
lingshire. It has a public school with 
about 155 scholars. 

DALMORE, harbour in Rosskeen parish, 
Ross-shire. 

DALMUIR, village, 6J miles east-south- 
east of Dumbarton. It has a post office 
under Glasgow, a railway station, exten- 
sive paper-works, and a public school with 
about 75 scholars. Pop. 936. 

DALMUIR-SHORE, quondam village on 
the Clyde, £ mile from Dalmuir, Dumbar- 
tonshire. It had an unsightly appearance, 
and was destroyed about 1860. 

DALMULLIN, place, with site of ancient 
monastery, in St. Quivox parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

DALNACARDOCH, place, 11 miles west- 
north-west of Blair- Athole, Perthshire. It 
had long a well-known inn, important to 
travellers through the Grampians on the 
road from Perth to Inverness ; and it still 
commands a road southward from it to 
Tummel-Bridge. 

DALNASPIDAL, railway station, 2 miles 
south of watershed of Central Grampians, 
and about 5 miles north-west of Dalnacar- 
doch, Perthshire. 



DAL 



121 



DAL 



DALN AVERT, estate in Alvie parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

DALNESS, romantic cascade on Etive 
river, about 5 miles from Loch Etive, 
Argyleshire. 

DALNOTTER, hill, with splendid view, 
near Old Kilpatrick village, Dumbarton- 
shire. 

DALNOWHLNNIE, hnmlet on the Dee, 
li mile west of Aboyne, Aberdeenshire. 

"DALPERSIE, estate in Tullynessle parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

DALQUHARRAN, seat in Dailly parish, 
Ayrshire. 

DALQUHURN, estate in Cardross parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

DALREAGLE, estate in Kirkinner parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

DALREE. See Daley. 

DALREOCH, quoad sacra parish, with 
railway station, a short distance north of 
Dumbarton. Poo. 3634. 

DALREOCH, place, with United Presby- 
terian church, in Dunning parish, Perth- 
shire. 

DALRIABA, ancient principality in 
Western Highlands, or pristine kingdom 
of the Scots. It originated with immi- 
grants from a territory of same name in 
north of Ireland. They came to Argyle- 
shire about 503, aequired ascendency over 
the "Western Caledonians, and established 
a monarchy, with seat at Dunstaffnage. 
Their king Kenneth, who began to reign 
in 836, became heir to the crown of Pictavia, 
and, by uniting that to his crown of Dal- 
riada, founded the kingdom of Scotland, 
and he removed his court in 843 to 
Forteviot. 

DALRUADHAIN, ancient town of the 
Dalriads, on the ground now occupied by 
Campbelton, Argyleshire. 

DALRULZEON, section of Caputh parish 
surrounded by that of Kirkmichael, in 
Perthshire. 

DALRY, town and parish in Cunningham 
district, Ayrshire. The town stands on 
Garnock river, 11J miles north-west of 
Kilmarnock ; dates from beginning of 17th 
century, but was long a mere hamlet ; 
underwent great and rapid change from 
erection of extensive ironworks about 
1845 ; is now a great centre of mineral 
traffic, under a blaze of blast furnaces ; 
comprises a central square, and 5 principal 
streets ; includes also the suburb of Blair 
or Blair-Works ; and has a head post office 
with all departments, a railway station, 2 
banking offices, 3 chief inns, 2 Established 
churches, Free, United Presbyterian, and 
Eoman Catholic churches, a large mission 
hall of 1877, and 4 public schools with 
aggregately about 847 scholars. Pop. 
5010. — The parish contains also the 
villages of Den, Drakemuir, and Bid- 
dens, and parts of Glengarnock and 
Langbar. Its length is about 10 miles ; 
its greatest breadth 9 miles ; its area 
19,284 acres. Beal property in 1879-80, 
£45,056. Pop. 10,215. The surface com- 



prises four vales, with intervening hills, and 
rises in one part to heights of from 634 to 
946 feet above sea-level. A cavern, 183 
feet long, and from 5 to 12 feet broad and 
high, is at Auchenskeigh. Coal and iron- 
stone abound, and are largely worked. 
An Established church is at Kersland 
Barony. 9 schools for 2070 scholars are 
in the parish, and an enlargement of 1 
of them for 313 is new. 

DALRY, village and parish in north- 
eastern extremity of Kirkcudbrightshire. 
The village stands on Ken river, 3i miles 
north of New Galloway ; is an old place 
pleasantly modernized ; was the starting- 
point of the Covenanters' rising which 
ended in the battle of Bullion Green ; and 
has a post office designated of Kirkcud- 
brightshire, an inn, an ancient moat with fine 
view, Established and United Presbyterian 
churches, and 2 public schools with about 
107 scholars. Pop. 585. — The parish 
measures 14 miles in length, and 7% miles 
in extreme breadth, and comprises 34,535 
acres. Beal property in 1880-81, £13,303. 
Pop. 988. The surface includes the left 
side of a fine vale along the Ken, but is 
elsewhere upland, rises in the north to 
mountainous altitudes, and culminates on 
the northern boundary in Black Larg, 2231 
feet high. Lochinvar lake in it has re- 
mains of an ancient strong castle which 
belonged to the Gordons, who became 
Viscounts Kenmuir ; and several places 
are associated with the history of the per- 
secuted Covenanters. Public schools are 
at Corseglass and Stroanfreggan. 

DALRY, western suburb of Edinburgh. 
It is all, with slight exception, quite re- 
cent ; it consists chiefly of numerous streets 
and places, edificed with small or moder- 
ately-sized houses ; it includes a transmuted 
old mansion, Dairy House, formerly quite 
rural ; it adjoins a cemetery, originally 
formed as ultra-mural ; and it contains a 
Free church, a Congregational church, and 
a large public school. 

DALRY, or DALREE, place near head of 
Strathfillan, on western border of Perth- 
shire. It was the scene, in 1306, of a 
sharp skirmish between King Bobert Bruce 
and Macdougall, Lord of Lorn ; when the 
famous trinket called the Brooch of Lorn, 
described by Sir "Walter Scott in his Lord 
of the Isles, is alleged to have been lost by 
Bruce to Macdougall. 

DALRYMPLE, village and parish on 
southern border of Kyle, Ayrshire. The 
village stands on the Doon, 4 miles south- 
by-east of Ayr, and has a post office under 
Ayr, a railway station, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
about 148 scholars. Pop. 285. — The 
parish is 7 miles long, but comparatively 
narrow, and comprises 7833 acres. Beal 
property in 1879-80, £15,863. Pop. 1362. 
The Doon traces all the southern and 
western boundary, and is flanked there by 
alternately bold banks and fertile haughs. 
Nearly all the surface thence is undulating 



DAL 



122 



DAM 



or rolling, and abounds in knolls or mound- 
ish hills. Four lakes, Martinham, Kerse, 
Snipe, and Lindston, add beauty to the 
landscape. The seats are Skeldon and 
Hollybush ; and the antiquities are the site 
of Dalrymple Castle, the line of a Roman 
road, and vestiges of 3 small Caledonian 
forts. 

DALSCAIRTH, seat in Troqueer parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DALSERF, village and parish in middle 
ward of Lanarkshire. The village stands 
on the Clyde, 7 miles south-east of 
Hamilton, is now very small, but was 
once much larger, and has a parochial 
church with 500 sittings, and a public 
school with about 339 scholars. — The parish 
contains also the post town of Larkhall, 
and the villages of Millheugh and Rose- 
bank. Its length is 63 miles ; its greatest 
breadth 4-J- miles ; its area 6956 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £31,520. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 9378 ; quoad sacra, 2675. 
The surface rises somewhat abruptly from 
the Clyde on the one side, and the Avon 
on the other, and forms between them 
a sort of plateau of maximum height 
of about 400 feet. Coal abounds, and is 
largely worked. Dalserf House, Machan, 
Broomhill, Millheugh, and Millburn are 
chief residences. The parish was anciently 
called Machanshire, belonged to the 
Comyns, went to the royal Bruces, passed 
to an ancestor of the Duke of Hamilton, 
and was divided among junior branches of 
the Hamilton family. Established, Free, 
United Presbyterian, Evangelical Union, 
and Roman Catholic churches are at Lark- 
hall. There are 2 schools for 501 scholars, 
and 1 of them for 300 is new. 

DALSETTER, hamlet in Yell Island, Shet- 
land. It has a post office under Lerwick. 

DALSHOLM, or DAWSHOLM, village 
adjacent to Kelvin river, the Forth and 
Clyde Canal, and the Glasgow and Helens- 
burgh Railway, in New Kilpatrick parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

DALSWINTON, village and estate in 
Kirkmahoe parish, Dumfriesshire. The 
village stands near the Nith, 7J miles 
north-north-west of Dumfries, and has a 
post office under Dumfries, and a public 
school with about 71 scholars. The estate 
has a modern mansion on the site of an 
ancient castle of the Comyns ; belonged 
in the latter part of last century to Sir. 
Patrick Miller, the projector of steam 
navigation ; and contains a lake on which 
he launched the first trial steam-boat. 

DALTON, village and parish in Annan- 
dale, Dumfriesshire. The village stands 6 
miles north-west of Annan, and has a post 
office under Lockerby, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
74 scholars. The parish measures 5i miles 
in length, and from 1J to 4 miles in 
breadth, and comprises 6886 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6986. Pop. 579. 
The surface is partly hilly, but mostly 
flat. The seats are Dormont and Rammer- 



scales ; and the antiquities are the ruined 
tower of Holmains, and a very distinct 
Caledonian camp. 

DALTON, village in Cambuslang parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

DALTONHOOK, estate, with vestige of 
ancient strong tower, in St. Mungo parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

DALTULICH, estate in Croy parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

DALVADDY, hamlet and coal-pits in 
Campbelton parish, Argyleshire. 

DALVAULT, village in Bonhill parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

DALVEEN, pass in Lowther Mountains, 
at north border of Durrisdeer parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

DALVEY, modern seat, contiguous to 
site of ancient castle, in Dyke parish, 
Elginshire. 

DALVOURN, place in Daviot parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a public school 
with about 60 scholars. 

DALWHAT, head-stream of the Cairn in 
Glencairn parish, Dumfriesshire. 

DALWHINNIE, place in Glentruim, 
among the Central Grampians, 58^ miles 
south of Inverness. It has a post office 
designated of Inverness-shire, a railway 
station, and an inn. 

DALYELL, seat in Cupar parish, Fife. 

DALZIEL, parish containing Craigneuk 
town, English Row, and Windmillhill 
villages, and most of Motherwell town, 
in middle ward of Lanarkshire. Its length 
is about 4 miles ; its breadth about 3 
miles ; its area 3039 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £57,254. Pop., quoad civilia, 
13,853; quoad sacra, 8923. The surface 
rises very gently from the Clyde and the 
South Calder, and is mostly level. Coal 
abounds, and is extensively worked. The 
chief seat is Dalziel House ; and the chief 
antiquities are the line of a Roman road 
and site of a Roman camp. An Established 
church of 1874, a Free church, a United 
Presbyterian church of 1881, a United 
Presbyterian church of earlier date, a 
Methodist chapel, a Roman Catholic 
church, and a large public school are at 
Motherwell. 5 schools for 2034 scholars 
are in the parish, and 1 of them and 
enlargements for 900 are new. 

DALZIEL (SOUTH), quoad sacra parish, 
with church, in vicinity of Motherwell, 
Lanarkshire. It was constituted subse- 
quent to 1874. Pop. 4930. 

DAMF, lake in Applecross parish, Ross- 
shire. 

DAMHEAD, village in vale among the 
Ochils, 5h miles north-by-east of Kinross. 
It has a post office under Milnathort. 

DAMHEAD, hamlet midway between St. 
Ninian's town and Airth village, Stirling- 
shire. 

DAMHEAD, town, now called Jamestown, 
in Bonhill parish, Dumbartonshire. 

DAMPH, fine lake among mountains on 
eastern verge of Coigach district, Cromarty- 
shire. 



DAM 



123 



DAY 



DAMSAY, beautiful islet in Firth Bay, 
Firth parish, Orkney. 

DAMSIDE, place, with leech-ponds, in 
Auchterarder parish, Perthshire. 

BANBALEITH, railway station and fine 
haugh on the Spey in Rothes parish, 
Elginshire. 

BANESHELT. See Dunshelt. 

BANEVALE, seat in Crossmichael parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

BANNA, island in North Knapdale parish, 
Argyleshire. Pop. 40. 

DANSKINE, place, 5^ miles south-east- 
by-south of Haddington. 

BARA, rivulet, running about 10 miles 
south-westward and 3 miles north-west- 
ward to the Deveron, near Turriff, Aber- 
deenshire. 

BARBAR, dell, with cascade, on coast of 
Aberdour parish, Aberdeenshire. 

BARGAVEL, seat in Erskine parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

DARGIE, village about 3 miles west of 
Dundee. 

BARK-MILE, glen between Loch Archaig 
and Loch Lochy, Inverness-shire. Its 
character is very similar to that of the 
Trossachs, but with larger and more 
striking features. 

DARLEITH, estate in Bonhill parish, 
Dumbartonshire. 

DARLINGSHAUGH, suburb and section 
of Galashiels at verge of Roxburghshire. 

DARLINGTON, suburb of Stewarton, 
Ayrshire. 

BARMEAB, head-stream of the Breich, 
in Oambusnethan parish, Lanarkshire. 

DARNAWAY, hamlet and noble mansion 
on west border of Elginshire. The hamlet 
lies about 3J miles south-west of Forres, 
and has a post office under Forres. The 
mansion, Darnaway Castle, is a seat of the 
Earl of Moray, and is partly ancient, but 
chiefly modern. 

BARNGABER, village and vestige of 
ancient castle on south-east side of 
Hamilton parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 
with Quarter, 886. 

DARNHALL, a seat of Lord Eli- 
bank, near Eddlestone village, Peebles- 
shire. 

BARNICK, village on eastern verge of 
Abbotsford estate, about a mile west of 
Melrose, Roxburghshire. It has a post 
office under Melrose ; contains a massive 
tower of 15th century, now furnished 
as a museum of Border antiquities ; and 
gave to Sir Walter Scott, among many of 
his familiar friends, the soubriquet of 
'Duke of Darnick.' Pop. 448. 

BARNLEY, ancient barony, 2 miles south- 
west of Pollockshaws, Renfrewshire. It 
belonged for ages to a branch of the 
Stewarts ; gave them the peerage title 
of lord, so prominent in history as borne 
by the husband of Queen Mary ; and was 
sold about 1757 to Sir John Maxwell of 
Pollock. 

BARNOW, place, with public school, in 
Kirkcowan parish, Wigtonshire. 



BAROCHVILLE, seat in Inverness parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

BARRA, hill in Turriff parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

BARRACH, hill on western verge of 
Denny parish, Stirlingshire. 

BARUEL, rivulet, traversing Glendaruel 
to head of Loch Striven, in Argyleshire. 

BARVEL, town on Irvine river, 9 miles 
east-by-north of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. 
It has a post office under Kilmarnock, a 
banking office, an ancient fortalice, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 
130 scholars. Pop. 1700. 

BAVA, place, 8^ miles north of Grantown, 
Elginshire. It has a post office under 
Grantown and a railway station. 

BAVAR. See Devaar. 

BAVEN, lake in Logie-Coldstone parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

BAVIB. See Daviot. 

BAVIBSON'S MAINS (popularly MUT- 
TONHOLE), village, 3} miles west-north- 
west of Edinburgh. It has a post office 
with all departments, designated of Mid- 
lothian, and a Free church. Pop. 744. 

BAVIB (ST.), parish, with church at head 
of Oandlerigg street, Glasgow. Pop., 
quoad sacra, 9157. 

BAVIB (ST.), quoad sacra parish, with 
Established and Free churches, in west of 
Edinburgh. Pop. 9456. 

BAVIB (ST.), quoad sacra parish, with 
Established and Free churches, in Dundee. 
Pop. 25,975. 

BAVIB (ST.), quoad sacra parish, with 
Established and Free churches, in Kirk- 
intilloch, Dumbartonshire. Pop. 3786. 

BAVIB'S (ST.), seaport village, 2 miles 
east of Inverkeithing, Fife. 

BAVIB'S (ST)., village in Madderty 
parish, Perthshire. 

BAVINGTON, place in Eskdalemuir 
parish, Dumfriesshire. It has a public 
school with about 43 scholars. 

BAVIOT (popularly BAVIB), village and 
parish in Garioch district, Aberdeenshire. 
The village stands 9 miles north-west of 
Aberdeen, and has a post office under 
Aberdeen, a parochial church, and a public 
school. The parish is about 3 miles long, 
and comprises 4454 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £5532. Pop., quoad civilia, 
515 ; quoad sacra, 658. A gently 
undulated ridge extends through the 
middle from nearly end to end, and two 
similar but shorter and lower ridges extend 
along the sides. The chief residence is 
Fingask; and the chief antiquities are 
remains of two ancient Caledonian stone 
circles. 

BAVIOT, hamlet in Inverness-shire, and 
parish partly also in Nairnshire. The ham- 
let lies on river Nairn, 6^ miles south-east 
of Inverness, and has a post office under 
Inverness, an Established church, a Free 
church, and a public school. The parish 
is about 23 miles long, and from scarcely 
11 to 5| miles broad, but includes only 388 
acres in Nairnshire. Real property in 



DAY 



124 



DEE 



1880-81, of the Inverness-shire part, 
£11,561 ; of the Nairnshire part, £1466. 
Pop. 1133 and 119. The surface includes 
portions of Drummossie Moor and the 
Moiiadhleagh Mountains, but consists, for 
more than nine-tenths of its entire area, 
of the greater part of Strathnaim valley ; 
and it presents, in the aggregate, a wild 
and striking appearance. The chief resi- 
dences are Daviot House and Farr ; and 
the chief antiquities are remains of an 
ancient castle and of several ancient 
Caledonian stone circles. Dunlichity old 
parish is united to Daviot, and its church 
stands 7 miles west of Daviot hamlet, and 
is still in use. 5 schools for 400 scholars 
are within the united parish, and 3 of 
them for 220 are new. 

DAVISTON, burn in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

DAVO, picturesque ravine in Garvock 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

DAW AN, lake on border of Logie-Cold- 
stone parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DAWICK, mansion and old parish in 
Peeblesshire. The mansion stands on the 
Tweed, about 7 miles south-west of Peebles, 
and is the seat of Sir James Nasmyth, 
Bart. The parish was suppressed in 1742, 
and divided between Drummelzier and 
Stobo. 

DEAD, affluent of the Lyne, in Newlands 
parish, Peeblesshire. 

DEAD, vast bog in north-east of Castleton 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

DEADMANGILL, notable cairn in Mous- 
wald parish, Dumfriesshire. 

DEAL (LEAS OF), hill, 820 feet high, at 
head of Deals voe, Shetland. 

DEALS, voe or bay in Tingwall parish, 
Shetland. 

DEAN, each of numerous stream-traversed 
ravines or deep narrow vales in many parts 
of Scotland. The name occurs both alone 
and as a prefix, and it is usually written 
' dean ' in places south of the Forth, and 
'den' in places to the north. Many a dean 
or den is a cul-de-sac, escarped or copse- 
clad on the sides. 

DEAN, suburb and quoad sacra parish 
on left side of "Water of Leith, above Stock- 
bridge, Edinburgh. The suburb was origi- 
nally a rural village dating from the time 
of David I. ; retains a few old houses in- 
termixed with modern ones ; adjoins on 
one side an elegant modern suburb on 
tabular ground, and descends on another 
nearly into junction with a dingy old 
village in bottom of Water of Leith ravine ; 
and contains or adjoins an Established 
church of 1856, a Free church, Trinity 
Episcopalian church, a bridge, of i832, and 
a cemetery formed in 1845. The bridge 
spans the Water of Leith ravine, has 4 
arches, each 96 feet in span, and measures 
447 feet in length, 39 feet in width, and 
106 feet in height. The cemetery was 
greatly extended and partly re-embellished 
in 1872, and it contains the graves of many 
of Edinburgh's most distinguished public 



men. The quoad sacra parish is part of 
St. Cuthbert's. Pop. 5039. 

DEAN, river, running about 10 miles 
west-south-westward from Forfar loch to 
the Isla, at boundary with Perthshire. 

DEAN, burn, running to the Forth, in 
Borrowstownness parish, Linlithgowshire. 

DEAN, village in Wilton parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

DEAN, ruined castellated mansion about 
a mile north-east of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. 
It belonged to the Earls of Kilmarnock, 
the last of whom suffered death for par- 
ticipation in the rebellion of 1745 ; but it 
was destroyed by fire in 1735. 

DEANBURNHAUGH, village in Roberton 
parish, Roxburghshire. It has a post office 
under Hawick. 

DEANPARK, quoad sacra parish in south- 
western suburbs of Glasgow. Pop. 2048. 

DEANS, village in Cambuslang parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

DEANSTON, village on river Teith, about 
a mile west of Doune, Perthshire. It pre- 
sents a pleasant appearance ; is noted in 
connection with Mr. James Smith, the 
famous mechanician and agricultural im- 
prover, who died in 1850 ; and has a post 
office under Stirling, extensive cotton mills, 
and a public school with about 292 scholars. 
Pop. 679. Deanston mansion is in its 
vicinity. 

DEAOTHACK, affluent of the Glass, 
Inverness-shire. 

DEAS, headland at southern extremity 
of Kintyre, Argyleshire. 

DECHMONT, hill, with fine view, 1\ miles 
south-west of Cambuslang, Lanarkshire. 
It once had many ancient cairns, and is 
the subject of a poem by John Struthers. 

DECHMONT, village and hill in Living- 
stone parish, Linlithgowshire. Pop. 214. 

DEE, river rising among Cairngorm 
Mountains, and running east-by -north ward 
to the sea at Aberdeen. Its length of 
course, in direct line, is 64 miles ; along 
its bed, at least 96 miles. It makes a stu- 
pendous aggregate descent to the foot of 
the Cairngorms ; forms, about 6 miles 
above Castleton, a series of falls, called the 
Linn of Dee ; and runs so slowly from 
Castleton to the sea, as nowhere to afford 
water-power for a mill. Its affluents are 
very numerous, but are mostly torrents or 
burns. 

DEE, river of Kirkcudbrightshire. It 
is formed by conflux of the Ken and the 
Black Dee ; goes prevailingly southward 
to Solway Firth at mouth of Kirkcud- 
bright Bay ; expands over the first 5 
miles into a series of narrow lakes ; makes 
a total run of about 20 miles ; and is navig- 
able for about 7 miles from the Solway. 

DEE, lake, about \\ mile long, in Minni- 
gaff parish, Kirkcudbrightshire ; also the 
series of narrow lakes in Kirkcudbright- 
shire Dee. 

DEE (BLACK), river, running 18 miles 
chiefly south-eastward to confluence with 
the Ken, in Kirkcudbrightshire. It re- 



DEE 



125 



DEL 



ceives, in its upper parts, a small affluent 
from the Minnigaff Loch Dee. 

DEE BRIDGE. See Bridge of Dee. 

DEECHOID, mountain in Muckairn 
section of Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

DEER, small river, running about 16 
miles east-south-eastward and eastward 
to the Ugie, at 4£ miles from Peterhead, 
Aberdeenshire. 

DEERLAW, hill in Yarrow parish, Sel- 
kirkshire. 

DEERNESS, quoad sacra parish averagely 
about 8£ miles east-by-south of Kirkwall, 
Orkney. It forms politically part of St. 
Andrews ; was made separate quoad sacra 
in 1845 ; consists mainly of a peninsula, 
the most easterly land of Pomona, but 
includes the islands of Copinshay, Corn- 
holm, and Horse ; and has a post office 
under Kirkwall, an Established church, a 
Free church, and a public school with 
about 87 scholars. Eeal property in 
1880-81, £1977. Pop. 867. 

DEER (NEW), village and parish in 
Buchan district, Aberdeenshire. The 
village stands 16J miles west of Peterhead, 
and has a post office, with money order 
department, under Aberdeen, 2 banking- 
offices, an Established church of 1840, a 
Free church, a United Presbyterian church 
of 1877, a Congregational church of 1880, 
and a public school with about 155 
scholars. — The parish contains also the 
villages or hamlets of Whitehill, Knavan, 
Cairnbanno, and Brucklaw, and part of 
Savoch quoad sacra parish. Its length is 
12 miles ; its greatest breadth fully 5 
miles ; its area 26,750 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £23,211. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 4875 ; quoad sacra, 4097. The 
surface is mostly flat, and rises nowhere 
higher than about 300 feet above sea-level. 
The chief residences are Brucklaw and 
Nethermuir ; and the chief antiquities are 
ruins of Federate Castle, and vestiges or 
sites of many ancient Caledonian monu- 
ments. An Established church is at 
Savoch, and United Presbyterian churches 
are at Savoch and AVhitehill. 8 
schools for 880 scholars are within the 
parish, exclusive of Savoch, and 3 of 
them for 414 are new. 

DEER (OLD), village in Buchan district, 
Aberdeenshire, and parish partly also in 
Banffshire. The village stands on Deer 
river, 10^ miles west-by-north of Peter- 
head, and has a post office under Mintlaw, 
a banking office, Established, Free, and 
Episcopalian churches, and 2 public 
schools with about 226 scholars. Pop. 
252. — The parish contains also the villages 
of Steuartfield, Biffy, and Fetterangus, 
and consists of a compact main body in 
Aberdeenshire, and a detached tract in 
Banffshire. The main body measures 11 
by 5J miles, and comprises 24,564 acres ; 
and the detached tract comprises 2799 
acres. Real property in 1880-S1, £25,049 
and £3113. Pop., quoad civilia, 5104 ; 
quoad sacra, 3772. The surface is partly 



flat, but mainly undulating, and includes 
many rising grounds, cultivated to the 
summit. The chief residence is Pitfour, 
and the chief antiquity is the ruin of a 
great abbey of the l3th century. A Free 
church is at Clola, and United Presby- 
terian and Congregational churches are at 
Steuartfield. 7 public schools, with about 
790 scholars, are in the parish. 

DEESIDE, valley of the Dee, partly in 
Kincardineshire, but chiefly in Aberdeen- 
shire. 

DEIL'S BEEF TUB, vast hollow contigu- 
ous to public road, 5 miles north-by-west 
of Moffat, north verge of Dumfriesshire. 
It is described in Sir "Walter Scott's 
Redgauntlet. 

DEIL'S CAUSEWAY, remains of Roman 
road in Stonehouse parish, Lanarkshire. 

DEIL'S DYKE, ancient line of fortifica- 
tion from Loch Ryan in "Wigtonshire, 
through Minnigaff, Glencairn, Penpont, 
and Lochmaben parishes, to upper part of 
Solway Firth in Dumfriesshire. It is now 
in many parts quite extinct ; in other- 
parts, more or less obscure ; in some parts, 
still very distinct. 

DEIL'S KNAP, hillock, anciently a beacon 
or signal post, in Lunan parish, Forfarshire. 

DELFOUR, place, with remarkable assem- 
blage of ancient Caledonian monuments, 
comprising cairn, obelisk, and two stone 
circles, in Alvie parish, Inverness-shire. 

DELGATTY. See Dalgetty. 

DELLAGYLE, place with notable cave in 
Knockando parish, Elginshire. 

DELNIES, village on coast of Nairn 
parish, Nairnshire. It has a public school 
with about 115 scholars. 

DELNY, place, 3^ miles north-east of 
Invergordon, Ross-shire. It has a post 
office designated of Inverness-shire, and a 
railway station. 

DELORAINE, tract on Ettrick river, 17 
miles south-west of Selkirk. It gave the 
title of earl in 1706 to a branch of the- 
family of Scott ; and the title became 
extinct in 1807. 

DELTING, parish a little north of the- 
middle of Shetland. It comprehends part 
of Mainland between Yell Sound and St. 
Magnus Bay, the islands of Muckle Roe 
and Little Roe, and the islets of Brother, 
Fishholm, and Bigga, and contains the- 
hamlet of Mossbank, with post office under 
Lerwick. Its length is variously stated at 
14 and 10 miles, its breadth at 6 and 8 
miles. Real property in 1880-81, £2312. 
Pop. 1654. The surface is much inter- 
sected by the sea, and presents for the- 
most part a hilly, bleak, and barren 
appearance. Caves are at Culsterness and 
Trondavoe. The seats are Busta, Garth, 
Ulhouse, and Mossbank ; and the chief 
antiquities are vestiges or sites of ancient 
castles. The churches are 2 Established r 
1 Free, and 1 United Presbyterian. There 
are 7 schools for 272 scholars, and 5 of 
them for 174 are new. 

DELVINE, seat of Sir Alexander M.. 



DEL 



126 



DES 



Mackenzie, Bart., in Caputh parish, 
Perthshire. 

DELVORICH, village in Kilmadock 
parish, Perthshire. 

DEN. See Dean. 

DEN, village in Dairy parish, Ayrshire. 
Pop. 995. 

DENBRAE, seat near St. Andrews, Fife. 

DENEND, village in Newtyle parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DENFENELLA, romantic ravine, with 
cascade of 65 feet, spanned by lofty, 
handsome bridge, in St. Cyrus parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

DENHEAD, hamlet in Cameron parish, 
Fife. It has a post office under St. 
Andrews, and a public school with about 
47 scholars. 

DENHEAD, hamlet in Logie-Buchan 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
•office under Ellon, and a public school 
with about 79 scholars. 

DENHEAD, village a short distance west 
of Dundee. 

DENHOLM, village adjacent to the 
Teviot, 5 miles north-east of Hawick, 
Roxburghshire. It stands on a plateau, 
adjoins a picturesque wooded dell, includes 
a spacious square, and has a post office 
with all departments under Hawick, water- 
works of 1874, an obeliskal monument to 
the poet Leyden, a Free church, and a 
public school with about 187 scholars, 
Pop. 592. 

DENINO. See Dunino. 

DENMILL, village a short distance west 
of Dundee. 

DENMILL, ruined ancient castellated 
seat, 1-g- mile south-east of Newburgh, 
Fife. 

DENNIS, headland in north-east of 
North Ronaldshay, Orkney. 

DENNISTON, suburb, 1| mile east-by- 
north of Eoyal Exchange, Glasgow. It 
was founded in 1860 ; consists of handsome 
streets and fine villas in symmetrical ar- 
rangement ; presents a pleasant aspect, 
strongly contrasted to that of neighbouring 
suburbs ; stands in near vicinity to Alex- 
andra Park ; communicates by tramway 
with most parts of the city ; and contains 
a Romanesque Established church of 1877, 
a neat steepled Free church of about 1870, 
and a costly Italian United Presbyterian 
church of 1878. 

DENNISTON, suburb of Dumbarton. 

DENNY, town and parish in south-east 
of Stirlingshire. The town stands on river 
Carron, at terminus of branch railway, 1\ 
miles by road, but 13J by railway, south- 
by-east of Stirling ; was only a hamlet in 
latter part of last century ; is now a con- 
siderable and prosperous seat of manufac- 
ture ; comprises parts more or less old and 
recent within Denny parish, and a large 
suburb within Dunipace ; and has a head 
post office with all departments, a railway 
station, 2 banking offices, several good inns, 
Established, Free, United Presbyterian, 
and Roman Catholic churches, and a public 



school with about 221 scholars. The U.P. 
church was reconstructed in 1881 at a cost 
of about £12,000. Pop. of town proper, 
2823; of town and suburbs, 4080.— 
The parish contains also Denny-Loanhead, 
Parkfoot, Longcroft, and Fankerton vil- 
lages, most of Hollandbush and Haggs, 
and part of Bonnybridge. Its length is 
6 miles ; its breadth about 4 miles ; its 
area 8309 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£24,508. Pop. , quoad civilia, 5728 ; quoad 
sacra, 3464. A hill-ridge extends through 
the centre from east to west ; slopes, 
with some undulations, go thence to 
the Carron on the north, and to the 
Bonny on the south ; and Darrach Hill 
rises abruptly and prominently on the 
western border. Coal and ironstone are 
worked. A chief seat is Myothill, and 
chief antiquities are sites of Caledonian 
camps. Established churches are at 
Haggs and Bonnybridge, and a United 
Presbyterian church is at Denny-Loanhead. 
4 schools for 792 scholars are within the 
parish, and 3 of them for 650 are new. 

DENNYBRIDGE, suburb or section of 
Denny, Stirlingshire. 

DENNYFERN, remains of ancient castle 
in Lethnot parish, Forfarshire. 

DENNY-LOANHEAD, village, 1J mile 
south of Denny, Stirlingshire. It has a 
post office under Denny, and a United 
Presbyterian church. 

DENNYSTON. See Denniston. 

DENOON, glen and site of old castle in 
Glammis parish, Forfarshire. 

DENOVAN, village and mansion in 
northern vicinity of Denny, Stirlingshire. 

DENSIDE, place, with public school, in 
Tannadice parish, Forfarshire. 

DERCLEUCH, lake in Straiton parish, 
Ayrshire. 

DERCULICH, seat and lake in Dull 
parish, Perthshire. 

DERGAN, rivulet, running northward 
to Loch Creran, in Ardchattan parish, 
Argyleshire. 

DERNAGLAR, lake, 4 miles east of Glen- 
luce, Wigtonshire. 

DERNCONNER, village in Auchinleck 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 550. 

DERNOCK. See Darnick. 

DERVAIG, place in north of Mull Island, 
Argyleshire. It has a post office, with 
money order department, under Oban. 

DESKFORD, parish averagely about 3^ 
miles south of Cullen, Banffshire. It has 
a post office under Fochabers. Its length 
is about 5 miles ; its breadth about 3 
miles ; its area 8155 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £4446. Pop. 849. The sur- 
face is a hill-screened valley, traversed 
northward by Deskford burn, and cut in 
the sides by ravines with small cascades, 
The parish gives the peerage title of baron 
to the Earl of Seafield, and contains the 
ruined residence of his ancestors. The 
churches are Established and Free. There 
are 2 schools for 207 scholars, and 1 of 
them for 175 is new. 



DES 



127 



DIN 



DESKIE, quondam chapelry in Inveraven 
parish, Banffshire. 

DESKRY, rivulet, running about 9 miles 
northward to the Don, at upper boundary 
of Towie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DESS, railway station and rivulet in 
Deeside, Aberdeenshire. The station is 
3 miles east of Aboyne, and the rivulet 
issues from Auchlossen Loch, makes a fine 
waterfall called Slog of Dess, and enters 
the Dee in vicinity of the station. 

DESSWOOD, seat near Kincardine 
O'Neil, Aberdeenshire. 

DEUCALEDONIAN SEA, the part of the 
Atlantic among and around the Hebrides. 

DEUCHAR, seat in Fearn parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

DEUGH, rivulet, running tortuously about 
15 miles to right side of the Ken, at 7J 
miles north-by-west of New Galloway, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DEVANA, site of Roman camp on the 
Dee in Peterculter parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DEVAR, or DEVAAR, island in mouth 
of Campbelton Loch, Kintyre, Argyleshire. 
A lighthouse is on it, with revolving light 
visible at the distance of 17 nautical miles. 

DEVERON, river of Aberdeenshire and 
Banffshire. It rises on uplands 4 miles 
south-west of Buck of Cabrach ; runs in 
various directions, but averagely north- 
eastward ; receives in its progress the 
Bogie, the Isla, and some lesser affluents ; 
has a total course of 35 miles in straight 
line, but at least 50 along its bed ; is 
impetuous in its upper reaches, but slow 
in its middle and lower ones ; descends 
from Highland glens to traverse a diversity 
of fertile beautiful lowland tracts ; and 
enters the sea between Banff and Macduff. 

DEVIL'S CALDRON, dark dismal cavern, 
with cascade into it from deep narrow 
chasm, in course of Lednock river, Perth- 
shire. 

DEVIL'S CALDRON, enclosed circular 
ancient structure, believed to have been 
a place of Bomish penance, in vale of St. 
Blane, Isle of Bute. 

DEVIL'S MILL, reverberating cataract 
of Devon river, within a fissure a little 
above Bumbling Bridge, about 4 miles 
east-north-east of Dollar, Clackmannan- 
shire. 

DEVIL'S STAIRCASE, difficult descend- 
ing old road from a point near head of 
Glencoe to a point near head of Loch 
Leven, on north border of Argyleshire. 

DEVOLS, rocky wooded glen, with 
brook making two cascades, in western 
vicinity of Port - Glasgow, Renfrew- 
shire. 

DEVON, river of Perthshire, Kinross- 
shire, and Clackmannanshire. It rises 
near the watershed of the Southern Ochils ; 
makes a great detour to the east ; has a 
total course along its bed of about 26 
miles ; and enters the Forth at Cambus, 
€| miles in straight line south-south-west 
of its source. Famous cataracts and falls 
are on it near Crook of Devon ; and the 



scenery over great part of its course is 
highly picturesque, and has been celebrated 
by Burns. 

DEVON, ironworks, and public school 
with about 148 scholars, in Clackmannan 
parish, Clackmannanshire. 

DEVON (BLACK or SOUTH), rivulet, 
running about 6 miles westward and south- 
westward to the Forth, at 1J mile below 
Alloa. 

DEVONHILL, place on west side of 
Hamilton parish, Lanarkshire. 

DEVONSHAW, seat about 2h miles 
east-north-east of Dollar, Clackmannan- 
shire. 

DEVONSHAW, hill, with ancient cir- 
cular camp, in Wandell parish, Lanark- 
shire. 

DEVONSIDE, village in Tillicoultry 
parish, Clackmannanshire. Pop. 479. 

DEVON VALLEY RAILWAY, railway 
from Tillicoultry station of Stirling and 
Dunfermline Railway into junction with 
the Fife and Kinross. It was opened on 
1st May 1863, and became amalgamated 
with the North British in January 1875. 

DEWAR, hamlet and lofty hill in Heriot 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

DEWARTON, village in Borthwick par- 
ish, Edinburghshire. 

DEWS, quondam lake in Fetteresso 
parish, Kincardineshire. 

DHAIL, hamlet and headland, 5 miles 
south-west of Butt of Lewis, Outer Heb- 
rides. 

DHIVACH. See Divach. 

DHU, lake, overhung by precipices more 
than 1000 feet high, in Glenmuick parish, 
Aberdeenshire. A rill drops into it from 
a height of about 200 feet ; and a brook, 
forming a series of small cascades, goes 
from it to Loch Muick. 

DHU, lake in Wick parish, Caithness. 

DHU, mountain in Luss parish, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

DHUISK, or DUSK, rivulet, running 
about 10 miles north-eastward to the 
Stinchar, in south of Carrick, Ayrshire. 

DICHMOUNT, hill in St. Vigeans par- 
ish, Forfarshire. Its summit is crowned 
with a large cairn, and was anciently the 
seat of baronial courts. 

DICHMOUNT, Lanarkshire. See Dech- 

MONT. 

DIFFICULTY, cape in south - west of 
Harris, Outer Hebrides. 

DIGHTY, small river, running about 15 
miles eastward to Firth of Tay, at 2 miles 
east of Broughty Ferry, Forfarshire. 

DIGMORE, small harbour in North Uist, 
Outer Hebrides. 

DIKEHEAD. See Dykehead. 

DILLICHIP, printworks in Bonhill par- 
ish, Dumbartonshire. 

DILTY, morass in Carmylie and Guthrie 
parishes, Forfarshire. 

DINARD, lake and rivulet in north-west 
of Sutherland. The lake lies among 
mountains on south verge of Durness 
parish, measures about 3 miles in circuit, 



DIN 



128 



DOC 



and is overlooked by a cave which the 
Lords Reay used as a sporting-lodge ; and 
the rivulet issues from it, runs im- 
petuously about 8 miles northward, is 
overhung midway by Benspionna, and 
enters the head of Kyle of Durness. 

DINGLETON, suburb of Melrose, Rox- 
burghshire. 

DINGWALL, town and parish in south- 
east of Ross-shire. The town stands in 
mouth of Strathpeffer, at head of Crom- 
arty Firth, 18| miles north-west of Inver- 
ness ; ranks as a seaport, a royal burgh, 
and the capital of Ross-shire ; unites with 
Cromarty, Tain, Dornoch, "Wick, and 
Kirkwall in sending a member to Parlia- 
ment ; comprises a main street about ^ 
mile long, and a number of small streets 
and lanes ; and has a head post office with 
all departments, a railway station, 3 bank- 
ing offices, 2 hotels, fine castellated County 
Buildings, an obeliskal monument erected 
by the first Earl of Cromarty, foundations 
and fosse of ancient castle of the Earls of 
Ross, handsome Established, Free, and 
Episcopalian churches of respectively 1801, 
1869, and 1872, and 2 public schools with 
jointly about 326 scholars. Real property 
in 1880-81, exclusive of railway, £7408. 
Pop. 1921 . — The parish is nearly an 
oblong of about lOf square miles. Real 
property of landward part in 1880-81, 
£4993. Pop. 2220. The surface includes 
a skirt of Benwyvis and a part of Strath- 
peffer, is elsewhere diversified by hill and 
valley, and presents on the whole a very 
beautiful appearance. There are 3 schools 
for 445 scholars, and an enlargement of 1 
of them for 150 is new. 

DINGWALL, extinct ancient baronial 
fortalice on site of St. James square, Edin- 
burgh. 

DINGY'S HOW, ancient tumulus, 30 feet 
high, in St. Andrews parish, Orkney. 

DINLABYRE, estate and burn, the 
latter with beautiful cascade, in Castleton 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

DINNET, place, 4£ miles west of Aboyne, 
Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Aberdeen, a railway station, and a quoad 
sacra parochial church for a pop. of 311. 
Dinnet burn,entering the Dee in its vicinity, 
receives the effluence of lakes in Tullich 
and Logie-Coldstone parishes, and may be 
regarded as the boundary between the 
Highlands and the Lowlands of Deeside. 

DINWOODIE, old chapelry, now forming 
northern section of Applegarth parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a railway station 
6J- miles north of Lockerby. 
"DIONARD. See Dinard. 

DIPPEN, headland near south-eastern 
extremity of Arran Island, Buteshire. It 
rises almost vertically to the height of 
about 300 feet, and is leaped by a brook 
forming a curve of spray. 

DIPPEN, seat on south-east side of "West 
Loch Tarbert, Argyleshire. 

DIPPLE, ancient parish, now included in 
Speymouth, Elginshire. 



DIPPOOL, rivulet, running about 7\ 
miles south-westward to the Mouse, in 
Lanarkshire. 

DIRIE, head - stream of the Conan, in 
Ross-shire. 

DIRLET, ancient castle, on high preci- 
pitous rock overhanging Thurso river, in 
Halkirk parish, Caithness. 

DIRLETON, village and parish on coast of 
Haddingtonshire. The village stands about 
1J mile from the sea, and 3 miles south- 
west-by-west of North Berwick ; occupies 
the sides of a large triangular green ; 
comprises neat modern cottages with 
garden plots on two sides, and massive ruins 
of Dirleton Castle on the third side ; and 
has a post office under Drem, a railway 
station, a fine bowling-green, Established 
and Free churches, and a public school 
with about 121 scholars. Pop. 343. 
The castle was built in the 12th century 
by the family of Vaux ; made strong re- 
sistance to the English in 1298, but was 
taken and held by them till 1306 ; passed 
afterwards to the Halyburtons, and gave 
them the peerage title of Lords Dirleton, 
a title now held by the Earl of Mar ; was 
captured and dismantled by Cromwell ; 
and is noticed by Sir Walter Scott in his 
Border Antiquities. — The parish contains 
also the villages of Gulane, Kingston, and 
Fenton, and is 5J miles long and 4 miles 
broad. Acres, 9l46. Real property in 
1880-81, £16,955. Pop. 1506. The sur- 
face, though diversified by two low parallel 
ridges, looks to be flat ; and includes, be- 
tween Dirleton village and the sea, a tract 
long famous as a remarkably fine coursing 
field. The chief residence is Archerfield, 
and the chief antiquity, besides Dirleton 
Castle, is the ruined church of Gulane. 

DIRRINGTONS, two conical hills, Great 
and Little, in Longformacus parish, Ber- 
wickshire. 

DIRU, lake and offset of Benloyal in 
Tongue parish, Sutherland. 

DISBLAIR, estate, with mansion and 
public school, in Fintray parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

DISTINCTHORN, mountain, 1258 feet 
high, 6 miles east-south-east of Galston, 
eastern border of Ayrshire. It commands a 
magnificent view. 

DIVACH, affluent of the Coiltie in Ur- 
quhart parish, Inverness-shire. It makes 
a profound waterfall, equal in picturesque- 
ness to the Fall of Foyers. 

DIVIE, picturesque rivulet, rising on 
Brae Moray, and running about 10 miles 
north-westward to the Findhorn, in Elgin- 
shire. 

DOCHART, lake and river in Killin 
parish, Perthshire. The lake lies in the 
head of Glendochart, receives the rivulet 
Fillan from Strathfillan, is overhung on 
the south by Benmore, measures about 
3 miles in length, and contains a floating 
islet. The river issues from the lake, runs 
about 10 miles east-north-eastward along 
the rest of Glendochart, and unites with 



DOC 



129 



DOO 



the Lochy to fall into Loch Tay at Killin 
village. 

DOCHFOUR, lake, burn, and seat, about 
4 miles south-west of Inverness. The lake 
is a terminating wing of Loch Ness, and 
measures about 1J mile in length. The 
burn makes some fine cascades, and falls 
into the lake. The seat is on the lake's left 
side, and is a handsome Venetian edifice. 

DOCHGARROCH, burn and regulating 
lock on Caledonian Canal, near foot of 
Loch Ness, Inverness-shire. 

DOCHIE, quondam chapelry in Monifieth 
parish, Forfarshire. 

DOD, hill in Castleton parish, Roxburgh - 
shire. 

DODHEAD, low hill-ridge in Newlands 
parish , Peeblesshire. 

DOG, islet in Menteith Loch, Port-of- 
Menteith parish, Perthshire. 

DOGDEN, extensive moss in Greenlaw 
and "Westruther parishes, Berwickshire. 

DOGS, small island in Loch Laggan, 
Inverness-shire. 

DOGS, ferry on Loch Leven on mutual 
border of Argyleshire and Inverness-shire. 

DOG'S STONE, isolated rock, subject of 
curious legends, on the shore near Oban, 
Argyleshire. 

DOINE, lake in Balquhidder parish, 
Perthshire. 

DOLL, rivulet and glen in Clova parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DOLLAR, parish in Clackmannanshire, 
and town slightly also in Perthshire. The 
town stands on a sloping plain, between 
Devon river and the Ochils, 6f miles 
north-east of Alloa ; presents a charming 
appearance, amid picturesque scenery ; 
consists of old section, new section, and 
long outskirt of villas ; and has a post 
office with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Clackmannan- 
shire, a railway station, a banking office, 
a hotel, a large endowed educational in- 
stitution, a parochial church of 1841, a 
Free church, a United Presbyterian church 
of 1877, and an Episcopalian church of 
1880. Pop. 2014.— The parish is about 3 
miles long, and comprises 4773 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £12,247. Pop. 2500. 
The surface comprises a fine plain or valley, 
with part of the Ochils on the north, and 
gently rising ground on the south. Coal 
is largely worked, and iron-ore abounds. 
A chief object is Castle Campbell. There 
are 3 schools with accommodation for 1680 
scholars. 

DOLLARBURN, old tower in Manor 
parish, Peeblesshire. 

DOLLAR LAW, mountain,2680 feet high, 
with extensive view, 9 miles south-west 
of Peebles. 

DOLLARS, seat near Kilmarnock, Ayr- 
shire. 

DOLLAS. See Dallas. 

DOLLERIE, seat in Madderty parish, 
Perthshire. 

DOLLS, place, with distillery, near Men- 
strie, Clackmannanshire. 



DOLPHINSTON, hamlet, with some 
ancient ruins, 2 miles west of Tranent, 
Haddingtonshire. 

DOLPHINTON, hamlet and parish on 
south-east border of Lanarkshire. The 
hamlet lies 11£ miles south-east of Car- 
stairs Junction, and has a post office, 
designated of Peeblesshire, a railway 
station, a parochial church, and a public 
school with about 61 scholars. — The 
parish is about 3 miles long, and com- 
prises 3574 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £3519. Pop. 292. The surface 
has a minimum altitude of about 700 feet 
above sea-level, and contains the conical 
mount of Keir Hill, and the mountain of 
Dolphinton Hill, yet is mostly arable. 

DOLPHISTON, hamlet, with ancient 
tower, 4^ miles south-south-east of Jed- 
burgh, Roxburghshire. 

DOLT, hill in Kirkmaiden parish, "VVig- 
tonshire. 

DON, river of Aberdeenshire. It rises 
on a spur of Cairngorm Mountains, at 
boundary with Banffshire ; runs crookedly 
in eastward direction to the sea about a 
mile north-east of Old Aberdeen ; and 
achieves a course of 44 miles measured in 
straight line, but probably double that 
distance along its bed. Its chief affluents 
are the Conry, the Carvy, and the Leochel 
on the right, and the Ernan, the Nochty, 
the Bucket, the Kindy, and the Ury on 
the left. Its basin for about 18 miles 
from its source is prevailingly upland, but 
afterwards includes much meadow and 
valley, and throughout contains a large 
aggregate of delightful scenery. 

DON, sea-loch, 4 miles long, on east coast 
of Mull Island, opposite Kerrera, Argyle- 
shire. 

DONALDS, cleugh in Tweedsmuir parish, 
Peeblesshire. It was a retreat of the 
famous Covenanter, Donald Cargill. 

DONAN, small island in Loch Alsh, 
Ross-shire. See also Castle-Donan. 

DONAVOURD, seat near Pitlochrie, 
Perthshire. 

DON (BRIDGE OF). See Bridge of Don. 

DONIBRISTLE, village and noble seat, 
between Aberdour and Inverkeithing, on 
coast of Fife. The village is inhabited 
chiefly by colliers, and has a public school 
with about 138 scholars. Pop. 502. 
The seat was originally the residence of 
the abbot of Inchcolm ; underwent en- 
largement to become the residence of the 
Earl of Moray ; and was destroyed by fire 
in 1858. 

DONKINS, place, with limeworks, in 
Middlebie parish, Dumfriesshire. 

DOON, lake in Kirkcudbrightshire and 
Ayrshire, and river dividing Carrick from 
Kyle in Ayrshire. The lake measures 6 
miles in length, and from 3 to 6 furlongs 
in breadth ; is engirt with wild, sequestered 
uplands ; contains an islet with ruined 
ancient castle ; and makes its effluence 
through artificial sluices. The river com- 
mences at these sluices ; runs for about a 



DOO 



130 



DOU 



mile along a deep narrow ravine ; proceeds 
about 16 miles north - westward to the 
Firth of Clyde at 2 miles south of Ayr ; 
and, in its lower reaches, has the bosky, 
picturesque character celebrated in Burns' 
' Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon.' 

DOON, steep lofty termination of hill- 
range in Tynron parish, Dumfriesshire. 
It was anciently fortified, and was the 
retreat of Bang Eobert Bruce after the 
death of Comyn. 

DOON, termination of hill-range in 
Glencairn parish, Dumfriesshire. " 

DOON, hill in Spott parish, Haddington- 
shire. 

DOONHOLM, seat on the Doon in Ayr 
parish, Ayrshire. 

DORARY, section of Thurso parish, 
Caithness. It lies detached 4 miles from 
the main body, and is encompassed by 
Sutherland. 

DORBACK, affluent of the Findhorn, in 
Edenkillie parish, Elginshire. 

DORBACK, place, with public school, in 
Abernethy parish, Inverness-shire. 

DORBSHILL, place, with public school, 
in Logie-Buchan parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DOREHOLM, rock-islet in St. Magnus 
Bay, Shetland. It has a grand natural 
arch, 54 feet high. 

DORES, village and parish in Inverness- 
shire. The village stands at foot of Loch 
Ness, 8 miles south-west of Inverness, and 
has a post office under Inverness, and a 
parochial church with 500 sittings. — The 
parish is about 20 miles long, and 3 or 4 
miles broad, and comprises 25,693 acres. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £8745. Pop. 
1148. The surface includes a narrow 
strip of low ground along Loch Ness, the 
small vale of Farigag, and part of Strath- 
errick. The chief seats are Aldowrie, 
Eregie, and Gortleg ; and the chief an- 
tiquity is the vestige of Dun-Richuan 
fort. There is a Free church for Dores 
and Bona, and there are public schools at 
Aldowrie, Bunchrubbin, and Stratherrick. 

DORES, quondam castle, said to have 
been a residence of Macbeth, on a hDl-top 
in Kettins parish, Forfarshire. 

DORMONT, seat in Dalton parish, Dum- 
friesshire. 

DORNADILLA, Scandinavian tower at 
south base of Benhope, in Durness parish, 
Sutherland. 

DORNAL, lake, 10 miles north-north- 
west of Newton-Stewart, "Wigtonshire. 

DORNIE, village in Elntail parish, Boss- 
shire. It has a post office under Lochalsh, 
and a public school with about 35 scholars. 

DORNOCH, town and parish in south- 
east corner of Sutherland, and firth on 
mutual border of Sutherland and Boss- 
shire. The town stands on north side of 
the firth, 6 miles in straight line, but 10 by 
road and ferry, north-by-east of Tain ; was 
the seat of the old diocese of Sutherland 
and Caithness ; became a royal burgh in 
the time of Charles I., and unites with 
Tain and four other burghs in sending 



a member to Parliament ; is only a village 
in size, yet the capital of Sutherland 
in status ; had an ancient, large, strong, 
palatial castle with lofty tower ; retains 
its ancient cathedral, restored in 1837, and 
used as the parochial church ; and has 
a post office with money order and 
telegraph departments, designated of 
Sutherland shire, a banking office, a 
hotel, County Buildings adjoined to the 
ancient castle's tower, a Free church, a 
public library, and a public school. Real 
property in 1880-81, £920. Pop. 497.— 
The parish contains also the villages of 
Clashmore and Embo, and measures about 
11 miles by 6. Real property of land- 
ward part in 1880-81, £7579. Pop. 2525. 
The shore is mostly flat and sandy ; and 
the interior is partly flat and partly an 
alternation of straths and hill - ridges. 
Skibo Castle is the chief seat ; and an 
ancient structure of the same name, de- 
molished in last century, was the residence 
of the bishops of Sutherland and Caith- 
ness. 7 schools for 771 scholars are 
in the parish, and 2 of them and a class- 
room for 299 are new. — The firth is the 
estuary of the river Oikell ; extends 10 
miles east-south-eastward, with maxi- 
mum width of If mile ; contracts at 
Meikle Ferry, 4 miles above Tain ; makes 
a sudden expansion there, and goes 13 
miles eastward and north-eastward to a 
terminating width of about 12 miles. 

DORNOCK, village and parish on southern 
border of Annandale, Dumfriesshire. The 
village stands 3 miles west of Annan, and 
has a post office under Annan, a rail- 
way station, a parochial church, and 2 
public schools with about 181 scholars. 
The parish contains also Lowtherton 
village, and measures about 4 miles 
by 2i. Acres, 4626. Real property in 
1880-81, £6805. Pop. 814. The Solway 
Firth forms the southern boundary, and is 
here 2 miles wide. The coast is low and 
sandy, and the interior is a slightly in- 
clined plain, nearly all arable. 

DORRAL, burn in Dallas parish, Elgin- 
shire. 

DORUS-MOR, strait between Craignish 
point and Garhhreisa islet at mouth of 
Loch Crinan, Argyleshire. 

DOSK, old parish, now forming Kin- 
cardineshire section of Edzell. 

DOUBLE, hill with two summits, one of 
them commanding a grand view, in Res- 
cobie parish, Forfarshire. 

DOUBLE-DYKES, remains of extensive 
ancient fortification in Stonehouse parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

DOUGLAS, river, town, castle, and parish 
in upper ward of Lanarkshire. The river 
rises on Cairntable Mountain, and runs 
about 16 miles north-eastward to the 
Clyde at 3J miles south-east of Lanark. — 
The town stands on the river, 11 miles by 
road south-south-west of Lanark ; is an 
ancient place, long of great importance, 
but now much decayed; and has a post 



DOU 



131 



DOW 



office, with money order and telegraph de- 
partments, under Lanark, a railway station, 
2 banking offices, choir of ancient church 
with monuments of the Earls of Douglas, 
a modern parochial church, Free and 
United Presbyterian churches, and 2 public 
schools with about 134 scholars. Pop. 
1262. — The castle stands on the river 
about | mile north-east of the town, but 
is twofold, ancient and modern. The 
ancient castle belonged to the earls who 
so often competed in power and grandeur 
with the Scottish kings ; gave the title of 
duke from 1703 till 1761 to one of their 
successors ; gives still the title of marquis 
to the Duke of Hamilton, and that of 
baron to the Earl of Home.; figured much 
in the wars of the succession ; is the ' Castle 
Dangerous ' of Sir "Walter Scott's last novel ; 
and has been reduced to one ruined tower. 
The modern castle was erected in the latter 
part of last century, displays much magni- 
ficence, and belongs to the Earl of Home. 
— The parish contains also the villages of 
Bigside and Uddington, and is 12 miles 
long, and from 4 to 7 miles broad. Acres, 
34,137. Eeal property in 1880-81, £21,182. 
Pop. 2641. The surface comprehends 
most of the basin of Douglas river, and is 
mountainous or moorish along the upper 
parts of the basin, but has a fine strath 
opening into luxuriant valley in the centre. 
Coal abounds, and is largely worked. The 
seats, besides Douglas Castle, are Carma- 
coup, Polmunckshead, and Crossburn. 
Free and Reformed Presbyterian churches 
are at Eigside. 4 schools for 494 
scholars are in the parish, and 1 of them 
for 250 is new. 

DOUGLAS, burn, running about 6 miles 
south-eastward to the Yarrow, at 2 miles 
from foot of St. Mary's Loch, Selkirkshire. 

DOUGLAS, burn, running about 7 miles 
eastward to Loch Fyne, at 3 miles south of 
Inverary, Argyleshire. 

DOUGLAS, burn, running about 5 miles 
eastsouth-eastward to Loch Lomond, at 
Lower Inveruglas, Dumbartonshire. 

DOUGLAS, estate in Glammis parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DOUGLASDALE, variously Douglas 
parish, the basin of Douglas river, and 
all middle ward of Lanarkshire. 

DOUGLAS MILL, place, 2 miles north- 
east of Douglas town, Lanarkshire. 

DOUGLAS MOOR, large section of Craw- 
ford parish, Lanarkshire. 

DOUGLAS PARK, seat in Bothwell 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

DOUGLASTOWN, viUage, 3| miles south- 
west of Forfar. It has a post office under 
Forfar. 

DOULAS,lake in Lairg parish, Sutherland. 

DOULOCH, lacustrine expansion of Shira 
rivulet, to within J mile of Loch Fyne, in 
Inverary parish, Argyleshire. Vestiges of 
an old castle are on its bank. 

DOUN, mountain, 2409 feet high, 5 miles 
north-north-east of Garelochhead, Dum- 
bartonshire. 



DOUNBY, place, with post office under 
Finstown, in Pomona, Orkney. 

DOUNE, town at confluence of the Teith 
and the Ardoch, 3 miles west of Dunblane, 
Perthshire. It comprises 3 good streets and 
a suburb ; is a place of considerable resort 
in summer ; has a post office with money 
order and telegraph departments, desig- 
nated of Perthshire, a railway station, 
2 banking offices, 2 hotels, a famous 
ancient ruined castle, a remarkable old 
bridge, a Gothic towered Established 
church, Free and United Presbyterian 
churches, an Episcopalian church of 1877, 
and 3 public schools with about 278 
scholars ; and gives the title of baron 
to the Earl of Moray. Its castle was long 
the seat of the Earls of Menteith ; became 
a residence of two regents of Scotland, a 
resort of the dowager queen of James v., 
and a resort of Queen Mary ; was held in 
1745 by the forces of Prince Charles 
Edward ; figures in Sir Walter Scott's 
Waverley and Lady of the Lake ; and is 
now a roofless, massive, quadrangular pile, 
with huge corner tower. Pop. of the town, 
996. Doune Lodge, about a mile to the 
north-west, is a seat of the Earl of Moray. 

DOUNE, place, with public school, in 
Kincardine parish, Ross-shire. 

DOUNE, hill, with vitrified fort, in Criech 
parish, Sutherland. 

DOUNE, hill in Ardclach parish, Nairn- 
shire. 

DOUNE, conical mound, formerly forti- 
fied, in Strathdon parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DOUNE, conical hill, formerly fortified, 
in Edenkillie parish, Elginshire. 

DOUNE, seat in Rothiemurchus quoad 
sacra parish, Inverness-shire. 

DOUNE, Dumbartonshire. See Dodn. 

DOUR, burn in Aberdour parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

DOURA, collier village in Kilwinning 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 222. 

DOURY, burn in Marykirk parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

DOVE, coast cave in Fordyce parish, 
Banffshire. 

DOVECOTAMINS, highest ground in 
Coldstream parish, Berwickshire. 

DOVECOTHALL, suburb of Barrhead, 
Renfrewshire. 

DOVECOTLAND, village, suburban to 
Perth. 

DOVECOTWOOD, fragment of very strong 
old castle in Kilsyth parish, Stirlingshire. 

DOVERAN. See Deveron. 

DOVESLAND, section or suburb of 
Paisley, Renfrewshire. 

DOWAL, lacustrine expansion of river 
Carron, with 3 islets, in Lochcarron 
parish, Ross-shire. 

DOW ALLY, village and parish in Strath- 
tay district, Perthshire. The village stands 
on a burn of its own name, 4^ miles north- 
by-west of Dunkeld, dates from the Culdee 
times, and has a small parochial church of 
1818, and a public school with about 63 
scholars.— The parish was a chapelry of 



DOW 



132 



DM 



Caputh, became separate in 1500, and is 
now united to Dunkeld ; and it comprises 
a main body of 6 miles along the Tay, and 
a detached district of about f- mile along 
the Tummel. Acres of Dowally and Dun- 
keld, 9456. Eeal property in 1880-81, 
£3350. Pop. 791. The main body con- 
sists of a belt of low ground contiguous 
to the Tay, and a wooded range of over- 
hanging heights ; and includes the pictur- 
esque rocky hills of Craigiebarns and 
Craigievinean, together with the King's 
pass. 

DOWALTON, fine lake, with island, 2$ 
miles west of Garlieston, "Wigtonshire. 

DO WALT Y, hill- ridge in Banchory - 
Ternan parish, Kincardineshire. 

DOWANHILL, handsome new suburb 
immediately west of Hillhead, Glasgow. 
It contains the city observatory, and a 
United Presbyterian church. 

DOWANVALE, suburb of Partick, Glas- 
gow. It has a Free church, erected in 
1880-81, and fronting Dowanhill. 

DOWGLEN, burn in Westerkirk parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

DOWIE DENS, quondam moor, now en- 
closed and cultivated, near Yarrow church, 
Selkirkshire. It was the scene of some 
dismal event commemorated in a famous 
ancient ballad, and it formerly had upwards 
of 20 large cairns, but has now no other 
antiquity than two large unhewn stones. 

DOWN, hill in Dunbar parish, Hadding- 
tonshire. 

DOWN, conical verdant hill in Fossaway 
parish, Perthshire. 

DOWN, curious hillock, with vertical 
rocky front, in Fintiy parish, Stirlingshire. 

DOWNAN, place, with old burying- 
ground, in Inveraven parish, Banffshire. 

DOWNFIELD, village in Mains parish, 
Forfarshire. It has a post office, with 
money order department, under Dundee, 
and a public school with about 75 scholars. 
Pop. 349. 

DOWNFIELD, hill, with ruined ancient 
fortification, in Kettle parish, Fife. 

DOWNIE, hill-ridge in Monikie parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DOWNIE, bold headland at south side of 
Stonehaven Bay, Kincardineshire. 

DOWNIE PARK, seat in Tannadice parish , 
Forfarshire. 

DOWNIES, fishing village, 6 miles north- 
west of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. 

DRAFFAN, quondam castle, supposed 
to have been Danish, in Dunino parish, 
Fife. 

DRAFFAN, place in Lesmahagow parish, 
Lanarkshire. It has a public school with 
about 112 scholars. 

DRAGON-HOLE, cave on face of Kinnoul 
Hill, near Perth. 

DRAINIE, parish containing Lossiemouth 
town, Branderburgh and Seatown suburbs, 
and Stotfield village, on coast of Elginshire. 
Its length is about 4 miles ; its breadth 
about 2 miles ; its area 6949 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £12,100. Pop. 3991. 



Part of the coast is flat and low, and part 
is bold and rocky. A foreshore about a 
mile broad is at the low part ; and a reef 
with skerry, at about a mile's distance, 
lies parallel to the bold part. The interior, 
except at the bold part of the coast, is low 
and nearly level. Caves are on the coast, 
and the site of the strong ancient castle of 
Kinnedder adjoins the churchyard. The 
parochial church stands in a central posi- 
tion, and contains 700 sittings ; and Estab- 
lished, Free, and United Presbyterian 
churches are at Lossiemouth. 4 schools 
for 731 scholars are in the parish, and 2 of 
them for 485 are new. 

DRAKEMUIR, village in Dairy parish, 
Ayrshire. Pop. 325. 

DREAMBEG, place on the coast, near 
mouth of Kyle-Skou,in west of Sutherland. 

DREEL, burn entering Firth of Forth 
at Anstruther, Fife. 

DREGHORN, village and parish in Cun- 
ningham district, Ayrshire. The village 
stands 2 miles east of Irvine, commands 
a fine view, and has a post office with 
money order department, designated of 
Ayrshire, a railway station, a parochial 
church, an Evangelical Union chapel, 
and a public school with about 378 
scholars. Pop. 928. —The parish con- 
tains also Overton and Perceton villages, 
and most of Bankhead town. Its length 
is about 8 miles ; its breadth from f mile 
to 2 miles ; its area 5626 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1879-80, £25,858. Pop. 3949. 
The land at the south-west end, only a 
mile from the coast, is a low dead flat ; it 
rises thence, in gentle undulations, toward 
the east and north-east ; and it is nearly 
all arable and luxuriant. Coal is exten- 
sively worked, and ironstone, limestone, 
and sandstone are found. Seats are Annock 
Lodge, Perceton, "Warwickhill, and Cun- 
ninghamhead. A Free church, erected in 
1877, is at Perceton. 4 schools for 830 
scholars are in the parish, and 2 of them 
and an enlargement for 540 are new. 

DREGHORN, seat in Colinton parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

DREINICH, small island near Lismore, 
in Loch Linnhe, Argyleshire. 

DREM, village, adjacent to railway junc- 
tion, 17^ miles east of Edinburgh. It has 
a head post office with money order and 
telegraph departments, a railway station, 
and remains of a Knights Templars' estab- 
lishment, and is near vestiges of a fortified 
ancient Caledonian town. 

DRHUIM, narrow, wooded, picturesque 
reach of the Beauly's vale, 1\ miles long, 
with a series of cascades, in Kilmorack 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

DRIMACHTOR, ancient forest in Laggan 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

DRIMADOWN, bay on south-west coast 
of Arran Island, Buteshire. 

DRIMCUDDEN, estate in Resolis parish, 
Ross -shire. 

DRIMDRISSAIG, seat in South Knapdale 
parish, Argyleshire. 



DEI 



133 



DRU 



DRIMINISH, headland on north coast of 
Ardnamurchan peninsula, Argyleshire. 

DRIMMIE, seat in Rescobie parish, For- 
farshire. 

DRIMMIE, extensive heathy tract, for- 
merly forest, in Blairgowrie parish, Perth- 
shire. 

DRIMMIES, hill in Inverury parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

DRIMNIN, place on east side of Sound 
of Mull, opposite Tobermory, Argyleshire. 
It has a post office under Oban, a mansion, 
and a Roman Catholic chapel, the latter 
on site of an ancient castle. 

DRIMREE, place, with rude monuments 
of an ancient battle, in Craignish parish, 
Argyleshire. 

DRIMSYNIE, seat near head of Loch 
Goil, Argyleshire. 

DRIMVIRK, seat at mouth of Creran 
river, in Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

DRIMYEONBEG, bay on east side of 
Gigha Island, Argyleshire. 

DRINLEAH, ancient battlefield, with 
numerous sepulchral tumuli, in Criech 
parish, Sutherland. 

DRIP. See Bridge of Deip. 

DRIPPS, estate in Lanarkshire section 
of Cathcart parish. 

DROCHIL, unfinished, well-preserved, 
massive baronial fortalice, erected by Re- 
gent Morton, at confluence of the Lyne 
and Tarth, 7 miles north-west of Peebles. 

DROICHS, burn traversing deep narrow 
vale on mutual boundary of Alford and 
Leochel parishes, Aberdeenshire. 

DROMORE, railway station, 18f miles 
west-south-west of Castle-Douglas, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. See also Dkumore. 

DRON, parish, with church, about 5 
miles south of Perth. Its post town is 
Bridge of Earn. Its length is about 3J 
miles ; its breadth about 3 miles ; its area 
4188 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£4918. Pop. 335. The southern section 
is part of the Oehils, and the northern 
one is a rich sloping plain. The seats are 
Balm anno and Glenearn, and a remarkable 
object is a large rocking-stone. The public 
school has about 56 scholars. 

DRON, hill, with ruins of ancient chapel, 
in Longforgan parish, Perthshire. 

DRONGAN, collier village, estate, and 
old tower, in Stair parish, Ayrshire. 

DRONGS, mural cloven rock, about 100 
feet high, off south coast of Northmaven, 
Shetland. 

DRONLY, village and burn in Auchter- 
house parish, Forfarshire. 

DRONOCHY, rising ground, with remains 
of ancient sculptured cross, in Forteviot 
parish, Perthshire. 

DRUIDIBEG, lake, with several islets, in 
South Uist Island, Outer Hebrides. 

DRUIE, small affluent of the Spey in 
Duthill parish, Inverness-shire. 

DRUIM. See Dehuim. 

DRUIMNACOUP, ancient battlefield, 
with tumuli, in Tongue parish, Sutherland. 

DRUM, railway station and seat, 10 



miles west-south-west of Aberdeen. The 
surrounding estate was part of a royal ' 
forest, and passed to a family celebrated 
in the ballad of the 'Lairds of Drum.' 

DRUM, lake, covering 85 acres, in 
Drumoak parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DRUM, seat in Liberton parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

DRUM, burn in Kilsyth parish, Stirling- 
shire. 

DRUMACHARGAN, conical hill in Moni- 
vaird parish, Perthshire. 

DRUMALBIN, the Central Grampians, 
under ancient mistaken notion of their 
being a continuous range. 

DRUMALBIN, hill in Carmichael parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

DRUMBAIG, place in Assynt parish, 
Sutherland. It has a public school with 
about 72 scholars. 

DRUMBATHIE, suburb of Airdrie, Lan- 
arkshire. 

DRUMBLADE, parish averagely about 4 
miles east of Huntly, Aberdeenshire. It 
has a post office under Huntly. Its 
length is about 6 miles ; its breadth from 
less than 2 to about 5 miles. Real 
property in 1880-81, £8533. Pop. 943. 
The land is pjartly flat, and partly a 
diversity of small hills and intervening 
vales. The only seat is Lessendrum ; 
and the chief antiquities are rude monu- 
ments associated with the history of King 
Robert Bruce. The churches are Established 
and Free. There are 2 schools with ac- 
commodation for 150 scholars. 

DRUMBLAIR, seat in Forgue parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

DRUMBROIDER, hill in Muiravonside 
parish, Stirlingshire. 

DRUMBURN, hamlet in Newabbey par- 
ish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DRUMCARRO, hill in Cameron parish, 
Fife. 

DRUMCLAIR, village in Slamannan par- 
ish, Stirlingshire. Pop. 252. 

DRUMCLOG, moorland locality, 7 miles 
west of Strathaven, Lanarkshire. It was 
the scene, on a Sabbath in 1679, of a 
famous skirmish-victory by a conventicle of 
Covenanters over a small body of troopers 
under Claverhouse ; and it contains a 
monument commemorative of the event, 
and has a post office under Strathaven. 

DRUMCOLTRAN, strong old tower in 
Kirkgunzeon parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DRUMDERFIT, hill-ridge in Avoch par- 
ish, Ross-shire. 

DRUMDERG, hill, 1383 feet high, 7 miles 
north-by- west of Blairgowrie, Perthshire. 

DRUMDERG, abrupt prominent hill, 
flanking part of Loth glen, in Loth parish, 
Sutherland. 

DRUMDOLLO, place in Ythan-Wells 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a public 
school with about 90 scholars. 

DRUMDOUAN, burn in Lumphanan 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DRUMDUAN, seat near Forres, Elgin- 
shire. 



DRU 



134 



DRU 



DRUMELIE, lake in Kinloch parish, 
Perthshire. 

DRUMFIN, seat on Mary's Lake, near 
Tobermory, Argyleshire. 

DRUMGEITH, place on north-east side 
of Dundee parish, Forfarshire. It has a 
public school with about 72 scholars. 

DRUMGELLOCH, village suburban to 
Airdrie, Lanarkshire. 

DRUMGLYE, village in Glammis parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DRUMIN, ruined old castle in Inveraven 
parish, Banffshire. 

DRUMINNOR,,old mansion in Auchindoir 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DRUMKILBO, seat in Meigle parish, 
Perthshire. 

DRUMLAMFORD, seat in Colmonell 
parish, Ayrshire. 

DRUMLANRIG, a seat of the Duke of 
Buccleuch, on the Nith, 3^ miles north- 
north-west of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 
It was erected in 1679-89 ; is a turretted, 
open quadrangle, in the style characteristic 
of Inigo Jones ; presents a grand appear- 
ance, as seen from many points for several 
miles around ; and has a very extensive 
and richly ornate park. 

DRUMLEMBLE, village, 4 miles west- 
south-west of Campbelton, Argyleshire. It 
has a public school with about 87 scholars. 

DRUMLEY, seat in Tarbolton parish, 
Ayrshire. 

DRUMLITHIE, village, 6 miles south-west 
of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. It has a 
post office under Fordortn, a railway sta- 
tion, and an Episcopalian church. Pop. 239. 

DRUMLOCHAN, burn, running to the 
Findhorn, in Ardclach parish, Nairnshire. 

DRUMMELZIER, parish, with church 
near the Tweed, 9 miles south-west of 
Peebles. Its post town is Rachan Mill, 
under Biggar. Its length is 13 miles ; its 
breadth from f mile to 5 miles ; its area 
17,948 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£4580. Pop. 208. The surface includes 
fine haughs and strips of vale, but is 
mostly mountainous. Drummelzier Castle 
was the baronial fortalice of the Tweedies, 
noticed by Sir Walter Scott in introduction 
to The Betrothed ; but is now a fragment- 
ary ruin. Traces of a Roman road are 
on one of the mountains. The public 
school has about 44 scholars. 

DRUMMIETERMON, village in Dun- 
nichen parish, Forfarshire. 

DRUMMOCHY, village in Largo parish, 
Fife. 

DRUMMOND, village, with public school, 
in Kiltearn parish, Ross-shire. 

DRUMMOND, wooded hill, with gorgeous 
view, and with remains of great ancient 
Caledonian fortifications, in vicinity of 
Kenmore, Perthshire. 

DRUMMOND, hills dividing upper vale 
of Spey from Loch Laggan, in Inverness- 
shire. 

DRUMMOND CASTLE, noble mansion, 
2| miles south of Crieff, Perthshire. It 
was the seat of the Earls of Perth ; passed 



to Lords Willoughby d'Eresby ; is variously 
old and modern ; was visited in 1842 by 
Queen Victoria ; and has singularly fine 
gardens and an extensive ornate park. 

DRUMMOSSIE, extensive moor, includ- 
ing battlefield of Culloden, on mutual 
border of Inverness and Dores parishes, 
Inverness-shire. 

DRUMMUIR, railway station between 
Auchindachy and Dufftown, Banffshire. 

DRUMNADROCHIT, place at mouth of 
Glenurquhart, near Loch Ness, Inverness- 
shire. It has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, desig- 
nated of Inverness-shire, and a large inn. 

DRUMNAMURG, estate in Killearnan 
parish, Ross -shire. 

DRUMOAK, parish partly in Kincardine- 
shire, but chiefly in Aberdeenshire. It 
lies averagely about 11 miles west-south- 
west of Aberdeen, has a post office under 
Aberdeen, and contains the railway 
station of Drum. Its length is about 5^ 
miles ; its mean breadth about 2 miles ; 
its area 2026 acres in Kincardineshire, and 
5202 in Aberdeenshire. Real property in 
1880-81, £1026 and £4653. Pop.383and747. 
The surface includes a lake of 85 acres, 
two hills about 430 and 500 feet high, and 
a diversity of undulation, slope, and vale. 
The seats are Drum and Park, and the 
chief antiquity is Drum tower. The 
parochial church was built in 1836, and a 
Free church was opened in 1880. The 
public school has about 140 scholars. 

DRUMOCHY. See Dkummochy. 

DRUMORE, village and ruined castle 
in Kirkmaiden parish, Wigtonshire. The 
village stands on the coast, 5 miles north- 
north-west of Mull of Galloway, and has 
a post office, designated of Wigtonshire, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, a small harbour, and a public 
school with about 179 scholars. Pop. 522. 

DRUMORE, small lake in Kirkmichael 
parish, Ayrshire. 

DRUMOUR, place, with public school, in 
Little Dunkeld parish, Perthshire. 

DRUMPARK, village adjacent to Bar- 
geddie, Lanarkshire. 

DRUMPELLIER, coal-field in Old Monk- 
land parish, Lanarkshire. 

DRUMRACK, hill in Crail parish, Fife. 

DRUMRY, estate, with remains of ancient 
chapel, in New Kilpatrick parish, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

DRUMS, village in Errol parish, Perth- 
shire. 

DRUMSARGARD, site of strong ancient 
baronial castle in Cambuslang parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

DRUMSLEET, place in Troqueer parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. It has a public school 
with about 95 scholars. 

DRUMSTURDY, village in Monifieth 
parish, Forfarshire. 

DRUMTOCHTY, seat in Fordoun parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

DRUMVAICH, hamlet in Kilmadock 
parish, Perthshire. 



DRU 



135 



DUD 



DRUNKIE, seat in Port-of-Menteith par- 
ish, and lake partly also in Aberfoyle 
parish, Perthshire. 

DRYBRIDGE, railway station, 5 miles 
west-south-west of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. 

DRYBRIDGE, place on north-west border 
of Banffshire. It has a post office under 
Fochabers. 

DRYBURGH, estate, with noble mansion 
and interesting ruined abbey, on left bank 
of the Tweed, 4 miles south-east of Mel- 
rose. The abbey stands on or near the 
site of a Culdee cell ; was founded in 12th 
century by Sir Hugh de Morville, Con- 
stable of Scotland ; suffered repeated 
devastation in the international wars ; 
gave rise to an adjacent town, which was 
devastated with it, and has been long 
extinct ; is itself now a fragmentary ruin, 
with features of much architectural beauty ; 
and contains the tomb of Sir "Walter Scott. 

DRYBURN, rivulet, running to the sea, 
at 4Jj miles south-east of Dunbar, Hadding- 
tonshire. 

DRYBURN, rivulet, overlooked by re- 
mains of ancient Caledonian temple, in 
Bellie parish, Elginshire. 

DRYFE, small river, running 16 miles 
south-south-westward to the Annan, at 
1J mile west of Lockerby, Dumfriesshire. 
Its banks, in its lowmost reach, are low 
and flat, bear the name of Dryfe Sands, 
and were the scene, in 1593, of a sanguin- 
ary fight between two Border clans. 

DRYFESDALE (popularly DRYSDALE), 
parish containing Lockerby post town in 
Annandale, Dumfriesshire. Its length is 
7i miles ; its greatest breadth 4J miles ; 
its area 10,231 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £18,148. Pop. 2971. The north- 
eastern section is an assemblage of verdant 
hills ; the other sections are mostly flat ; 
and the parts in the west, along left side 
of Annan river, are mostly rich alluvial 
land. The antiquities comprise vestiges 
of five strong towers, remains of eight 
ancient camps, variously Caledonian and 
Soman, and traces of great Eoman road 
from England to Clydesdale. Established, 
Free, and United Presbyterian churches 
are in Lockerby. There are 2 public 
schools for 693 scholars, and 1 of them 
for 600 was erected in 1875. 

DRYGRANGE, seat, bridge, and impos- 
ing railway viaduct on the Tweed, 2\ 
miles east-by-north of Melrose. 

DRYHOPE, quondam massive tower, 
now existing in only its lower part, near 
foot of St. Mary's Loch, Selkirkshire. It 
was the birthplace and home of Mary 
Scott, the 'Flower of Yarrow.' 

DRYMEN, village and parish in west of 
Stirlingshire. The village stands 5 miles 
west-south-west of Balfron, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Glasgow, Established 
and United Presbyterian churches, and 2 
public schools with about 117 scholars. 
Pop. 234. — The parish extends from 
the Forth to a line 31 miles south of the 



most southerly reach of the Endrick, and 
measures about 12 miles in length and 9| 
miles in greatest breadth. Acres, 30,850. 
Real property in 1880-81, £25,005. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1431 ; quoad sacra, 764. The 
surface includes some fine tracts on the 
Endrick, but is mostly mountain, moor, 
and moss. The parish gives name to the 
noble family of Drummond, and contains, 
within Drummond barony, some remains of 
a Roman fort ; and it has 2 public schools 
with accommodation for 206 scholars. 

DRYMEN STATION, railway station, 2 
miles east of Drymen village, Stirlingshire. 
It has a post office under Glasgow. 

DRYNIE, estate in Kilmuir-Wester 
parish, Ross-shire. 

DRYSDALE. See Drtfesdale. 

DUALT, deep wooded ravine, with a 
number of cascades, in Killearn parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

DUARD, promontory in Lochbroom 
parish, Ross-shire. 

DUART, roofless, but otherwise entire, 
strong ancient castle on bold headland in 
extreme east of Mull Island, Argyleshire. 
It was the seat of the Macleans, and the 
scene of tragic events commemorated in 
Joanna Baillie's Family Legend, and 
Thomas Campbell's Glenara. 

DUBBIESIDE, or INVERLEVEN, suburb 
of Leven town, Fife. It has a United 
Presbyterian church. Pop. 501. 

DUBBS, rivulet, running from Kilbirnie 
Loch to Castle-Semple Loch, Ayrshire and 
Renfrewshire. 

DUBBS CAULDRON, cascade on Wam- 
phray rivulet, Dumfriesshire. 

DUBFORD, place 6 miles east of Banff. 
It has a post office under Banff. 

DUBLIN, suburb or section of Kirkfield- 
bank in Leshmahagow parish, Lanarkshire. 

DUBTON, seat and railway junction 
station, 3 miles west-north-west of Mon- 
trose, Forfarshire. 

DUCHALL, seat and head-stream of the 
Gryfe in Kilmalcolm parish, Renfrewshire. 

DUCHOILLE, farm, with ruined Danish 
fort, in Glenorchy parish, Argyleshire. 

DUCHRAE, seat in Balmaghie parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DUCHRAY, southern head-stream of the 
Forth in Stirlingshire and Perthshire. It 
rises on Benlomond, and runs about 10 
miles prevailingly eastward to confluence 
with the other head-stream in Aberfoyle 
parish ; and it has, on its right bank, 
about If mile from the confluence, Duchray 
Castle, the former stronghold of the 
Grahams. 

DUCHRAY, lofty hill, with lake on its 
summit, in Dunkeld and Dowally parish, 
Perthshire. 

DUCRAIG, rocky islet in Firth of Forth, 
between Limekilns and North Queensferry, 
Fife. 

DUDDINGSTON, village and parish on 
seaboard of Edinburghshire. The village 
stands at south-east base of Arthur's Seat, 
about 2A miles south-east of General Post 



DUD 



136 



DUL 



Office, Edinburgh ; contains a number of 
genteel residences ; and has a post office 
designated of Midlothian, a parochial 
church with about 370 sittings, and a 
public school with about 81 scholars. 
Pop. 333. — The parish contains also three 
hamlets, Joppa village, and the greater 
part of Portobello town. Its length is 
3^ miles ; its greatest breadth about l|r 
mile ; its area 1731 acres. Real property, 
exclusive of Portobello, in 1880-81, 
£13,547. Pop., quoad civilia, 10,436; 
quoad sacra, 34l4. The surface, for the 
most part, slopes gently from the base 
of Arthur's Seat to Firth of Forth, but 
has the appearance of a plain, and exhibits 
rich culture and embellishment. Dud- 
dingston Loch, immediately south-west of 
Duddingston village, measures about 1J 
mile in circuit, is enlivened with water- 
fowl, and becomes crowded in winter 
frost with disporters on the ice. Dud- 
dingston House, about \ mile to the east- 
south-east, is a seat of the Duke of 
Abercorn. Six churches are in Portobello. 
Seven schools for 1358 scholars are in the 
parish, and 1 of them for 700 is new. 
Cauvin's endowed educational hospital 
also is in it. 

DUDDINGSTON, seat in Abercorn parish, 
Linlithgow. 

DUDHOPE, quondam large, strong, 
ancient castle, on skirt of Dundee Law, 
adjacent to Dundee. 

DUDWICK, hill, 572 feet high, 4| miles 
north of Ellon, Aberdeenshire. 

DUFF HOUSE, chief seat of the Earl of 
Fife, in vicinity of Banff. It was erected 
about middle of last century, at the cost 
of £70,000 ; is in the Roman-Corinthian 
style, and has extensive ornate grounds. 

DUFF-KINNEL, affluent of the Kinnel, 
in Johnstone parish, Dumfriesshire. 

DUFFTOWN, town on Fiddieh river, 11 
miles south-west of Keith, Banffshire. It 
was founded in 1817 ; it stands amid a 
rich mineral field ; and it has a post office 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, designated of Banffshire, a railway 
station, 2 banking offices, Established, Free, 
and Roman Catholic churches, and 2 public 
schools. Pop. 1252. 

DUFFUS, village and parish on coast of 
Elginshire. The village stands 5 miles 
north-west of Elgin, is neatly edificed, and 
has a post office under Elgin, a parochial 
church, and a public school with about 
106 scholars. — The parish contains also 
the towns of Burghead and Hopeman, 
the villages of Cummingston, Roseisle, 
and Kaim, and several hamlets. Its 
length on the coast is 5 miles ; its mean 
breadth about 3 miles ; its area 9475 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £13,950. 
Pop. , quoad civilia,3985; quoad sacra, 1909. 
The surface, with exception of two small 
eminences, is level. Duffus House is the 
seat of Sir Archibald Dunbar, Bart. ; 
and other seats are Roseislehaugh and 
Inverugie. Duffus Castle is a ruined 



ancient baronial fortalice, was long the 
seat of the family of Sutherland, and gave 
them the peerage title of baron from 1650 
till 1843. Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches are in Burghead. 
7 schools for 838 scholars are in the 
parish, and 2 of them and an enlargement 
for 360 are new. 

DUGALSTONE, estate, with lake, in New 
Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. 

DUICH, sea-loch, about 5 miles long, 
deflecting south-eastward from head of 
Loch Alsh, Ross-shire. 

DUIRINISH,parish,containingDunvegan 
post office and Stein village, in south-west 
of Skye, Inverness-shire. Its length is 
19 miles ; its breadth 16 miles ; its coast 
line, including sinuosities but excluding 
islets, about 80 miles. Real property in 
1880-81, £7572. Pop. , quoad civilia, 4319 ; 
quoad sacra, 3297. A low moorish isthmus 
of about 4 miles, between Loch Griesher- 
nish and Loch Carroy, divides the parish 
from the rest of Skye ; a large peninsula, 
nearly bisected by Loch Dunvegan, and 
much indented by minor sea-lochs, forms 
its main body ; and a number of islets 
and insulated rocks are within its limits. 
The coast has many bold headlands and 
lofty cliffs, and exhibits much wildness 
and grandeur. The section south of Loch 
Dunvegan is Duirinish-proper, and that 
to the north is Vaternish. Much of the 
ground is sloping ; a few tracts are level, 
but almost wholly moss ; and Glendale, 
about 2 miles long, is a pleasant vale. 
The two tabular-topped mountains called 
Macleod's Tables are a prominent feature. 
Very numerous caves and natural arches 
are on the coast. The seats are Dunvegan 
Castle, Vaternish, Orbost, and Griesher- 
nish ; and the chief antiquities are features 
of Dunvegan Castle, fifteen Scandinavian 
forts, and several tumuli. The churches 
are 2 Established and 1 Free. 8 
schools for 699 scholars are in the parish, 
and 6 of them for 600 are new. 

DUIRINISH, islet in Loch Etive, opposite 
Bunawe, Argyleshire. Pop. 24. 

DUIRNESS. See Durness. , 

DUISK. See Dhuisk. 

DULCAPON, detached part of Dowally 
parish on Tummel river, Perthshire. 

DULL, village and parish in Perthshire. 
The village stands in Appin vale, 3 miles 
west of Aberfeldy ; had anciently an ab- 
thanery, or peculiar kind of monastery, with 
right of sanctuary ; and has now a very 
ancient market cross, a parochial church 
with about 600 sittings, and a public 
school with about 105 scholars. — The 
parish contains also Amulree village and 
part of Aberfeldy town. It comprises 5 
separate districts, and is so intersected by 
other parishes as to measure about 30 
miles from end to end. Its area is 63,417 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £19,807. 
Pop. , quoad civilia, 2565 ; quoad sacra, 
1997. The districts are Appin, Grand- 
tully, Amulree, Foss, and Fincastle. The 



DUL 



137 



DUM 



surface comprises every variety from wild 
portions of the Grampians to exquisite 
portion of the Tay's valley ; and is diver- 
sified by so many as 21 lakes. The seats 
are Grandtully, Foss, Moness, Cluny, and 
Dercluich ; and the antiquities include 
several standing-stones, moats, barrows, 
and Piet ; sh forts, and an ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle. Churches of various 
denominations are at Aberfeldy, Amulree, 
Grandtully, and Tummel - Bridge ; and 
public schools are at Amulree, Grandtully, 
and Foss. 

DULLARY, place, with chalybeate 
spring, in Parton parish, Kirkcudbright- 
shire. 

DULLATUR, bog, traversed by Forth 
and Clyde Canal, 2 miles east of Kilsyth, 
Stirlingshire. Many relics of the battle of 
Kilsyth in 1645 were found in it at the 
forming of the canal. 

DULLEN, rivulet in Mortlach parish, 
Banffshire. 

DULNAIN, river, running about 25 
miles north-eastward to the Spey, at 2J 
miles above Grantown, in Elginshire. 

DULNAIN BRIDGE, hamlet on the Dul- 
nain, in Duthil parish, Inverness-shire. 
It has a post office under Grantown. 

DULSIE BRIDGE, romantic bridge on 
Findhorn river, in Ardclach parish, Nairn- 
shire. 

DUMBARNIE. See Dunbarnet. 

DUMBARTON, town, castle, and parish 
in Dumbartonshire. The town stands on 
low flat ground, bisected by the river 
Leven, f mile from the Clyde, and 15J 
miles north - west - by - west of Glasgow ; 
covers the site of the Roman naval station 
Theodosia, and the site of a Culdee cell ; 
shared in the history of Dumbarton Castle 
as the royal seat of the kingdom of Cum- 
bria or Strathclyde ; is now a seaport, a 
royal and parliamentary burgh, and the 
political capital of Dumbartonshire ; unites 
with Port-Glasgow, Renfrew, Rutherglen, 
and Kdmarnock in sending a member to 
Parliament ; comprises a main body on the 
left bank of the Leven, and two suburbs, 
old and new, on the right bank ; was 
designed in 1876 to undergo extensive im- 
provements in its streets and harbour, and 
in 1S81 to acquire an eastern suburb with 
house accommodation for about 2000 
families ; was long distinguished for glass 
manufacture, and is much more dis- 
tinguished now for shipbuilding; pub- 
lishes 2 weekly newspapers ; and has a 
head post office with money order and 
telegraph departments, a railway station, 
3 banking offices, 2 hotels, a fine town hall 
of 1865, a long costly pier of 1874-75, a 
steepled Established church of 1S10, a 
handsome Free church of 1878, another 
Free church, 2 United Presbyterian 
churches, an elegant Episcopalian church 
of 1873, Evangelical Union, Baptist, Wes- 
leyan, and Roman Catholic churches, a 
Mechanics' Institute, and 7 public schools 
with accommodation for 1961 scholars. 



Real property in 1880-81, £43,842. Pop. 
13,786. — The castle stands at left side of 
the Leven's influx to the Clyde ; is an 
isolated, precipitous, bi forked rock, about 
a mile in girth at the base, and 260 feet 
high, partially edificed with ramparts and 
houses ; was a stronghold probably of the 
Romans, and certainly of the Romanized 
Strathclyde Caledonians ; has been a 
royal fort from commencement of the 
Scoto-Saxon monarchy till the present 
time ; figured much and often in national 
affairs till final fall of Queen Mary ; was 
bereft of most of its military value by the 
invention of modern artillery ; and, but for 
a stipulation at the national union for 
its being permanently maintained, might 
have long ago been entirely relinquished 
as a fort. — The parish excludes the town's 
suburbs, measures about 7i by 3| miles, and 
comprises 8291 acres. Real property of 
landward part in 1880-81, £38,820. Pop, 
10,898. The land for some distance from 
the town and castle is low and flat, but 
about the middle rises steeply into the 
Lennox Hills, and in the farther end is 
bleakly moorish. No school is in the 
landward part, and 1 of the schools in the 
town for 350 scholars is new. 

DUMBARTONSHIRE, county, partly 
maritime but principally inland, in west 
of Scotland. It comprises a main body 
and a detached district ; and it is high- 
land in the one end, lowland in the 
other end, and a rich mixture of the 
two in the centre. The main body begins 
around the head of Loch Lomond ; includes 
that lake's west side and foot, and all the 
country thence to Loch Long, the Clyde, 
and the Endrick ; goes eastward on the 
Clyde and among the Lennox Hills to 
Kelvin river, at a point 3J miles north- 
west of Glasgow ; and is 35 miles long, and 
from 2 to 15 miles broad. The detached 
district commences at 3f miles east of 
nearest part of the main body ; extends 
east - by - northward along the strath of 
Forth and Clyde Canal ; was annexed to 
the county in the time of Robert I. ; and 
is 13 miles long, and from If mile to 4J 
miles broad. The entire area is 270 square 
miles. The surface ranges from grandly 
mountainous westward of Loch Lomond, 
to tamely flat along the Forth and Clyde 
Canal. The rocks range from the meta- 
moi'phic to the carboniferous, and include 
roofing-slate and abundance of coal, lime- 
stone, and building stone. The maritime 
waters are Loch Long and the Firth of 
Clyde on the boundary, and Gareloch 
in the interior. The fresh-water lakes, 
apart from Loch Lomond, are all small, 
but an interesting one of them is Loch 
Sloy. The chief rivers are the Endrick, 
the Clyde, and the Kelvin on the boun- 
daries ; and the Leven and the Allander 
in the interior ; but many of the smaller 
streams, especially those among the moun- 
tains, possess much scenic character. Ag- 
riculture is advanced and skilful ; and 



DUM 



138 



DUM 



manufacturing industry, particularly on 
the Leven, is prominent. The towns 
with each more than 4000 inhabitants are 
Dumbarton, Kirkintilloch, Helensburgh, 
and Alexandria ; with each more than 
2000 are Renton and Bonhill ; with each 
more than 1000 are Duntocher, Cumber- 
nauld, and Jamestown ; and the villages 
with each more than 300 are Old Kil- 
patrick, Bowling, Garscube, Knightswood, 
Garscadden, Condorrat, Faifiey, Bow, 
Smithstown-Row, Waterside, Kilcreggan, 
Garelochhead, • Milton, Dalmuir, Cardross, 
Balloch, and parts of Yoker and Lenzie. 
The ancient county bore the name of 
Lennox, but included tracts now in Stir- 
lingshire, Perthshire, and Renfrewshire ; 
and it abounded in conflicts between the 
Caledonians and the Bomans, the Scots 
and the Picts, the Cumbrians and the 
Saxons, the Highland clans among them- 
selves, the Caterans and the Lowlanders, 
and parties against parties in the Scottish 
civil wars. The chief antiquities within 
the modern county are vestiges of An- 
toninus' "Wall, Boman remains at Dun- 
tocher and Cumbernauld, and rude forts, 
tumuli, and ruined old castles in many 
places. The value of real property in 
1880-81, exclusive of railways and canals, 
was £336,745. Pop. in 1871, 58,857; in 
1881, 78,327. 

DUMBENNAN, old parish, now part of 
Huntly, Aberdeenshire. 

DUMBRECK, seat near south-western 
outskirts of Glasgow. 

DUMBROCH, lake and bleachfield in 
Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. 

DUMBUCK, village, seat, and hill, ad- 
jacent to the Clyde, about a mile east of 
Dumbarton Castle. The hill stoops pre- 
cipitously to the plain, overawes the 
castle, and commands a grand view. 

DUMBUILS, low craggy hill, with re- 
mains of ancient fort, and with very fine 
view, in Forgandenny parish, Perthshire. 

DUMCRIEFF, a seat of Lord Bollo, If 
mile east-north-east of Moffat, Dumfries- 
shire. 

DUMFIN, round hill, with traces of 
ancient fortification, fabled to have been a 
stronghold of Fingal, 4 miles north-north- 
east of Helensburgh, Dumbartonshire. 

DUMFRIES, town and parish on south- 
west border of Dumfriesshire. The town 
stands on the Nith, 71 miles by road, but 
89 J miles by railway, south -by -west of 
Edinburgh ; is environed by rich, exten- 
sive, hill-screened plain ; dates from at 
least the time of William the Lion, but 
may have sprung from a village so early 
as the 8th century ; had an ancient strong 
castle which figured much in the succes- 
sion al and international wars ; contained 
an ancient Franciscan friary, in which 
Bobert Bruce slewthe RedComyn ; suffered 
severely from English forces in 1448, 1536, 
and 1570 ; underwent rapid change of cha- 
racter from the times of Border contests 
to the times of peaceful industry ; ranks 



now as the political capital of Dumfries- 
shire, a seat of justiciary courts, the busi- 
ness centre of the south-western counties, 
and a royal and parliamentary burgh ; 
unites with Annan, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, 
and Kirkcudbright in sending a member 
to Parliament ; includes, as a parliament- 
ary burgh, the Kirkcudbrightshire Max- 
welltown, separated from it only by the 
Nith ; measures in itself about a mile in 
length along the river, and about 3 furlongs 
in greatest breadth ; comprises a many- 
featured main street, several handsome 
new streets, and a number of old ones ; 
carries on a brisk market trade and ex- 
tensive woollen manufacture ; publishes 3 
newspapers, 1 of them weekly, the others 
twice a- week ; and has a head post office 
with all departments, a very fine railway 
station, 7 banking offices, 4 hotels, a large 
modern town hall, a curious steepled block 
of buildings which contained the old town 
hall, grand county buildings erected in 
1863-66, the south-western counties' central 
prison, projected in 1881, the southern coun- 
ties' club-house, built in 1874, a fine theatre, 
mostly rebuilt in 1876, a curious bridge of 
the 13th century, a "neat bridge of 1794, 
a foot suspension-bridge of 1876, an old 
monument of the Duke of Queensberry, a 
monument of Burns, erected- in 1881, a 
beautiful steepled Established church of 
1866-68, 2 other steepled Established 
churches, 3 Free churches, 3 United Pres- 
byterian churches, a steepled Episcopalian 
church of 1867-69, a steepled Boman 
Catholic church, renovated in 1879, a 
Baptist church of 1880, Congregational, 
Evangelical Union, Wesleyan, and Catholic 
Apostolic churches, a large public academy 
of 1802, 2 costly public schools of 1876, a 
large church-like mechanics' institute, a 
spacious costly infirmary of 1869-72, the 
southern counties' asylum, erected from a 
bequest of more than £100,000 by Dr. 
Crichton of Friar's Carse, with intention 
of its being a university, a remarkably 
crowded cemetery, containing the mauso-. 
leum of the poet Burns, and, near that 
cemetery, the house in which Burns spent 
his last years and died. Bop. of parlia- 
mentary burgh, 17,090. — The parish con- 
tains also the villages of Gasstown, Stoop, 
Locharbriggs, and Lochthorn. Its length 
is 8 miles ; its greatest breadth 3 miles ; 
its area 10,032 acres. Beal property of 
landward part in 1880-81, £20, 456. Pop. , 
quoad civilia, 16,838 ; quoad sacra, 6815. 
Most of the surface, excepting part of a 
low hill-ridge in the south, is nearly level. 
A strip of Lochar moss is on the eastern 
border. Several small lakes are near the 
centre. The principal rock is red sand- 
stone. Numei-ous handsome villas are 
near the town. 13 schools for 2904 
scholars are in the parish, and 2 of them 
for 900 are new. 

DUMFRIES-GREYFRIARS, quoad sacra 
parish, with church, in Dumfries. Pop. 
4259. 



DUM 



139 



DUN 



DUMFRIES HOUSE, a seat of the Marquis 
of Bute, who also is Earl of Dumfries, on 
Lugar river, in Old Cumnock parish, 
Ayrshire. 

DUMFRIES ST. MARY, quoad sacra 
parish, with church, in Dumfries. Pop. 
6764. 

DUMFRIESSHIRE, border county, 
bounded by Kirkcudbrightshire, Ayrshire, 
Lanarkshire, Peeblesshire, Selkirkshire, 
Eoxburghshire, England, and the Solway 
Firth. Its length is 55 miles ; its breadth 
32 miles ; its coast-line 22 miles ; its circuit 
about 177 miles ; its area 1103 square miles. 
Its outline is irregularly ellipsoidal, with 
the greater diameter in a direction nearly 
south-east-by-east. Its surface, in a general 
view, is a broad mountainous border cloven 
with vales, a central plain intersected by 
hills, and a low flat seaboard partly occupied 
by Lochar moss. The mountains rise to 
watersheds with all the contiguous Scottish 
counties ; include whole or part of the 
largest masses and loftiest summits of the 
Southern Highlands ; are mostly acclivi- 
tous, and either conical, round-backed, or 
tabular ; and have none of the craggy, 
rugged, peaked features so common among 
the Grampians. The central region ex- 
hibits every variety of dell, valley, slope, 
undulation, brae, hill-ridge, and moorland, 
and forms many a charming landscape. 
The seaboard is remarkable for luxuriant 
corn-land, partly for reclamations on Sol- 
way moss, partly for the features graphic- 
ally described in Sir Walter Scott's Red- 
gauntlet. The chief rivers are the Nith, 
the Annan, and the Esk ; and these 
occasion the county to be divided, in 
popular nomenclature, into the 3 districts 
of Nithsdale, Annandale, and Eskdale. 
The principal lakes are the group around 
Lochmaben. The chief useful minerals 
are red sandstone, limestone, a little coal, 
and some iron-ore. Agricultural improve- 
ment was scarcely known till 1760, but 
eventually made rapid progress, and is 
. now highly advanced. Commerce is com- 
paratively limited, and deals mainly in 
the export of land produce. Manufactures 
also are limited, but have latterly become 
prominent in woollens in Dumfries. The 
towns with each more than 2000 inhabitants 
are Dumfries, Annan, and Langholm ; the 
towns with each more than 1000 are 
Lockerby, Moffat, Lochmaben, Sanquhar, 
and Thornhill ; and the principal villages 
are Minniehive, Wanlockhead, Eccle- 
fechan, Eaglesfield, Gasstown, Kirkconnel, 
Collin, Bridekirk, Hightae, Penpont, Park, 
Springfield, and Stoop. The county was 
inhabited by the Caledonian Selgovse, re- 
tains many monuments of their conquest 
by the Romans, was largely overrun by 
the Scoto-Irish or Dalriadans, figured 
much in the Saxon invasion, the wars of 
the Succession, the wars with England, 
and the Border feuds, and has numerous 
monuments of all the times down to those 
of the feudal. Real property in 1880-81, 



£546,609. Pop. in 1871, 74,808 ; in 1881, 
76,124. 

DUM6REE, old parish, now united chiefly 
to Kirkpatrick-Juxta and partly to John- 
stone, Dumfriesshire. It has a public 
school. 

DUMROOF, sandbank in Solway Firth, 
6^ miles south-south-west of Southerness, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DUN, parish, containing Bridge of Dun 
railway station, in north-east of Forfar- 
shire. Its post town is Montrose. Its 
length is 5 miles ; its extreme breadth 
nearly 3 miles ; its area 4306 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £9840. Pop. 541. 
The South Esk and Montrose lagoon form 
the southern boundary. The surface is 
low and flat adjacent to these, rises gently 
and gradually thence to about the centre, 
and is flat toward the north. Dun's Dish 
is a lake of about 40 acres. Dun House is 
a chief residence. The public school has 
about 126 scholars. 

DUNACHTON, estate in Alvie parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

DUNAGOIL, small bay and headland, 
with traces of vitrified fort, in south-west 
of Bute Island, Buteshire. 

DUNAIN, seat and quondam fortalice 
in Inverness parish, Inverness-shire. 

DUNALISTER, hamlet and quondam 
seat of the Robertsons of Struan, 3J 
miles west of Tummel-Bridge, Perthshire. 
The hamlet has a post office with telegraph 
designated of Perthshire. 

DUNAMARLE, quondam castle on site 
of Castlehill House, in vicinity of Culross, 
Perthshire. It belonged to the Thanes 
of Fife, and was the place of the murder 
of Lady Macduff by order of Macbeth. 

DUNAN, bold promontory in Lochbroom 
parish, Ross-shire. 

DUNAN-RANNOCH, place of sanguinary 
clan fight in Fortingal parish, Perth- 
shire. 

DUNANS, seat near head of Glendaruel, 
in Cowal, Argyleshire. 

DUNARDARY, hiU in North Knapdale 
parish, Argyleshire. 

DUNAVERTY, bay, village, and pyra- 
midal headland at southern extremity of 
Kintyre, Argyleshire. A strong castle of 
the Lords of the Isles stood on the head- 
land, gave refuge to Robert Bruce, suffered 
siege and capture by General Leslie, and 
has been almost wholly effaced. 

DUNBAR, town and parish on east coast 
of Haddingtonshire. The town stands 
adjacent to rocky shore and sea crags, 29J 
miles east of Edinburgh ; dates from at 
least the middle of 9th century ; became 
the seat of the immigrant Northumbrian 
prince, Cospatrick, in the time of Malcolm 
Canmore ; acquired then the basement of 
a great castle, so arranged as to be palatial, 
and so strong as to be deemed impregnable ; 
was the scene of many martial exploits in 
connection with that castle ; gave name 
to two great battles fought near it in 1296 
and 1650 ; was the landing-place of Sir 



DUN 



140 



DUN 



John Cope in 1745 on eve of the battle of 
Prestonpans ; retains little trace of an- 
tiquity except remnants of its castle ; 
ranks as a seaport and a royal and parlia- 
mentary burgh ; unites with Haddington, 
North Berwick, Lauder, and Jedburgh in 
sending a member to Parliament ; com- 
prises a spacious, well-built, principal 
street, and parallel smaller ones ; and has 
a head post office with all departments, a 
fine railway station, 3 banking offices, 2 
hotels, assembly rooms, a quondam noble 
mansion, now a barrack, an artificial har- 
bour, serving for both commerce and 
refuge, recently-formed waterworks, an 
elegant parochial church, a Free church, 2 
United Presbyterian churches, Wesleyan 
and Episcopalian churches, and 3 public 
schools ; and gave the title of earl to the 
descendants of Cospatrick till 1435, the 
same title to George Home from 1605 till 
1611, and the title of viscount to the 
family of Constable from 1620 till 1721. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £13,749. Pop. 
3657. — The castle stood on a lofty, rugged 
sea-rock, at north end of the town ; went 
to the Crown by forfeiture in 1435 ; was 
afterwards the occasional residence of 
several kings, the death place of the queen 
of James I., and at different times the 
residence, the refuge, and the prison of 
Queen Mary ; underwent extensive de- 
molition, by order of Parliament, in 1567 ; 
and is now represented by some strong 
defaced ruins, which Sir Walter Scott 
described in his Provincial Antiquities. — 
The parish contains also the villages of 
Belhaven, East Barns, and West Barns, 
and comprises a main body and a detached 
district. The main body extends 6| miles 
along the coast, and is from about 1 mile 
to 3J miles broad. The detached district 
commences about 4J miles south-west of 
the town, lies wholly among the Lammer- 
moors, and measures about 4 miles by 2f. 
Acres of the whole, 7497. Real property, 
inclusive of the burgh, in 1880-81, £37,380. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 5396 ; quoad sacra, 
4041. The surface of the main body 
ascends gradually from the sea toward the 
Lammermoors, rises nowhere higher than 
about 700 feet, presents a pleasing variety 
of hill and dale, and is noted for the 
fertility of its soil. The chief residences 
are Broxmouth Park, Lochend, Belton, 
and Heatherwick. A quoad sacra parish 
church is at Belhaven. 9 schools for 1210 
scholars are within the quoad civilia 
parish, and 1 of them and enlargements 
for 475 are new. 

DUNBARNEY, parish, containing the 
post office village of Bridge of Earn, and 
the village of Kintillo, in south-east of 
Perthshire. It measures about 4 miles, 
both in length and in greatest breadth, 
and comprises 4060 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £13,870. Pop. 756. The 
surface is intersected by the Earn, includes 
Moncrieff Hill, approaches the Ochils, and 
exhibits remarkable beauty. The seats 



are Dunbarney House, Kilgraston, and 
Ballendrick. The church contains 650 
sittings ; and the public school is new, 
and has accommodation for 180 scholars. 

DUNBARROW, detached district of 
Dunnichen parish, Forfarshire. A hill of 
its own name, about 700 feet high, is in 
it, and was formerly crowned with a fort. 

DUNBEATH, bay, rivulet, village, and 
seat in Latheron parish, Caithness. The 
bay lies 20 miles south-west of "Wick, and 
is small, but forms a good fishing-station. 
The rivulet runs about 7 miles south- 
eastward to the bay's head. The village 
stands at the rivulet's mouth, is an ancient 
place, and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Wick, an inn, and a public school with 
about 100 scholars. The seat is in the 
southern vicinity of the village, and in- 
cludes an ancient baronial fortalice, which 
was captured and garrisoned in 1650 by 
the Marquis of Montrose. 

DUNBLANE, town and parish on south 
border of Perthshire. The town stands on 
Allan river, and on Caledonian Railway 
at deflexion of the line to Callander, 5 
miles north of Stirling. It sprang from a 
Culdee cell, became the seat of a bishopric 
in the time of David I. , flourished through- 
out the Romish times, declined after the 
Reformation, and underwent some modern 
revival. It figures much in connection 
with the famous Bishop Leighton, and 
with Tannahill's song of ' Jessie the 
Flower of Dunblane.' It strove to be- 
come a watering-place in virtue of two 
mineral wells about 1^ mile to the north, 
but could not compete with the more 
attractive Bridge of Allan ; yet, with good 
accommodations, a grand hydropathic 
establishment of 1878, picturesque en- 
virons, and a salubrious climate, it draws 
numerous summer visitors. It consists 
chiefly of narrow streets, presents a 
mixedly old and modern aspect, and is 
skirted with some good villas ; it ranks 
as a police burgh, and as the seat of courts 
for the southern division of Perthshire ; 
and it has a head post office with all 
departments, a railway station, 2 bank- 
ing offices, a hotel, public reading and 
amusement rooms, a public library be- 
queathed by Bishop Leighton, a cathedral, 
Free, United Presbyterian, and Episco- 
palian churches, and a public school. The 
cathedral was begun in early part of the 
12th century, but not completed till the 
16th ; and it consists of nave, side tower, 
choir, and chapter - house. The nave 
measures 130 feet in length, 58 in breadth, 
and 50 in height ; is all in the early 
pointed style ; has 8 bays, north and south 
aisles, a beautifully shafted clerestory, 
and a very fine west window ; and is now 
entirely roofless, but may probably undergo 
restoration. The tower stands near the 
south portal of the nave, is early Norman, 
and, with a small spire, rises to the height 
of 128 feet. The choir measures 80 feet in 



DUN 



141 



DUN 



length, 30 in breadth, and 48 in height ; is 
all likewise in the early pointed style ; 
includes, on its north side, what is called 
the chapter-house ; has been used since 
the Kef ormation as the parish church ; 
and was renovated in 1873. Pop. of the 
town, 2186. — The parish contains also 
the villages of Kinbuck, Balhaddie, Butter- 
gask, Greenloaning, and Rottearn. Its 
length is about 9 miles ; its breadth about 
6 miles ; its area 18,543 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £27,727. Pop. 3123. 
The surface includes a skirt of the Ochil 
Hills in the east, the middle or main part 
of Strathallan in the centre, and a skirt of 
the Braes of Doune in the west. The hill 
tracts are mostly bleak and moorish ; and 
those in the east comprise Sheriffmuir, the 
scene of the famous battle in 1715. The 
strath tracts are much diversified, but 
present many amenities and much beauty ; 
and one near the town, but rjartly beyond 
the parish, exhibits a gorge somewhat 
similar to the Trossachs. The chief seats 
are Keir and Kippendavie. 3 schools 
for 519 scholars are in the parish, and en- 
largements of them for 259 are new. 

DUNBOG, parish, with church 3| miles 
east-by-south of Newburgh, in Fife. Its 
post town is Newburgh. Acres, 2324. 
Real property in 1880-81, £3866. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 219 ; quoad sacra, 386. The 
surface consists of two hill-ridges and an 
intervening vale. The chief residence is 
Dunbog House ; and the antiquities are 
the site of a monastic preceptory, and 
the ruin of Collairnie Castle. The public 
school has about 64 scholars. 

DUN BRIDGE. See Bridge of Don. 

DUNCANSBURGH, quoad sacra parish 
within Kilmalie quoad civdia parish, In- 
verness-shire. A new church for it, in 
Fort-William town, was founded in 1881. 
Pop. 1962. 

DUNCANSBY, promontory at north- 
east extremity of the Scottish mainland. 
It is massive, bold, and circular ; measures 
about 2 miles in circumference ; presents 
a rugged, fissured, precipitous face to the 
sea ; has on its summit remains of an 
ancient watch-tower ; and commands there 
a very grand view. Two insulated rocks, 
called the Stacks of Duncansby, are near 
the promontory, and look like great pointed 
towers ; and a narrow strait, called the 
Bears of Duncansby, is between it and 
them, and has usually a tremendous rush 
and tumult of billows. A village of Dun- 
cansby adjoins the promontory. Pop. 398. 

DUNCANSTONE, place near Insch, Aber- 
deenshire. It has a post office under Insch, 
and a Congregational chapel. 

DUNCANSTOWN, place near Conan- 
Bridge, in south-east of Ross. It has a 
post office designated of Ross-shire. 

DUN-CHARLOWAY, ancient circular for- 
tification in Lochs parish, Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides. 

DUNCHIFIE, ancient strong fortification 
on Gigha Island, Argyleshire. 



DUNCHUAICH, hdl, with vestiges of old 
fort, near Inverary, Argyleshire. 

DUNCOMB, hill, with magnificent view, 
in Old Kilpatrick parish, Dumbarton- 
shire. 

DUNCOW, burn and village in Kirkmahoe 
parish, Dumfriesshire. The burn runs 
about 6 \ mdes southward to the Nith at 
3 miles north of Dumfries. The village 
stands on the burn 2 miles from its 
mouth ; gave a night's lodging in a cottage 
to James v. on occasion of an angry visit 
to the neighbourhood ; and has a post 
office under Dumfries, and a public school 
with about 81 scholars. 

DUNCRAGGAN, place, figuring in Lady 
of the Lake, the first stage of the fiery 
cross, 6 miles west of Callander, Perth- 
shire. The New Trossachs Hotel - stood 
adjacent to it, and was burnt about 1867. 

DUNCRUIB, seat of Lord RoUo in Dun- 
ning parish, Perthshire. 

DUNCRUIN, picturesque hill, with pin- 
nacled summit and grand view, in Kil- 
maronock parish, Dumbartonshire. 

DUNDAFF, eastern part of Lennox Hills, 
averagely 6J miles south-south-west of 
Stirling. It gives the title of viscount to 
the Duke of Montrose. 

DUNDAFF, fall, of about 10 feet, on the 
Clyde, a little above New Lanark. 

DUNDALAR, conical hill, with remark- 
able rude ancient fortress, about 12 miles 
west of Kingussie, Inverness-shire. 

DUNDARDIL, hill at side of Loch Ness, 
in Dores parish, Inverness-shire. 

DUNDARGUE, ruined castle on coast of 
Aberdour parish, Fife. It figured in the 
wars of the succession.' 

DUNDARROW, ruined old castle on Loch 
Fyne side, 4 miles north-east of Inverary, 
Argyleshire. 

DUNDAS, seat, 1J mile south-south-west 
of Queensferry, Linlithgowshire. It is a 
massive castellated edifice, partly ancient, 
and was recently enlarged ; and its 
grounds are ornate, and were much im- 
proved in 1880. 

DUNDAVIOT, hill, formerly a signal 
post, in Daviot parish, Inverness-shire. 

DUNDEE, town and parish on south 
border of Forfarshire. The town stands 
on Firth of Tay, 9J mdes west of Buddon- 
ness, and 2H east-north-east of Perth ; 
dates from ancient times, but never till 
quite a modern period became large, and 
now, as to both population and aggregate 
importance, is the third town in Scotland. 
It figures historically in connection with 
Prince David of Huntingdon, Edward I. 
of England, Sir Wdliam Wallace, the 
Duke of Lancaster in 1385, the Re- 
former Wishart, the Marquis of Montrose, 
General Monck, and Graham of Claver- 
house ; it was visited by James v., Queen 
Mary, James VI., Charles II., and Queen 
Victoria ; and it gave the titles of viscount 
and earl for some time to the family of 
Scrymseour, and that of viscount after- 
wards to Graham of Claverhouse. Its 



DUN 



142 



DUN 



site is partly low ground adjacent to the 
shore, and partly slopes and undulations 
ascending toward the overhanging hills of 
Dundee Law and Balgay. The entire 
town, till after the commencement of the 
present century, stood on the low ground, 
and was dense, irregular, and unpleasant ; 
but the town now extends far beyond its 
old limits ; shows a larger proportion of 
architectural improvement than any other 
considerable Scottish town ; includes many 
spacious, regular, well-built quarters ; and, 
as seen from the firth or from the opposite 
shore, looks very beautiful. Its old High 
Street, of form and size to seem almost 
like a square, has been so renovated and 
constructed as to look brightly modern. 
Reform Street, striking thence to the 
north, and some other modern streets, are 
as handsome as portions of the New Town 
of Edinburgh. Some of the outskirts are 
dingy ; but those in the west, and parts of 
those in the north, are studded with villas 
and large ornate buildings. The eastern 
public park, about a mile north-east of 
High Street, comprises about 38 acres in 
form of landscape garden, and was pro- 
vided by the Baxters at a cost of £50,000. 
Dundee Law, immediately north of the 
town, is a verdant domical hill, 572 feet 
high, and commands a gorgeous view. 
Balgay, a lower hill a little to the west, 
commands much of the same view, and 
contains the western public park, of 
nearly 86 acres, formed in 1871. 

The town is a royal and parliamentary 
burgh, sending two members to Parliament, 
a seat of justiciary courts, a place of 
various and extensive manufacture, and a 
great seaport ; has a head post office with 
all departments, 9 local post offices with 
each a money order department, railway 
communication in all directions, 9 banking 
offices, and 9 principal hotels ; publishes 
6 daily newspapers, and 2 twice a week ; 
is the metropolis of the Scottish linen 
trade, with factories worth nearly 
£3,000,000 ; carries on extensive ship- 
building in all forms and with much 
repute ; conducts also much iron-working, 
rope-making, carpet manufacture, machine- 
making, sugar-refining, glove-making, and 
other industries ; and in 1879 made ex- 
ports of 359,080 tons in 1251 British 
vessels, and 43,362 tons in 197 foreign 
vessels, and had imports of 403,313 tons 
in 1313 British vessels, and 53,960 tons in 
225 foreign vessels. Its harbour has 
undergone progressive, rapid, costly im- 
provement ; comprises great wet docks, 
spacious quays, patent slip, graving docks, 
and other appliances of a first-class port ; 
was estimated, for the year 1878-79, to 
have a revenue of £50,148, and an expendi- 
ture of £45,526 ; and had then a value of 
£812,842, burdened with adebt of £352,148. 
The Tay bridge or railway viaduct, on the 
firth from west end of the town to the 
Fife coast, — opened in June 1878, destroyed 
in December 1879, and intended to be rebuilt, 



— had much influence on the local trade, 
and made a great figure in the landscape, 
but will be separately noticed. 

Many of the public buildings possess 
much interest. The Town Hall in High 
Street was built in 1734, and improved in 
1854, and is in the Roman Ionic style, with 
tower and spire. The Boyal Exchange, at 
end of Panmure Street, was built in 1853- 
56, and is in the Flemish style. The 
Corn Exchange, in Bank Street, was built 
in 1856-58, and is in the Italian style. 
The Exchange Coffee-room, at foot of 
Castle Street, cost £9000, and is in the 
Palladian style. The Court House and 
prison, off Ward Street, were built in 
1836 at a cost of £26,000, and much en- 
larged in 1854. The Cattle Market, 
between Ferry Road and East Street, was 
erected in 1876 at a cost of more than 
£40,000, and comprises both markets 
proper and abattoirs. The Custom House, 
in Dock Street, was built in 1843, and has 
a Roman Ionic portico. The Royal Arch, 
at head of Victoria Quay, was erected in 
1844 to commemorate the landing of Queen 
Victoria, and is in the Saxon style. 
Carmichael's Monument and Burns' 
Monument, in the Albert Institute 
grounds, were erected in respectively 1876 
and 1880, and each is mainly a bronze 
statue. Dundee College, with character 
similar to a university, was projected in 
1874, and was begun to be erected in 1881- 
82, by means of an endowment of £140,000, 
by Miss and Dr. Baxter. The Albert 
Institute, in Albert Square, was built in 
1867-69 at a cost of more than £24,000, is 
in good Gothic style, and contains public 
hall, science class-rooms, picture gallery, 
and free library. The public seminaries, 
in Reform Street, were built in 1833 at a 
cost of £10,000, and have a massive octo- 
style Doric portico. The Morgan Educa- 
tional Hospital, adjacent to the eastern 
public park, was built in 1867-69 from a 
bequest of more than £70,000, and is in the 
Scottish baronial style. A public school 
in the east end of town, the sixth erected 
by the burgh board, was built in 1878 at a 
cost of £5700, and has accommodation for 
750 scholars. 

The churches in the town and suburbs 
are 14 Established, 18 Free, 11 United 
Presbyterian, 1 United Original Secession, 
6 Congregational, 3 Evangelical Union, 4 
Baptist, 2 Wesleyan, 5 Episcopalian, 1 
Catholic Apostolic, and 4 Roman Catholic. 
Three of the Established churches, near the 
centre of the town, one of them ancient, the 
other two rebuilt in 1842-47 at a cost of 
£11,135, form one cruciform Gothic edifice 
surmounted by a famous ancient tower ; 
and that tower is believed to have been 
built by Prince David of Huntingdon, and 
was renovated in 1873 at a cost of about 
£8000. A number of the other churches, 
Established, Free, United Presbyterian, 
and Congregational, are ornamental 
structures j and several of them were 



DUN 



143 



DUN 



erected in years from 1877 till 1882. St. 
Paul's Episcopalian church, on Castle Hill, 
was erected in 1855 at a cost of £13,000, 
and is a middle-pointed cruciform edifice 
with steeple 217 feet high. The Catholic 
Apostolic church, in Constitution Road, 
was built in 1868, and is finely ornate. 
St. Mary's Roman Catholic church, in 
Hilltown, was built in 1851, is in the Saxon 
style, and measures within walls 152 feet 
by 60. The Royal Infirmary, on a skirt of 
Dundee Law, was built in 1852-55, at a 
cost of about £15,000, is in the Tudor 
style, and has a frontage of 350 feet, and 
two long receding wings. The Convalescent 
Hospital, at Barnhill, Broughty Ferry, 
was built in 1876 from gifts of £33,000 
by the Baxters. The Lunatic Asylum, at 
West Green, about 5 miles from the town, 
was founded in 1879, designed to accom- 
modate 370 patients, and estimated to 
cost about £60,000. The town extends into 
the parish of Liff, and includes the large 
suburb of Lochee. Real property of the 
parliamentary burgh in 1880-81, £657,335. 
Pop. in 1871, 118,977; in 1881, 140,239. 

The parish includes part of Broughty 
Ferry. The main body extends about 6| 
miles along the Tay with mean breadth of 
less than 2 miles ; a detached district com- 
mences about \ mile north of its north 
end, and is about 1J mile long and 15- 
mile broad ; and the whole comprises 
4349 acres. Real property of landward 
part in 1880-81, £23,056. Pop. of the 
whole, 100,965. The surface of the main 
body rises with easy ascent from the Tay, 
includes Dundee Law and Balgay Hill, 
and presents a beautiful appearance. The 
detached district abounds with excellent 
sandstone. The chief estates are Craigie, 
Claypots, Duntrune, Drumgeith, Baldovie, 
Pitkerro, Dudhope, Clepington, and Black- 
ness ; and the principal antiquities are an 
old archway, 2 or 3 notable old houses, 
and the sites of a royal palace, a noble 
mansion, and a number of ancient churches 
and religious houses in the town. 98 
schools for 17,719 scholars were in the 
burgh, and the board resolved to abolish 
11 of them for 1539, and to provide 7 new 
schools and an enlargement for 4000. 

DUNDEE AND ARBROATH RAILWAY, 
railway 16| miles long from Dundee, 
along the coast past Broughty Ferry and 
Carnoustie, to Arbroath, in Forfarshire. 
It was opened in 1839, and it became the 
joint property of the North British and 
the Caledonian Companies at 1st February 
1880. It connects at Broughty Ferry with 
the railway communication through Fife ; 
sends off, from a point near its north-east 
end, a goods branch to Carmylie ; and 
connects at Arbroath with the railways 
thence to Forfar and Montrose. . 

DUNDEE AND FORFAR DIRECT 
RAILWAY, railway 17| miles long, from 
the Dundee and Arbroath line at Broughty 
Ferry northward to Forfar. It was opened 
in 1870. 



DUNDEE AND NEWTYLE RAILWAY, 

railway 16f miles long, from west end of 
Dundee north-westward to Newtyle, in 
Forfarshire. It was originally a single 
truck line, 10J miles long, opened in 1831 ; 
it left the town on a long steep inclined 
plane, and by a tunnel through Dundee 
Law ; it was altered by the formation of 
two new portions, the one 7f miles long 
directly onward, opened in 1859, the other 
6 miles long to Lochee, opened in 1861 ; 
and it was designed near the end of 1879 
to acquire a new portion, starting from the 
south end of the tunnel through Dundee 
Law, and proceeding by the old line into 
junction with the new one near Downfield. 

DUNDEE AND PERTH RAILWAY, rail- 
way 21J miles, from Dundee west-south- 
westward to Perth. It was opened in 
1847 ; it traverses luxuriant and pictur- 
esque tracts along the Tay, to the vicinity 
of Perth ; and it there crosses the river on a 
very long grand viaduct in form of segment 
of a circle with the central part on an 
island. Both this railway and the Dundee 
and Newtyle were amalgamated in 1863 
with the Scottish Central, and went with 
that system in 1865 to the Caledonian. 

DUNDEE AND STANLEY RAILWAY, 
railway, projected in August 1880, to strike 
from the Dundee and Perth line at Nine- 
wells, to go by Millhill, Abernyte, Pit- 
kindy, Bandirran, and Balbeggie, and to 
join the Highland line at Stanley, in 
Perthshire. 

DUNDELCHACK, lake, about 6 miles 
long and 1J mile broad, in Daviot parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

DUNDONALD, village, castle, and parish 
in north-west of Kyle, Ayrshire. The 
village stands 4^ miles south-east of Irvine, 
presents an interesting appearance, and 
has a post office under Kilmarnock, Es- 
tablished and Free churches, and a public 
school with about 141 scholars. — The 
castle stands on an eminence adjacent to 
the village ; appears to have been erect- 
ed in 12th century ; was the residence 
of several of the Stewart princes, and 
the death place of Robert II. ; is now a 
large, strong, thick- walled ruin ; and has 
given the title of earl since 1669 to the 
family of Cochrane. — The parish contains 
also Fullarton suburb of Irvine, the town 
of Troon, and the villages of Old Rome, 
Shewalton, and Loans. Its length is 7^ 
miles ; its greatest breadth about 6J 
miles ; its area 12,365 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1879-80, £47,353. Pop., quoad 
civilla, 8086; quoad sacra, 1509. The 
surface is divided from north to south into 
two nearly equal sections by the low range 
of Claven Hills and by Shewalton Moss. 
The western section is nearly a dead flat, 
bounded by the Firth of Clyde ; and the 
eastern section is an assemblage of gentle 
eminences, embellished with wood. The 
seats are Fairlie, Shewalton, Newfield, 
Auchans, Curreath, Hillhouse, and Fullar- 
ton, the last belonging to the Duke of 



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144 



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Portland. Established and Free churches 
are at Troon and Fullarton, and a United 
Presbyterian church is at Troon. 7 schools 
for 832 scholars are in the parish, and 
1 of them and a classroom for 210 are new. 

DUNDONALD, remains of old castle in 
Killean parish, Argyleshire. 

DUNDONALD, coal-field in Auchter- 
derran parish, Fife. 

DUNDONNELL, seat in Lochbroom par- 
ish, Ross-shire. 

DUNDONNOCHIE, seat near Dunkeld, 
Perthshire. 

DUNDONY, small green island in Peter- 
head parish, Aberdeenshire. 

DUNDORNADIL. See Doknadilla. 

DUNDREICH, round-topped hill, 1934 
feet high, with extensive view, 6J miles 
north-by-east of Peebles. 

DUNDRENNAN, village, old abbey, and 
seat, 6 miles east-south-east of Kirkcud- 
bright. The village has a post office under 
Kirkcudbright, an inn, and 2 public 
schools with about 213 scholars. The abbey 
was founded in 1142 ; had a cruciform 
church with spire 200 feet high ; was the 
place where Queen Mary spent her last 
night in Scotland ; and is now represented 
by considerable well-preserved ruins. 

DUNDUFF, place, with traces of Roman 
camp and remains of old baronial fortalice, 
in Maybole parish, Ayrshire. 

DUNDUFF, place, with public school, in 
Dunfermline parish, Fife. 

DUNDURCUS, old parish, now annexed 
mainly to Boharm in Banffshire, and 
partly to Rothes in Elginshire. 

DUNDURN, old parish, now part of 
Comrie, Perthshire. 

DUNDYVAN, suburb or section of Coat- 
bridge, Lanarkshire. It has extensive 
ironworks, and a great public school with 
about 360 scholars. 

DUNEARN, hill, with supposed crater 
of extinct volcano, and with supposed 
remains of Roman camp, in Burntisland 
parish, Fife. 

DUNEATON, small river, running about 
13 miles south-eastward to the Clyde, at 
about 2 miles below Abington, Lanark- 
shire. 

DUNECHT, a seat of the Earl of Craw- 
ford, and place with post office under 
Aberdeen, 12 miles west of Aberdeen. 

DUNEVAN, ancient hill-fort near Caw- 
dor. Nairnshire. 

DUNEWAN, hill and reservoir, 2^ miles 
south of Eaglesham, Renfrewshire. 

DUNFALLANDY, seat and ancient monu- 
mental stone in Logierait parish, Perth- 
shire. 

DUNFERMLINE, town and parish in 
south-west of Fife. The town stands 2J 
miles north of Firth of Forth, and 20 east- 
south-east of Stirling ; owed its origin to 
an ancient abbey and an ancient royal 
palace ; figured much, for many ages, in 
connection with royal courts and royal 
visits ; suffered almost total destruction 
by fire in 1624, but rose again to prosperity ; 



occupies ground variously flat, sloping, 
broken, and ridgy; comprises narrow old 
streets, good new streets, and a large new 
western suburb ; has charming environs, 
studded with villas and mansions, and 
rich in both natural beauty and artificial 
ornature ; and contains fine view-points, 
interesting antiquities, and handsome 
public buildings. It ranks as a royal and 
parliamentary burgh, and as the seat of 
sheriff courts for the west of Fife ; unites 
with Inverkeithing, Culross, Queensferry, 
and Stirling in sending a member to 
Parliament ; carries on manufacture of 
table linen in a manner and to an extent 
unrivalled in the world; publishes 2 
weekly newspapers ; and has a head post 
office with all departments, a railway 
station, 5 banking offices, 5 hotels, 4 
Established churches, 3 Free churches, 4 
United Presbyterian churches, Congrega- 
tional, Evangelical Union, Baptist, Epis- 
copalian, Catholic Apostolic, and Roman 
Catholic churches, and 10 public schools. 

The Corporation Buildings stand at 
corner of Kirkgate and Bridge Street, 
were founded in October 1876, are in a 
combination of the Gothic and the French 
styles, have a corner tower 117 feet high, 
and were estimated to cost £18,688. The 
Public Hall stands in St. Margaret Street, 
was erected in 1878 at a cost of about 
£9500, is in the early English style, and 
contains two halls, one of them with accom- 
modation for 1320 persons. The Free 
Library adjoins the Public Hall, originated 
in a gift of £8000 from Mr. A. Carnegie, 
was planned in September 1880, and is 
in the domestic Tudor style. The Public 
Baths look toward Schoolend Street, were 
erected in 1877 from a gift of £5000 from 
Mr. A. Carnegie, and have a front eleva- 
tion in the Scoto-Gothic style. A modern 
bridge, 297 feet long, spans Pittencrieff 
Glen, became surmounted by excellent 
houses, and forms part of one of the best 
streets. The water supply comprises 
works of 1847 formed on a capital of 
£13,350, additional works of 1868 at a 
cost of about £17,400, and supplemental 
works begun in 1877, and estimated to cost 
about £55,000. Pittencrieff Glen possesses 
much natural beauty, strikes a stranger 
with surprise, contains a fragment of a 
palatial castle of Malcolm Canmore, and 
adjoins some remains of a later royal 
palace. The Abbey occupies the site of a 
Culdee cell, was founded by Malcolm Can- 
more, altered by David I., and extended in 
1250 ; contains the ashes of eight Scottish 
kings and numerous queens and princes ; 
and is now represented by the ruined nave, 
exhibiting features of transition from Saxon 
to Norman. The modern Abbey church 
occupies the site of the old Abbey church's 
choir ; was erected in 1821 at a cost of 
more than £12,000 ; gave rise, at the ex- 
cavation for it, to the discovery of the 
remains of King Robert Bruce ; and has 
a tower 100 feet high, with the words, 



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145 



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' King Robert the Bruce,' in the open 
stonework of a surmounting Gothic balus- 
trade. Monuments to Rev. Ralph Erskine 
and Rev. Thomas Gillespie, founders of 
sections of the United Presbyterian Church, 
were erected within the Abbey in 1876. A 
new Free church, in lieu of a previous one, 
was projected in 1881. The town gave the 
title of earl from 1605 till 1694 to the 
family of Seton, and that of baron in 1839 
to the third son of Sir Ralph Abercromby. 
Real property of the burgh in 1880-81, 
£56,371. Pop. 17,083. 

The parish contains also the villages of 
Charleston, Crossford, Halbeath, King- 
seat, North Queensferry, Townhill, 
"Wellwood, Masterton, and Patiemuir, 
most of Limekilns, and part of Crossgates 
and Milesmark ; consists of a main body 
and a small detached district; and is 
bounded on the south by Firth of Forth. 
The main body has a length of about 9 
miles, and an extreme breadth of 6 miles ; 
the detached district lies around Queens- 
ferry ; and the whole has an area of 20,764 
acres. Real property in 1880-81 of landward 
part, £51,420. Pop. , quoad civilia, 26,568 ; 
quoad sacra, 17,547. The coast is about 
1J; mile long, and variously flat and high. 
The interior rises gently from Limekilns, 
but brokenly from the small detached 
district, to vicinity of the burgh ; is there, 
and for some distance, picturesquely di- 
versified ; alternates in ridges and hollows, 
with increasing diversity and elevation, 
towards the north ; and includes parts of 
Craigluscar and Beath Hills on the ulterior 
boundary. Coal is very plentiful, and 
has long been extensively worked. Chief 
residences are the Earl of Elgin's seat of 
Broomhall, Pittencrieff, Pitreavie, Pitfir- 
rane, Garvock, Keavil, and Craigluscar. 
The chief antiquities are those in the 
burgh, and a battle-field of 1641 at Pit- 
reavie. A Free church is at North 
Queensferry, and United Presbyterian 
churches are at Limekilns and Crossgates. 
16 schools, for 3085 scholars, are in the 
burgh, and 3 of them for 1150 are new ; 
and 11 for 2242 scholars are in the land- 
ward parts, and 4 of them and a class-room 
for 1460 are new. 

DUNFERMLINE (NORTH), quoad sacra 
parish, with Established and Free churches 
in Dunfermline. Pop. 4027. 

DUNFERMLINE (ST. ANDREW), quoad 
sacra parish, with Established and Free 
churches in Dunfermline. Pop. 4503. 

DUNFILLAN green, conical hill, with 
rock-summit, called St. Fillan's Chair, 
near St. Fillan's village, Perthshire. 

DUNFIN conical mound, with vitrified 
fort, on cliff, at side of the Drhuim, Inver- 
iiesb-shire. 

DUNGAVEL, two-topped hill in Wiston 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

DUNGEON, lake in Kells parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

DUNGIVEL, hill in Avondale parish, 
Lanarkshire. 



DUNGLASS, small rocky promontory 
on the Clyde, 1\ miles east-south-east of 
Dumbarton. It is crowned with remains 
of an ancient castle of the Colquhouns, 
and with an obelisk of 1839 to the memory 
of Henry Bell. 

DUNGLASS, mansion and dean on the 
coast, at boundary between Haddington- 
shire and Berwickshire. The mansion is 
the seat of Sir Basil F. Hall, Bart. ; occu- 
pies the site of a strong, ancient, historical 
castle of the Earls of Home ; and has 
well-wooded, picturesque grounds. The 
dean includes part of these grounds ; is a, 
deep, romantic ravine,descendingfrom skirt 
of the Lammermoors, and opening grandly 
to the sea ; and is crossed by a very lofty 
six-arched railway viaduct and two bridges. 

DUNGLASS, bare bleak hill in Strath- 
blane parish, Stirlingshire. 

DUNGOIACH, conical wooded hill, con- 
trasting strongly with Dunglass Hill, in 
Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. 

DUNGODL. See Dunagoil. 

DUNGYLE, hill, with site of strong, 
ancient Caledonian fort, in Kelton 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

DUNHEAD, vestige of ancient triangular 
camp in Carmylie parish, Forfarshire. 

DUN-I, hill in Iona Island, Argyleshire. 

DUNIAN, round - backed ridgy hill, 
1095 feet high, and about 3 miles long 
and 1\ miles broad, culminating 2\ miles 
south-west of Jedburgh, Roxburghshire. 

DUNIKER. See Dunnikier. 

DUNIMARLE. See Dunamarle. 

DUNINO, parish, with church, 4 miles 
south-south-east of St. Andrews, Fife. It 
has a post office under St. Andrews. Its 
length is 3^ miles ; its greatest breadth 2f 
miles ; its area, 2737 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £4106. Pop. 297. The 
surface is undulating, and rises to an ex- 
treme height of less than 300 feet. The 
chief estates are Dunino, Pittairthy, Stra- 
vithy, and Kinaldy ; and the chief 
antiquity is an old fortalice. The public 
school has about 76 scholars. 

DUNIPACE, parish, containing part of 
Denny town, in Stirlingshire. Its length 
is 5f miles ; its greatest breadth 2f miles ; 
its area 5586 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £10,186. Pop. of town part, 1257; 
of parish quoad civilia, 1874 ; quoad sacra, 
1856. The river Carron traces all the 
southern boundary. The eastern section is 
part of the Carse of Stirling; and the western 
rises to an elevation of about 600 feet. The 
chief seats are Dunipace House, Quarter, 
Carbrook, and Herbertshire, — the last very 
ancient ; and the chief antiquities are two 
beautiful artificial mounds, which have 
been the subject of much controversy, and 
the ruined Torwood Castle. The churches- 
are Established and Free. There are 2 
schools for 360 scholars, and both are new. 

DUNIPHAIL, estate with modern man- 
sion, fragment of ancient castle, post office, 
and railway station 8J miles south of 
Forres, Elginshire. The castle stood on 



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146 



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a steep, conical hill, and resisted a siege 
by Randolph, Earl of Moray. The post 
•office is designated of Morayshire. 

DUNIQUOICH, steep, conical, wooded hill, 
•about 700 feet high, with fine panoramic 
view, adjacent to Inverary, Argyleshire. 

DUNIRA, a seat of Sir Sidney J. Dundas, 
Bart., 2J miles west-north-west of Comrie, 
Perthshire. It stands in a romantic glen, 
noticed in Hogg's ' Bonny Kilmeny.' 

DUNKELD, town and parish in Strath- 
tay, Perthshire. The town stands on left 
bank of the Tay, f mile north of a railway 
station of its own name, 15j miles north- 
north-west of Perth ; and is approached 
from the station by a seven-arched bridge, 
685 feet long, across the Tay, erected in 
1809 at a cost of £40,000. It got its name 
from being the ' Fort of the Kelts ' against 
invasion from the South ; it became the 
seat of successively a Culdee cell, a Romish 
monastery, and a cathedral ; it flourished 
for ages in connection with its cathedral, 
and as an occasional royal residence ; it 
witnessed a defeat of Royalist troops, and 
was nearly all burnt by the Jacobite forces 
after the battle of Killiecrankie ; and it 
now has the size of only a considerable 
village, and prospers chiefly as a favourite 
resort of summer visitors and tourists. It 
stands on low ground ; is immediately 
overhung, round much of its skirt, by 
lofty, diversified, wooded, picturesque 
hills ; presents, from exterior view-points, 
a very striking appearance ; contains a 
good modern street on a line with the 
bridge, an old street, and some lanes ; ad- 
joins a mansion of the Duke of Athole ; 
and has a head post office, with all de- 
partments, 3 banking offices, 4 hotels, 
remains of its cathedral, Established, Free, 
and Congregational churches, a grammar 
school, and a public library. The Duke of 
Athole's mansion, Dunkeld House, is a 
palatial edifice, founded by the fourth 
duke, but left incomplete at his death in 
1830 ; is in tasteful variety of the Gothic 
style ; was visited in 1842 and 1844 by 
Queen Victoria ; and has very extensive 
grounds with ornate suites of buildings, 
and rich diversity of gardens, drives, and 
walks. The cathedral was erected in times 
from middle of 12th century till latter 
part of 15th ; is in styles from the later 
Norman to the later English, with some 
geometric and flamboyant features ; and 
contains monuments of the ' Wolf of 
Badenoch,' two bishops, and the 42d 
Highlanders for their services at the 
Crimea. The greater part of it, measuring 
112 feet by 62, is a roofless ruin, with walls 
40 feet high ; but the choir was renovated 
in 1820, at a cost of about £5400, to serve 
as the parochial church ; and the chapter- 
house is still entire, and contains a statue 
of the fourth Duke of Athole, and monu- 
ments of other members of the Athole 
family. Pop. of the town, 768. The 
parish excludes part of the town, is all 
occupied by the rest of the town and the 



ducal pleasure grounds, and figures in all 
statistics as conjoint with Dowally. Acres 
of the two, 9456. Real property in 
1880-81, £3350. Pop. 791. 

DUNKELD (LITTLE),parishin Strathtay, 
Perthshire. It took its name from a vil- 
lage which stood on the right bank of the 
Tay, opposite Dunkeld, but is now extinct ; 
it contains the railway station of Dunkeld, 
the villages of Birnam, Inver, and Dal- 
guise, and about 20 smaller villages or 
hamlets ; and it measures 16 miles in 
length, about 9 miles in greatest breadth, 
and 41,268 acres in area. Real property in 
1880-81,£20,012. Pop. 2175. The Tay flows 
windingly and beautifully on the northern 
and eastern boundary for about 14 miles ; 
and the Bran runs partly on the southern 
boundary, but chiefly through the interior, 
and has there the notable Rumbling 
Bridge and Ossian's Hall. Birnam Hill 
is on the southern boundary ; hills or 
mountains occupy a large proportion of 
the other borders ; hills or mountains also 
occupy much of the interior ; and so many 
as about 20,378 acres are uncultivated. 
The sections nearest the Tay and along 
the Bran include large tracts of good 
arable land, either flat, sloping, or undu- 
lating, and contain nearly all the popula- 
tion. A remarkably fine clay is found 
in Strathbran ; and a very fine hard 
sandstone occurs in the south-east. The 
chief seats are Murthly Castle, Dalguise 
House, Kinnaird House, Birnam Lodge, 
Torwood, and Dundonnochie ; and the 
chief antiquities are Caledonian stone 
circles, Caledonian forts, huge cairns, 
Trochrie Castle, and objects on Birnam 
Hill. The churches are 2 Established, 2 
Free, and an Episcopalian. There are 5 
schools for 435 scholars, and 1 of them 
for 200 is new. 

DUNKENNY, seat near Glammis, For- 
farshire. 

DUNLAPPIE, old parish, now part of 
Strickathrow, Forfarshire. 

DUNLEA, headland in Kilmuir parish, 
Isle of Skye. 

DUNLEAKEN, massive mountain, con- 
tiguous to Loch Fyne, near Furnace village, 
Argyleshire. A quarry of very fine 
granite is on it. 

DUNLIATH, Scandinavian fort in Kil- 
muir parish, Isle of Skye. 

DUNLICHITY, old parish united to 
Daviot, in Inverness-shire. 

DUNLOP, village in Ayrshire, and parish 
partly also in Renfrewshire. The village 
stands 2^ miles north of Stewarton, and 
has a post office under Stewarton, a par- 
ochial church, a Free church, and a public 
school with about 149 scholars. Pop. 357. 
The parish is about 7 miles long, and 
mostly about 2 miles broad, but contracts 
towards the ends. Acres in Ayrshire, 
6078 ; in Renfrewshire, 1101. Real pro- 
perty in 1879-80, £15,935, and £3209. 
Pop. 1363. The surface is mostly an 
assemblage of green knolls and hillocks ; 



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147 



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lies everywhere higher than 300 feet above 
sea-level, yet nowhere higher than about 
150 feet above the beds of the local 
streams ; and commands, from many a 
point, an extensive panoramic view. The 
dairy draws chief attention of the culti- 
vators, and has long been famous for its 
cheese. Dunlop House is the principal 
residence, and Aiket Castle the chief 
antiquity. 

DUNLOP-PLACE, village in Dalserf par- 
ish, Lanarkshire. Pop., with Red Row,327. 

DUNLUGAS, estate, with mansion and 
public school, in Alvah parish, Banffshire. 

DUNLUSKIN, hill and lake near Dunoon, 
Argyleshire. 

DUNMACSNIACHAN, site of alleged 
Dalriadan city of Berigonium on coast of 
Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

DUNMAGLASS, detached section of 
Nairnshire, about 16 square miles in area, 
encompassed by Dunlichity old parish, in 
Inverness-shire. 

DUNMAN, rocky hill, with vestiges of 
ancient Caledonian fort, on coast of 
Kirkmaiden parish, Wigtonshire. 

DUNMORE, village and mansion in 
Airth parish, Stirlingshire. The village 
stands on the Forth, 8 miles east-south- 
east of Stirling, and has a post office with 
telegraph under Stirling, a small harbour, 
and an Episcopalian chapel. The mansion 
is the seat of the Earl of Dunmore, is an 
elegant Gothic edifice, and has a well- 
wooded park. 

DUNMORE, seat on north-west side of 
West Loch Tarbert, Argyleshire. 

DUNMORE, hill, crowned by granite 
obelisk, 72 feet high, to the memory of 
Lord Melville, 1J mile north of Comrie, 
Perthshire. 

DUNMORE, hill in Monzie parish, Perth- 
shire. 

DUN (MUIR OF), hamlet in Dun parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DUNMULLIE, place, with vestiges of 
mediaeval castle, in Duthil parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

DUNMYAT, precipitous hill in north 
front of the Ochils, 4 miles north-east of 
Stirling. It looks like a huge buttress, 
rises to a height of 1375 feet above sea- 
level, and commands one of the most 
magnificent views in Great Britain. 

DUNN, hamlet in Watten parish, Caith- 
ness. It has a public school with about 72 
scholars. 

DUNNAGU, mountain, 2505 feet high, 
6 miles west of Duart, in Mull Island, 
Argyleshire. 

DUNNECHTAN. See Dunnichen. 

DUNNET, village and parish on north 
coast of Caithness. The village stands 9 
miles east by north of Thurso, and has a 
post office under Thurso, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
about 53 scholars. The parish measures 
12 miles in length, and 6 miles in greatest 
breadth. Real property in 1880-81, 
£6238. Pop. 1607. Dunnet Bay is 



partly on the north-western border, ex- 
tends westward at the mouth to Holburn- 
Head, and has a total length of about 5i 
miles, with mean breadth of about 2f 
miles. Dunnet promontory extends north- 
ward from upper part of east side of the 
bay, is 3£ miles long, and averagely 1\ 
miles broad, and presents all round to the 
sea a broken rocky face from 100 to 400 
feet high. Dunnet Head terminates that 
promontory, is the most northerly ground 
of the Scottish mainland, and is crowned 
with a lighthouse, showing a fixed light 
visible at the distance of 23 nautical miles. 
The coast eastward of the promontory is 
straight, low, and rocky, and about 2 J 
miles long, and has small harbours at 
Brough and Ham. All the interior, ex- 
cepting the promontory, has a slightly irre- 
gular surface, not far from level, with 
average elevation of about 150 feet. Chief 
objects of interest are quarries, 10 small 
lakes, numerous tumuli and Picts' houses, 
and vestiges of 3 Romish chapels. Public 
schools are at Ratter, Greenland, and 
Barrock. 

DUNNICHEN, village and parish in south 
centre of Forfarshire. The village stands 4 
miles east-south-east of Forfar, and contains 
the parochial church. The parish contains 
4 other small villages, and most of the 
large post office village of Letham. Its 
length is about 5 miles ; its breadth about 
3f miles ; its area, 4917 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £8909. Pop. 1422. 
The surface consists mostly of gently 
sloping reaches, and rises at its highest 
point to about 720 feet above sea-level. 
Dunnichen Hill, on the northern boundary, 
includes the highest point, is about 3 
miles long, and was originally called 
Dunnechtan, from a resident Pictish 
chieftain. A chief residence is Dunnichen 
House, and a chief antiquity is the field of 
a battle in 7th century between the Picts 
and the Northumbrian Saxons. A Free 
church and a Congregational chapel are in 
Letham. 2 schools for 290 scholars are in 
the parish, and one of them and an en- 
largement for 234 are new. 

DUNNIDEER, isolated hill, with vitrified 
fort and remnant of ancient castle, in 
Insch parish. Aberdeenshire. 

DUNNIKIER, old part of Pathhead 
suburb of Kirkcaldy, Fife. It has a Free 
church, and it adjoins an estate of its own 
name with mansion and collieries. 

DUNNIKIER, hill, with extensive view, 
in Kilconquhar parish, Fife. 

DUNNINALD, old parish, with dean, 
hill, and modern mansion of its own 
name now in Craig, adjacent to Montrose, 
Forfarshire. 

DUNNING, town and parish on south- 
east border of Perthshire. The town 
stands 1^ mile south-east of a railway 
station of its own name, and 9^ miles 
south-west of Perth ; includes the suburb 
of Newton of Pitcairns ; presents a 
pleasant appearance ; and has a post 



DUN" 



148 



DUN 



office with money order and telegraph, 
departments under Perth, a banking 
office, Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches, and 3 public 
schools. Pop. 813. The parish is 
about 7 miles long and 4 miles broad, and 
comprises 14,855 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £13,870. Pop. 1635. About one- 
third of the surface lies among the Ochils, 
and the rest slopes to the Earn. Dun- 
cruib, the seat of Lord Polio, is the chief 
mansion ; and other seats are Pitcairns 
and Garvock. 

DUNNOTTAR, parish containing Craw- 
ton fishing village and part of Stonehaven 
post town, on coast of Kincardineshire. 
Its length is 5J miles ; its greatest breadth 
3^ miles ; its area 7783 acres. Peal pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £12,869. Pop. 2498. 
The coast has a length of 3f miles, is 
mostly very bold and rocky, and abounds 
in deep caves, much frequented by sea- 
fowl. The interior is mostly uneven, with 
numerous rising-grounds and hillocks ; but 
includes, on its north border, a part of the 
How of Mearns. The chief seat is Dunn- 
ottar House ; and the chief antiquity, a 
great and famous one, is Dunnottar Castle. 
This crowns an insulated salient rock, 
rising from the sea in cliff s 160 feet high ; 
was erected and occupied by the Keiths, 
Earls Marischal ; made a great figure 
in the long course of the wars of the Suc- 
cession ; became the hiding-place of the 
Scottish Regalia in the time of Cromwell, 
and a State prison in the times of Charles 
II. and James VII. ; is notable for the 
' "Whigs' Vault,' where many of the 
Covenanters were immured and tortured ; 
was dismantled after the attainder of the 
last Earl Marischal in 1715 ; and presents 
now the appearance of a very striking ruin 
with embattled walls and stately towers. 
The parochial church stands about 1^ 
mile north-west of the castle ; and its 
churchyard contains a monument to the 
Covenanters who died in the ' "Whigs' 
Vault,' and was the place where Sir Walter 
Scott met the person whom he calls ' Old 
Mortality.' Free, United Presbyterian, 
Episcopalian, and Roman Catholic churches 
are in Stonehaven. 3 public schools for 
321 scholars are in the parish, and 1 of 
them for 105 is new. 

DUNOLLY, ruined ancient castle and 
fine modern mansion, near Oban, Argyle- 
shire. The castle stands on a bold, rocky 
promontory at northern extremity of 
Oban bay ; dates from 12th century, but 
may have been preceded by a Scandinavian 
fortalice ; was the chief seat of the Mac- 
dougals, lords of Lorn ; and is now 
represented by only its keep and some 
ivy-clad fragments of other buildings. 

DUNOON, town and parish in Cowal 
district, Argyleshire. The town stands 
on Firth of Clyde, 8 miles by water west 
of Greenock ; grew around an ancient 
castle on crown of small promontory ; 
became a residence of the Bishops of 



Argyle, and a great ferry thoroughfare ; 
prospered, nevertheless, only so far as to 
be a village, and sank afterwards to the 
condition of a hamlet ; expanded from 
about 1822 till the present time into the 
bulk and celebrity of the largest and most 
favoured watering-place on the Clyde ; 
and made a claim, in 1873, to be consti- 
tuted the political capital of Argyleshire. 
The castle is thought to have been de- 
veloped from a Dalriadan fortalice ; was 
captured by Edward Baliol, held by Edward 
III. of England, and recaptured by the 
Steward who became Robert III.; under- 
went reconstruction, in three-towered 
form and with palatial grandeur, about 
beginning of 15th century ; ranked there- 
after as a royal palace in charge of the 
noble family of Argyle ; was visited by 
Queen Mary ; became the scene, in 17th 
century, of a horrible massacre ; was then 
relinquished to decay ; and subsided 
eventually into merely a sub-basement. 
The town, in one sense, is a compact 
assemblage of regular streets adjacent to 
the castle promontory ; in another sense, 
is an array of single streets, rows of villas, 
and groups of various sorts of buildings, 
including Kirn and other suburbs, and 
extending about 4J miles from Holy Loch 
to Bawtry Bay ; in either sense, occupies 
a strip of low ground, backed by braes 
ascending rapidly to mountain height, and 
presents a picturesque appearance. It 
has a head post office, with money order 
and telegraph departments, 2 banking 
offices, 4 hotels, a town hall of 1874, 
convalescent homes, steamboat piers near 
the castle site and at Kirn, 2 Established 
churches, 2 Free churches, 2 United 
Presbyterian churches, 2 Episcopalian 
churches, Baptist and Roman Catholic 
chapels, 3 public schools, and several , 
local institutions. The parochial church 
is a prominent Gothic edifice of 1816 ; 
one of the Free churches was erected in 
1877 ; and one of the United Presbyterian 
churches in 1875. Pop. of the town, 4687. 
— The parish contains also the villages of 
Inellan, Sandbank, Ardenadam, KUmun, 
Strone, Blairmore, and Ardentinny. Its 
length is about 18 miles; its greatest 
breadth 9 miles ; its area 44,595 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £78,550. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 7974 ; quoad sacra, 5349. 
The coast is bisected, to the extent of 
about 2 miles, by Holy Loch ; measures, 
inclusive of curvatures, at least 30 miles ; 
has a low and mostly narrow seaboard, 
with great aggregate of artificial ornature, 
and occupied to the amount of at least 6 
miles by town and villages ; and is over- 
hung, immediately behin'd the seaboard, 
by bold hills or mountains. The interior 
comprises 5 groups or ranges of hill or 
mountain, and 5 intersecting vales or glens; 
and it exhibits, in both its uplands and 
its low grounds, a rich diversity of natural 
feature. The chief seats are Toward 
Castle, Hafton House, Glenfinart House,. 



DUN 



149 



DUN 



and Benmore House ; and the chief an- 
tiquities are the sub-basement of Dunoon 
Castle, the ruin of old Toward Castle, 
and the tower of Kilmun collegiate church. 
Established churches are at Toward, 
Inellan, Sandbank, Kilmun, Strone, and 
Ardentinny ; Free churches are at Inellan, 
Sandbank, and Kilmun ; and a United 
Presbyterian church is at Inellan. Sixteen 
schools for 1565 scholars are in the 
parish, and 5 of them for 580 are new. 

DUNPHAIL. See Duniphail. 

DPNRAGIT, railway station, post office, 
and seat, 5 miles east-south-east of Stran- 
raer, Wigtonshire. 

DUNREGGAN, suburb of Minniehive, 
Dumfriesshire. 

DUNROBIN, seat of the Duke of Suther- 
land, 2 miles north-east of Golsrjie, Suther- 
land. It stands on a ramparted sea 
terrace, 300 feet long ; includes a plain 
castellated structure of 1275 ; is mainly a 
great rectangular pile of 1847, in mixedly 
French, German, and old Scottish styles ; 
contains sumptuous apartments specially 
prepared for occupancy by the Queen ; and 
has very beautiful grounds, containing two 
Scandinavian dunes. 

DUNROD, old barony in Innerkip parish, 
Renfrewshire. It belonged to Sir James 
Lindsay, the companion of Sir Robert 
Bruce ; and it is traversed by a burn of its 
own name, spanned by a very ancient 
bridge, supposed to be Koman. 

DUNROSSNESS, parish in south of 
Shetland. It comprehends the old par- 
ishes of Dunrossness, Sandwick, and 
Coningsburgh ; comprises the southern 
extremity of Mainland, to the length of 
about 18 miles ; includes the Islands of 
Mousa, Cross, Colsay, St. Ninian, and 
Fair Isle ; and has a post office of its own 
name, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Lerwick. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £3728. Pop, quoad 
civilia, 4226 ; quoad sacra, 1818. The 
surface is mostly bleak and heathy, but 
comprises a considerable aggregate of land 
fairly productive of coarse barley and oats. 
The parochial church contains 858 sittings. 
Established churches are at Sandwick and 
Fair Isle ; Free churches at Dunrossness 
and Coningsburgh ; a Congregational 
church at Sandwick ; and Baptist and 
Wesleyan churches at Dunrossness. 8 
schools for 602 scholars are in the parish, 
and 7 of them for 567 are new. 

DUNROSTAN, rivulet in North Knap- 
dale parish, Argyleshire. 

DUNSAPHE, lake on east shoulder of 
Arthur's Seat, adjacent to Edinburgh. 

DUNSCORE, parish on west border of 
Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire. It has a post 
office of its own name under Dumfries, 
and contains the village of Cottack. Its 
length is 11 miles ; its greatest breadth 3J 
miles ; its area 14,815 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £13,675. Pop. 1405. 
The surface includes fertile alluvial lands 
adjacent to the Nith ; extends westward 



thence, across Gleneslin rivulet, to the 
upmost reach of the Urr ; and consists 
chiefly of three vales or glens with enclosing 
hills. Ellisland farmhouse, once occupied 
by the poet Burns, Lag Tower, the ruined 
seat of the Griersons, and Friar's Carse, 
with vestiges of ancient monastery, are in 
the east ; and Bogrie and Sundaywell 
Towers, famous in the history of the Cove- 
nanters, are in the west. The churches are 
Established, Free, and United Presbyterian. 
There are 3 schools for 302 scholars, and 1 
of them and enlargements for 167 are new. 

DUNSCRIBEN, vitrified fort on hill over- 
looking Loch Ness, in Urquhart parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

DUNSCUDDEBURGH, Scandinavian fort 
in Kilmuir parish, Isle of Skye. 

DUNSE, town and parish in Berwick- 
shire. The town stands on a plain ad- 
jacent toDunse Law, 7j miles north-north- 
east of Greenlaw ; took its name from an 
ancient town on the top of Dunse Law, 
figuring much in the Border wars, and 
destroyed in 16th century; was founded 
about 1588 as a successor to that town, and 
partly engirt for a long time by a deep 
morass ; ranks now as the political capital 
of Berwickshire conjointly with Greenlaw ; 
is a great centre of marketing business, and 
publishes a weekly newspaper ; comprises 
a fine market square and spacious streets ; 
and has a head post office with all depart- 
ments, a railway station, 3 banking offices, 
2 hotels, County Buildings, a steepled 
Gothic town hall, a parochial church de- 
stroyed by fire in 1879, and restored at a 
cost of nearly £4000 in 1880-81, a Free 
church, 3 United Presbyterian churches, 
an Episcopalian church, a public school for 
500 scholars, erected in 1880-81 at a cost of 
£5760, and a public library opened in 1875. 
Pop. 2437. — The parish is 7j miles long 
and 3£ miles broad, and comprises 11,396 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £27,099. 
Pop. 3353. The north-western section is 
part of the Lammermoors, and attains an 
extreme altitude of 1065 feet ; and the 
south-eastern section is part of the Merse, 
and mostly fertile and highly cultivated. 
Dunse Law measures about 2J miles round 
the base, rises to an altitude of 630 feet, 
has a tabular summit of about 30 acres, 
and was twice entrenched and occupied by 
the Covenanters' army under General 
Leslie. The seats are Dunse Castle, 
Manderston, Wedderburn, "Wellfield, 
Cumledge, Cairnbank, and Berrywell ; 
and the chief antiquities are vestiges of the 
Covenanters' camp and the site of Edins- 
hall. There were, prior to the formation of 
the. school board, 9 schools for 600 scholars. 

DUNSE, hill in Roxburgh parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

DUNSHELT, village about a mile south- 
east of Auchtermuchty, Fife. It has a post 
office under Auchtermuchty. Pop. 414. 

DUNSINNAN, hill and seat, 8 miles 
north-east of Perth. The hill is conical, 
flat-topped, and 1012 feet high ; commands 



DUN 



150 



DUR 



a very fine view ; and was formerly crowned 
with a strong castle, said to have been 
built by Macbeth. 

DUNSKAITH, ruined large ancient 
castle on Loch Eishart, in Sleat parish, 
Isle of Skye. 

DUNSKEATH, quondam castle, built by 
"William the Lion, on north side near 
mouth of Cromarty Firth, Ross-shire. 

DUNSKEIG, hill, with two ancient forts, 
one of them vitrified, at south side of 
mouth of West Loch Tarbert, Argyleshire. 

DUNSKELLAR, place in North Uist, 
Outer Hebrides. It has a public school 
with about 96 scholars. 

DUNS KELLY, grotto in Kirkpatrick- 
Fleming parish, Dumfriesshire. 

DUNSKERRY, islet in Pentland Firth, 
4 miles north of Farout-head, Sutherland. 

DUNSKEY, seat and ruined baronial 
fortalice near Portpatrick, Wigtonshire. 

DUNSTAFFNAGE, ruined famous ancient 
castle, 32 miles north of Oban, Argyleshire. 
It stands on a tabular rock at south side of 
mouth of Loch Etive ; appears to have 
been erected in latter part of 12th century ; 
occupies the site of a chief seat of the 
Dalriadan kings ; belonged to successively 
the Macdougals and the Campbells ; was 
maintained as a fortress till the rebellion 
of 1745 ; is a quadrangular pile, measuring 
87 feet interiorly on each side ; rises to a 
height of 66 feet, with round towers at the 
corners ; and is noticed in Sir Walter 
Scott's Lord of the Isles. A cemetery with 
ruined ancient chapel is in its vicinity, 
and may have been the burying place of 
some of the Dalriadan kings. A celebrated 
slab, said to have been a coronation-seat at 
Dunstaffnage, was afterwards used as 
such at Scone, and taken thence by Ed- 
ward I. to England, and is now in the 
throne on which the British sovereigns 
are crowned. 

DUNSYRE, village and parish in upper 
ward of Lanarkshire. The village stands 
6J miles east of Carnwath, and has a post 
office under Dolphinton, a railway station, 
a parochial church, and a public school. 
The parish is 6 miles long and 5 miles 
broad, and comprises 10,743 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £5974. Pop. 254. 
Most of the surface lies higher than 700 
feet above sea-level, and a steep hill on it 
rises to the height of 1813 feet. Only 
about 3000 acres are arable, and a large 
extent is wild moor. The parish was 
traversed by a Roman road, retains 
traces of it, and was a retreat of the 
Covenanters. 

DUNTARVTE, estate in Abercorn parish, 
Linlithgowshire. 

DUNTAULICH, seat at foot of Loch 
Tummel, Perthshire. 

DUNTAYNISH, hill in North Knapdale 
parish, Argyleshire. 

DUNTIBLAE, place, with factories, near 
Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire. It was the 
residence and death-place of Walter Wat- 
eon, author of well-known Scottish lyrics. 



DUNTOCHER, town, on rivulet amid 
opening of Kilpatrick Hills, 9 miles north- 
west of Glasgow. It is modern, but con- 
tains an ancient bridge, believed to be 
Roman, and adjoins a hill on which 
Roman relics, preserved in Glasgow Uni- 
versity museum, were found ; and it has 
a post office under Glasgow, 4 factories, 
Established, Free, United Presbyterian, 
and Roman Catholic churches, and a 
public school. Pop. 1572. 

DUNTREATH, ancient strong castellated 
mansion, once the seat of the Earls of 
Lennox, now a seat of Admiral Sir William 
Edmonstone, Bart., on Blane river, in 
Strathblane parish, Stirlingshire. 

DUNTROON, modernized strong ancient 
castellated mansion, 1^ mile north-west of 
Port Crinan, Argyleshire. 

DUNTRUNE, estate in Dundee parish, 
Forfarshire. 

DUNTULM, bay, fragment of old castle, 
and post office under Portree, in Kilmuir 
parish, Isle of Skye. The bay is but partly 
sheltered, yet affords anchorage and some 
harbourage. The castle stood on a lofty 
mural rock, washed by the sea ; sprang 
from a Scandinavian fort into a condition 
of great strength and grandeur ; and was 
the residence of the Macdonalds, descend- 
ants of the Lords of the Isles. 

DUNURE, fishing village and ruined old 
castle on small bay 5£ miles north-west of 
Maybole, Ayrshire. The castle was the 
original seat of the noble family of Ken- 
nedy, dated from very early times, had 
great strength, and figured much in pro- 
vincial history. 

DUNVEGAN, sea-loch, hamlet, and cas- 
tellated mansion in north-west of Skye. 
The loch separates Vaternish peninsula 
from Duirinish -proper, is about 10 miles 
long, and diminishes from a width of about 
7 miles to almost a point. The hamlet lies 
near the loch's head, and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, under Portree, an inn, and a public 
school with about 84 scholars. The mansion 
stands on a peninsulated rock in vicinity 
of the hamlet ; is an imposing structure, 
variously very ancient, mediaeval, and 
modern ; was visited by Dr. Johnson and 
Sir Walter Scott ; figures in their accounts 
of demonology, and in Smith's Summer in 
Skye ; and contains Rory More's drinking- 
cup, mentioned in one of Burns' songs. 

DUNWAN. See Dunewan. 

DUPPLIN CASTLE, seat of the Earl of 
Kinnoul, near the Earn, 5 miles south- 
west of Perth. It was rebuilt in 1832, at 
a cost of more than £30,000; is in the Tudor 
style ; has fine grounds, with about 370 
acres of stately wood ; and was visited in 
1842 by Queen Victoria. Dupplin parish, 
around the castle, was the scene of a battle in 
13;->2 between Edward Baliol and the Earl of 
Mar, and was annexed in 1618 to Aberdalgie. 

DURADEN, ravine and village, 2| miles 
east-south-east of Cupar, Fife. The ravine 
is winding and picturesque, intersects the 



DUR 



151 



DUT 



hill-range flanking south side of Strath- 
eden, and is traversed by a rivulet running 
about 7 miles north-north-eastward to the 
Eden. The village stands in the ravine, 
is a seat of some manufacture, and has a 
post office under Cupar. Pop. 328. 

DURAN, hill, 5 miles south-east of 
Thurso, Caithness. 

DURHAMTOWN, village in Bathgate 
parish, Linlithgowshire. Pop. 166. 

DURIE, seat near Leven, Fife. 

DURIN, place, with good inn, on north 
coast of Durness parish, Sutherland. 

DURINISH. See Duirinish. 

DURISDEER. See Durrisdeer. 

DURN, burn, running to the sea at 
Portsoy, and hill, with quartz quarry 
and remains of ancient camp, in Fordyce 
parish, Banffshire. 

DURNESS, parish in north-western ex- 
tremity of Sutherland. It has a post 
office of its own name, with money order 
department, under Lairg ; and it com- 
prises the north-western extremity of the 
Scottish mainland to the extent of 18 by 
15 miles, and includes several islets. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6470. Pop. 987. 
The coast extends westward from Whiten- 
head to Cape Wrath, and southward from 
Cape "Wrath to Sandwood Bay ; measures, 
exclusive of sinuosities, about 22 miles ; 
includes, in the north, Farouthead, Loch 
Eriboll mouth, and Durness Bay ; and, 
over most of its extent, both on the north 
and on the west, is bold, lofty, cliffy, and 
cavernous. Loch Eriboll and the Kyle of 
Durness strike far southward from the 
north coast, and, with streams entering 
their head, cut the interior into three 
sections with distinctive names ; and Loch 
Hope, a long fresh-water lake, extending 
to within ly mile of the sea, cuts the 
most easterly section into two. Benhope 
and the Moin are on the eastern boundary ; 
and mountain ranges, upland masses, and 
deep moss tracts occupy so much ground 
throughout the interior as to leave but a 
very small aggregate of arable land. The 
prevailing aspect is wildly highland. A 
strikingly interesting object is Smoo Cave; 
a principal residence is Balnakiel; and chief 
antiquities are numerous standing-stones, 
cairns, and Scandinavian dunes. The 
churches are Established and Free. The 
chief public school has accommodation for 
121 scholars, and there are minor appliances 
of education for the sequestered districts. 

DUROR, rivulet, hamlet, and quoad sacra 
parish in north of Appin district, Argyle- 
shire. The rivulet runs about 7 miles 
westward to Loch Linnhe at 5 miles south- 
south-west of Ballachulish. The hamlet 
lies on the rivulet near its mouth, and has 
a post office designated of Argyleshire, an 
inn, a church with 323 sittings, and a 
public school with about 63 scholars. Pop. 
of the quoad sacra parish, 4S9. 

DURRAN, quondam lake, now rich 
meadow, in Olrig parish, Caithness. 

DURRIS, parish, with church, on the 



Dee, 4£ miles east of Banchory, Kincar- 
dineshire. It has a post office of its own 
name under Aberdeen. Its length is 7f 
miles ; its greatest breadth 5 miles ; its 
area 15,294 acres. Keal property in 1880- 
81, £9949. Pop. 1014. The surface in- 
cludes level meadow land adjacent to the 
Dee, hillocky acclivities in the central 
parts, and skirts of the Grampians upwards 
of 1000 feet high in the south. Durris 
House, a modern mansion connected by 
long colonnade with an ancient one, is 
the chief residence. The churches are 
Established and Free ; and the public 
schools are 2 new ones, with accommoda- 
tion for 230 scholars. 

DURRISDEER, village and parish in 
Nithsdale, Dumfriesshire. The village 
stands 5J miles north of Thornhill, and 
has a post office under Thornhill, a 
parochial church with fantastic mauso- 
leum of the Douglas dukes of Queens- 
berry, and a public school with about 90 
scholars. — The parish contains also the 
Duke of Buccleuch's seat of Drumlanrig 
Castle, and part of the village of Carron- 
Bridge. Its length is 8j miles ; its greatest 
breadth 4J miles ; its area 19,717 acres. 
Keal property in 1880-81, £9540. Pop. 
1107. The surface includes rich diversified 
lands on both sides of the Nith, and 
ascends to the Wallpath and to the 
watershed of some of the loftiest of 
the Lowther Mountains. About one-half 
of all the land is either pastoral or waste. 
The parish has vestiges of a Roman camp, 
and was the scene of Johnnie o' Breadislee's 
'woeful hunting.' There are 3 public 
schools for 248 scholars, and they include 
recent enlargements for 80. 

DURY, burn and braes in Fowlis- Wester 
parish, Perthshire. 

DUSK. See Dhdisk. 

DUSKER, islet, 2f miles west of Tyree, 
Argyleshire. 

DCJTHIL, parish, comprehending Duthil- 
proper and Rothiemurchus, on north-east 
border of Inverness-shire. Duthil-prpper 
lies on left side of the Spey, is traversed 
by the Dulnain, contains the head post 
office of Aviemore, and the post office 
hamlet of Carrbridge, and measures 16 
miles by 13. Rothiemurchus lies on right 
side of the Spey, and measures 10 miles 
by 7. Real property of the whole in 
1880-81, £10,137. Pop., quoad civilia, 
1664 ; quoad sacra, 1371. The surface of 
Duthil-proper includes alluvial belts on the 
Spey and the Dulnain,risestoCraigellachie, 
and ascends to the watershed of the Monadh- 
leagh mountains. Much of the scenery is 
highly picturesque. Two objects of inte- 
rest are the modern mausoleum of the 
noble family of Seafield, and the ruin of 
the Grants' old tower of Muckerath. The 
churches are an Established and a Free in 
Duthil - proper, and an Established in 
Rothiemurchus. Eight schools for 471 
scholars are in the united parish, and 4 of 
them and an enlargement for 200 are new. 



DWA 



152 



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DWARFIE-STONE, sandstone block, 28 
feet long and 14 feet broad, 2 miles south- 
east of top of Ward Hill, on Hoy Island, 
Orkney. It has been artificially hollowed, 
is popularly associated with ancient Scan- 
dinavian thaumaturgy, and may have been 
vised in ancient heathen rites. 

DYCE, village and parish in Aberdeen- 
shire. The village stands near junction 
of Great North of Scotland Railway with 
the Formartine and Buchan line, 7 miles 
north-west of Aberdeen, is conjoint with 
Gordon Place village, and has a post office, 
with money order department, under 
Aberdeen, a railway station, Established 
and Free churches, and a public school 
with about 127 scholars. Pop. 561. — The 
parish is about 6 miles long and 3 miles 
broad, and comprises 5237 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £5717. Pop. 1162. 
The river Don traces all the northern and 
eastern boundary. The land adjacent to the 
river is low rich haugh, and that backward 
thence rises into a low heathy hill about 3 
miles long. Granite is almost the only 
rock, and has been extensively quarried. 
The antiquities are an ancient Caledonian 
stone circle and several cairns. 

DYE, rivulet, running about 9 miles 
east-south-eastward, among the Lammer- 
moors to the Whitadder, at 6 miles west- 
north-west of Dunse, Berwickshire. 

DYE, or WEST WATER, small river, 
running about 20 miles east-south-eastward 
to the North Esk, at 4 miles north-north- 
east of Brechin, Forfarshire. 

DYKE, village in Elginshire, and parish 
partly also in Nairnshire. The village 
stands 3^ miles west-by-south of Forres, is 
embosomed among trees, and has the 
parochial church, a Free church, and a 
public school with about 87 scholars. The 
parish contains also the villages of Kintes- 
sack, Whitemire, and Broom of Moy ; and 
its post town is Forres. It lies along 
Moray Firth and Findhorn river, and 
measures about 5| miles on the coast, and 
7 miles southward. Acres, in Elginshire, 
13,550 ; in Nairnshire, 29. Real property 
in 1880-81, £9014 and £45. Pop. 1236. 
The northern section is mostly filled with 
the Culbin sands ; and the southern section 
is variously sloping and undulating, and 
looks like fertile embellished champaign. 
Darnaway Castle, with its pleasure grounds 
and f orest,is a prominent feature; and other 
seats are Brodie,Dalvey,Moy,and Kincorth. 
Hardmoor Heath, adjacent to the Culbin 
sands, is Shakespeare's scene of Macbeth and 
Banquo's meeting with the weird sisters. 

DYKEHEAD, town near Shotts railway 
station, Shotts parish, Lanarkshire. Pop. 
1105. 

DYKEHEAD, village in Hamilton parish, 
Lanarkshire. Pop. 264. 

DYKEHEAD, place near Kilmaurs, Ayr- 
shire. It has a post office under Kilmar- 
nock. 

DYKEHEAD, village near Kirriemuir, 
Forfarshire. 



DYKEHEAD, village near Bargeddie, in 
Old Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. 

DYKEHEAD, village in Slamannan par- 
ish, Stirlingshire. It has a public school 
with about 62 scholars. 

DYKEHEAD, hamlet in Port-of-Menteith 
parish, Perthshire. It has a public school 
with about 51 scholars. 

DYKENOOK, place, with public school, 
in Fetteresso parish, Kincardineshire. 

DYROCK, affluent of the Girvan, at Kirk- 
michael village, Ayrshire. 

DYSART, town and parish on south 
coast of Fife. The town stands 2 miles 
north-north-east of Kirkcaldy ; dates from 
at least the latter part of 9th century ; 
was long a place of extensive saltworks and 
of a brisk commerce, conducted by what an 
old song calls the ' canty carles o' Dysart ; ' 
adjoins coal mines, which have often been 
on fire, and are exaggeratingly described in 
George Buchanan's Franciscanus ; figures 
also in Tennant's Answer Fair ; has in its 
harbour a high rock, said to have been 
fortified by Oliver Cromwell ; presents now 
a decayed and stagnant appearance ; ranks 
as a royal and parliamentary burgh, but 
includes, in the latter character, large 
suburbs bearing other names ; unites with 
Kirkcaldy, Kinghorn, and Burntisland in 
sending a member to Parliament ; and has 
a post office, with all departments, desig- 
nated of Fifeshire, a railway station, a bank- 
ing office, a plain steepled town hall, Es- 
tablished, Free, and United Presbyterian 
churches, and 2 public schools with about 
748 scholars. Pop. of the parliamentary 
burgh,10,877. — The parish contains also the 
suburban towns of Gallatown,Pathhead,and 
Sinclairtown, and the village of Boreland. 
Its length is 4 miles ; its greatest breadth 3 
miles ; its area 4197 acres. Real property, 
inclusive of the burgh, in 1880-81, £41,393. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 11,601 ; quoad sacra, 
7657. The coast measures about 2J miles ; 
is bold and rocky ; and includes the Red 
Rocks, associated with old traditions of 
witch-burning, and presenting a romantic 
appearance. The interior rises gradually for 
about a mile, and is crossed in the northern 
part by Ore river. A chief residence is 
Dysart House, the seat of the Earl of 
Rosslyn ; and chief antiquities are ruins of 
Ravenscraig Castle, and a large stone, 
said to commemorate a battle in 9th 
century between the Scots and the Danes. 
An Established church is at Pathhead, and 
Free churches are at Pathhead and Galla- 
town. 8 schools for 1705 scholars are in the 
parish, and 1 of them and an enlargement for 
400 are new. The town or parish give3 the 
title of earl to the family of Tollemache. 

DYSART, section of Marytown, Forfar- 
shire. 



EACHAIG, small river, traversing glen 
of its own name, from Loch Eck to Holy 
Loch, in Cowal, Argyleshire. 

EAGERNESS, headland, with site of old 



EAG 



153 



EAR 



castle, on north-east side of Garlieston 
Bay, Wigtonshire. 

EAGLE. See Edzell. 

EAGLESCARNIE, seat in Bolton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

EAGLESFIELD, village in Middlebie 
parish, Dumfriesshire. It has a post 
office, with money order department, 
under Ecclefechan. Pop. 534. 

EAGLESHAM, town and parish in south- 
east of Renfrewshire. The town stands 
9 miles south of Glasgow ; possessed some 
importance in the time of Charles II. ; was 
entirely rebuilt, on a neat regular plan, 
subsequent to 1796 ; and has a post office 
under Glasgow, a banking office, a cotton 
factory, Established, Free, United Presby- 
terian, and Roman Catholic churches, and 
a public school with about 106 scholars. 
Pop. 888. — The parish i» about 7 mDes 
long and 6 miles broad, and comprises 
15,666 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£14,675. Pop. 1385. The surface lies at 
elevations of more than 500 feet above sea- 
level, has hills of from 1000 to 1200 feet of 
altitude, and includes a considerable aggre- 
gate of moor. Polnoon Lodge is a chief 
residence ; and Polnoon Castle, the seat 
of the ancestors of the Earl of Eglinton, 
but now reduced to mere sub-basement, 
is a chief antiquity. 

EAGLESHAY, or EGILSHAY, island in 
Rousay parish, Orkney. It lies about 10 
miles north of Kirkwall ; measures 3f 
miles in length and about 1 mile in 
breadth ; presents a pleasant lowland 
appearance ; was the scene of the murder 
of St. Magnus ; contains a small ancient 
Gothic church, said to be on the spot 
where he was murdered ; and has a public 
school. Pop. 165. 

EAGLESHAY, or EGILSHAY, pastoral 
island in east of St. Magnus Bay, Shet- 
land. 

EANAIG, affluent of the Oikell, on north 
border of Ross-shire. 

EARLCAIRNEY, large cairn on high sea- 
bank in Dalmeny parish, Linlithgow- 
shire. 

EARL'S BURN, stream, running south- 
south-eastward to the Carron, in west of 
St. Ninian's parish, Stirlingshire. 

EARL'S CROSS, ancient monument, com- 
memorative of victory over Norsemen in 
13th century, near Dornoch, Sutherland. 

EARLSFERRY, decayed old royal burgh, 
5 miles east-south-east of Largo, Fife. It 
has an ancient town-hall and a public 
school, the latter with about 88 scholars. 
Pop. 286. 

EARLSHALL, estate, with interesting 
ancient mansion, in Leuchars parish, 
Fife. 

EARL'S HILL, lofty hill adjacent to 
Earl's burn, in St. Ninian's parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

EARL'S HILL, eminence, anciently seat 
of earldom of Buchan courts, in Ellon, 
Aberdeenshire. 

EARL'S SEAT, central summit of Lennox 



Hills, 1894 feet high, 5 miles north-west of 
Lennoitown, Stirlingshire. 

EARLSTON, town and parish on south- 
west border of Berwickshire. The town 
stands on Leader river, 6 miles south- 
south-east of Lauder ; was an occasional 
residence of King David I., and then bore 
the name of Ercildoun ; passed to the 
Earls of Dunbar, and then took the name 
of Earlston ; possesses a fragment of the 
abode and death-place of Thomas the 
Rhymer ; consists chiefly of one long street 
at right angles with the Leader ; and has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Berwickshire, 
a railway station, a banking office, two 
good inns, a town hall founded in 1872, an 
Established church, a United Presbyterian 
church of 1881, another U.P. church, and 
a large new public school ; and carries on 
manufacture of woollens and famous 
ginghams. Pop. 1010. — The parish con- 
tains also the hamlets of Redpath and 
Fans. Its length is 7J miles ; its greatest 
breadth 4 miles ; its area 9968 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £14,432. Pop. 1767. 
The surface is partly hilly and partly 
comparatively flat. The chief hill rises to 
a height of 1031 feet, and has traces of a 
Roman camp. The principal residences 
are Carolside, Cowdenknowes, Park, Kirk- 
lands, and Mellerstain, the last a seat of 
the Earl of Haddington. 

EARLSTON, seat of Sir William Gordon, 
Bart., on west side of Kirkcudbright Bay, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

EARLSTON, ruined old castle, rivulet, 
and cascade on the Ken, in Dairy parish, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

EARLY VALE, place at mouth of burn, 
with fine waterfall, and adjacent to narrow 
rocky gorge, on upper part of Eddlestone 
river, Peeblesshire. 

EARN, lake and river, giving name to 
Strathearn district, Perthshire. The lake 
lies in head of the strath ; extends 7 miles 
eastward, with width of from 1 to 1| mile ; 
has a surface elevation of 303 feet above 
sea-level, and in some parts a depth of 
about 600 feet ; has wooded shores of 
various contour, and average breadth of 
about i mile ; is overhung by mountain 
summits from 1889 to 2225 feet high, 
mostly within If mile of its margin, and 
by still higher ones within 4£ miles ; and 
exhibits scenery of much beauty and 
grandeur, but without corresponding diver- 
sity or force. The river runs from the 
lake eastward to the Tay at 6 miles south- 
east of Perth ; has a length of only 27 
miles measured in straight line, but is so 
sinuous as to have a length of probably 
about 70 miles measured along its bed ; 
and is famous for the brilliance and variety 
of its scenery down to Crieff, and for 
exquisite beauty thence to the Tay. 

EARN, rivulet, running about 7 miles 
north-eastward to the White Cart, at 2 
miles north of Eaglesham, Renfrew- 
shire. 



EAR 



154 



EAS 



EARN (BRIDGE OF). See Bridge of 
Earn. 

EARNOCK, seat in Hamilton parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

EARNSIDE, ancient forest, now extinct, 
on south side of head of Firth of Tay, 
about 4 miles downward from mouth of 
river Earn, Perthshire and Fife. 

EASDALE, island and village, 12 miles 
south-west-by-south of Oban, Argyleshire. 
The island lies so near Seil as to be sepa- 
rated by only a good natural harbour ; has 
an area of only about 1 square mile, and 
lies *so low as to require protection from 
the billows by embankings of debris, but 
is all a quarry of prime roofing-slates ; 
produces about five millions of them a 
year ; and has, at one part, been worked 
down to 120 feet below sea-level. —The 
village, in one sense, stands all on the 
island, — in another sense, includes a vil- 
lage on Seil ; conducts much business in 
export of slates, and by regular calls of 
the steamers between the Clyde and the 
north ; and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Oban, and a public school with about 80 
scholars. Pop. of the part on Easdale 
Island 452 

EASNAMBROC, fall of about 30 feet on 
River Glass, about a mile above Fasnacoil, 
Inverness-shire. 

EASSIE, parish on west border of For- 
farshire. It has a railway station of its 
own name, 8 miles west-south-west of 
Forfar ; and its post town is Glammis, 1^ 
mile east of its eastern border. Its length 
is 4| miles ; its greatest breadth 2f miles ; 
its area 5053 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £8923. Pop. 561. The western 
section is part of Strathmore ; and the 
eastern one is part of the slopes of the 
Sidlaw Hills. Eassie burn comes in from 
Auchterhouse, and runs altogether 6 
miles windingly to the Dean ; and that 
river goes sluggishly along the northern 
boundary. The church is a handsome 
modern edifice ; and the public school 
includes a new class room, and has accom- 
modation for 126 scholars. 

EAST ABERDEEN, quoad sacra parish 
in Aberdeen. Pop. 4207. 

EAST BALRYMONTH, hill in St. An- 
drews parish, Fife. 

EASTBANK, seat in Erskine parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

EAST BARNS. See Barns (East). 

EAST CALDER. See Calder (East). 

EAST COALTOWN, village in Wemyss 
parish, Fife. 

EASTEND, seat in Carmichael parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

EASTER ANSTRUTHER. See An- 

STRUTHER. 

EASTER BRAKY, estate in Kinnell 
parish, Forfarshire. 

EASTER BUCKIE. See Bdckie. 

EASTER CLUNE, place, with ruined 
ancient fortalice and site of ancient 
chapel, in Birse parish, Aberdeenshire. 



EASTER DOWN, one of the Ochil Hills, 
green to the summit, in Fossaway parish, 
Perthshire. 

EASTER ELCHIES, seat, once occupied 
by the distinguished judge Lord Elchies, 
in Knockando parish, Elginshire. 

EASTERFIELD, place in Inverkeithny 
parish, Banffshire. It has a public school 
with about 60 scholars. 

EASTER GALLATON. See Gallaton. 

EASTER HALL, seat on the Clyde, in 
eastern outskirts of Glasgow. 

EASTER HOUSE, place, with railway 
station, 4 miles south-east of Glasgow. 

EASTER HOUSE, quondam seat of the 
Duke of Argyle's ancestors, in Roseneath 
parish, Dumbartonshire. 

EASTER LENZIE, parish, constituted in 
1649, and now called Cumbernauld, in 
Dumbartonshire. 

EASTER OGLE, seat in Tannadice 
parish, Forfarshire. 

EASTER ROSS. See Ross. 

EASTER ROSSLAND, hamlet in Erskine 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

EASTER SKENE, seat in Skene parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

EASTERTOWN, hill in Fyvie parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

EASTERTYRE, seat on the Tay, between 
Logierait and Weein, Perthshire. 

EASTFIELD, village near Rutherglen, 
Lanarkshire. An Established iron church 
was erected at it in 1879. Pop. 780. 

EAST FORTUNE, railway station, 3 
miles east of Drem, Haddingtonshire. 

EAST GRANGE, railway station, 6 miles 
west of Dunfermline. 

EAST HAVEN, fishing-village, with rail- 
way station, 5 miles south-west of Arbroath, 
Forfarshire. 

EAST HEAD, headland near Portsoy, 
Banffshire. 

EAST HELMSDALE, suburb of Helms- 
dale, 17 miles north-east of Golspie, 
Sutherland. It has a public school with 
about 164 scholars. Pop. 53. 

EASTHOUSES, village in Newbattle 
parish, Edinburghshire. Pop. 415. 

EAST KILBRIDE. See Kilbride 
(East). 

EAST KILPATRICK. See Kilpatrick 
(New). 

EAST LINTON. See Linton (East). 

EAST LOTHIAN. See Haddington- 
shire. 

EASTMAINS, scene of alleged ancient 
great battle in Dunnichen parish, Forfar- 
shire. 

EAST MONKLAND. See Monkland 
(New). 

EAST MORRISTON. See Marystown. 

EASTMUIR, village in Shettleston 
parish, Lanarkshire. It has a public 
school with about 227 scholars. 

EAST MUIRHOUSE, estate in Eaglesham 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

EAST NEUK O' FIFE, tract around Fife- 
ness, at eastern extremity of Fife. 

EAST NEWPORT, village, with railway 



EAS 



155 



ECK 



station between West Newport and Tay- 
port, on north coast of Fife. 

EAST OF FIFE RAILWAY, railway, con- 
tinuous with the Leven line, eastward from 
Leven to Anstruther, on south coast of 
Fife. 

EAST or NEW GREENOCK. See Green- 
ock. 

EAST PERTH. See Perth. 

EAST PORT, eastern part of Kirkcaldy, 
Fife. 

EAST SALTON, village in Salton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

EASTSIDE, or STEINSCHOLL, section of 
Kilmuir parish, Isle of Skye. 

EASTSIDEWOOD, tract, with mineral 
field, in Carnwath parish, Lanarkshire. 

EAST STRATHAVEN. See Strath- 

AVEN. 

EAST THIRD, section of Smailholm 
village, Roxburghshire. 

EAST WATER, upper reach of North 
Esk river, running about 22 miles east- 
south-east and south-south-eastward to 
confluence with West Water, at 4 miles 
north - north - east of Brechin, Forfar- 
shire. 

EAST WEMYSS, coast village, contain- 
ing Wemyss parochial church, and a post 
office under Dysart, 3 miles south-west 
of Leven, Fife. Pop. 895. 

EASTWOOD, parish, containing Pollock- 
shaws and Thornliebank towns and Shaw- 
lands village, on border of Renfrewshire, 
near south - west side of Glasgow. Its 
length is nearly 4 miles ; its greatest 
breadth 3f miles ; its area 5596 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £61,499. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 13,915 ; quoad sacra, 7368. 
The surface lies at an elevation of from 
about 30 to about 300 feet above sea-level ; 
is an assemblage of flats, vales, and many 
swells and small hills, with intersections of 
the White Cart and other streams ; and 
presents, in the aggregate, a very beautiful 
appearance. Sandstone, limestone, iron- 
stone, and coal are worked. Pollock 
House, a seat of Sir John M. Maxwell, 
Bart. , is a prominent mansion. Two Estab- 
lished churches, 2 Free churches, a United 
Presbyterian church, a United Original 
Secession church, and a Roman Catholic 
church are in Pollockshaws, an Established 
church is in Shawlands, and a United 
Presbyterian church is in Thornliebank. 
Nine schools for 2191 scholars are in the 
parish, and an enlargement for 448 is new. 

EASTWOOD, seat near Dunkeld, Perth- 
shire. 

EAST YELL, hamlet on Yell Island, 
Shetland. It has a post office under 
Lerwick. 

EATHACH, extensive tract, alternately 
lake and meadow, on Gauir river, on north- 
west border of Perthshire. 

EBRIE, small affluent of the Ythan, 
Aberdeenshire. 

EBUD.S. See Hebrides. 

ECCLEFECHAN, village, 6 miles south- 
east-by-south of Lockerby, Dumfriesshire. 



It stands on a large burn, bridged through- 
out the village in 1876 ; was the birthplace 
of Thomas Carlyle ; and has a head post 
office with all departments, a railway 
station, a banking office, an inn, a Free 
church, a United Presbyterian church, and 
a large public school. Pop. 768. 

ECCLES, village and parish on south 
border of Berwickshire. The village stands 
5 miles west-by-north of Coldstream, and 
has a post office under Coldstream, a 
parochial church, a Free church, a pub- 
lic school with about 112 scholars, and 
remains of an ancient nunnery. 'The 
parish contains also the villages of Leithohn 
and Birgham. Its length and greatest 
breadth are each about 5 J miles ; and its 
area is 12,418 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £27,356. Pop. 1546. The sur- 
face, with exception of some slight ridges, 
is all level, and very fertile. The seats 
are Eccles House, Anton's Hill, Kames, 
Belchester, Bughtrig, Mersington, Spring- 
hill, Stoneridge, and Purves Hall ; and the 
chief antiquity is a curious sculptured 
sandstone monument. A United Presby- 
terian church is at Leitholm, and 3 schools 
with accommodation for 318 scholars are 
in the parish. 

ECCLESIAMAGIRDLE, section of Dron 
parish, surrounded by Dunbarney, in 
Perthshire. 

ECCLESMACHAN, parish, with church 
hamlet, 2i miles west - south - west of 
Winchburgh, Linlithgowshire. Its jjost 
town is Linlithgow. It is intersected to 
the extent of about a mile by a wing of 
Linlithgow parish ; and it measures 5 
miles from end to end, If mile in extreme 
breadth, and 2647 acres in area. Real 
property in 1880-81, £3690. Pop. 278. 
Each of the two sections consists of a 
sloping hill-ridge. The public school has 
about 85 scholars. 

ECHOBANK, village, 2 miles south- 
south-east of centre of- Edinburgh. Pop. 
372. 

ECHT, parish, averagely 12 miles west of 
Aberdeen. It has a post office of its own 
name under Aberdeen. Its length and 
breadth are each about i\ miles, and its 
area is 11,948 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £7486. Pop. 1297. The broad- 
based lofty hill of Fare is partly on the 
south-western border ; and the conical, 
wooded, and pretty high hill of Barmekin 
is in the north-west corner. The rest of 
the surface also is hilly, but nowhere high, 
and is arable even to the summits of many 
of its hills. The chief residence is Dun- 
echt ; and the chief antiquities are a 
Danish camp, a large Pictish work, several 
cairns, and remains of three ancient Cale- 
donian stone circles. The churches are 
Established and Free ; and the public 
schools are 2, with about 124 scholars. 

ECK, lake, terminating 4 miles north of 
head of Holy Loch, in Cowal, Argyleshire. 
It extends 7 A miles from north to south; 
has a nearly uniform width of about \ mile; 



ECK 



156 



EDE 



and lies in a fine glen flanked by lofty- 
heights. 

ECKFORD, village and parish in north- 
east of Teviotdale, Eoxburghshire. The 
village stands on the Teviot, 6 miles south- 
by-west of Kelso ; suffered severely in the 
Border warfare ; and contains the parochial 
church with about 300 sittings, and a pub- 
lic school with about 64 scholars. — The 
parish contains also the small villages of 
Eckfordmoss, Cessford, and Caverton ; and 
its post town is Kelso. Its length is 6^ 
miles ; its greatest breadth 4J miles ; its 
area 9997 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£14,298, Pop. 912. The surface is 
mostly undulating, but rises gradually to- 
wards the south, and includes there con- 
siderable eminences with extensive views. 
The seats are Kirkbank and Mainhouse ; 
and the antiquities are Cessford Castle 
and sites of several peel towers. There 
are 2 schools with accommodation for 199 
scholars. 

ECKFORDMOSS, small village in Eck- 
ford parish, Eoxburghshire. 

EDAY, island and parish near middle of 
North Isles, Orkney. The island is 7J 
miles long from north to south, and from 
J mile to 3 miles broad ; consists chiefly of 
moderately high hills ; contains so much 
turbary as to supply most of Northern 
Orkney with peat fuel ; and has a post 
office under Kirkwall, a small inn, 2 good 
harbours, an Established church, a United 
Presbyterian church, a Baptist chapel of 
1882, and 2 public schools with jointly 
about 126 scholars. Pop. 730. The parish 
contains also the islets of Red Holm, 
Pharay Holm, Calf of Eday, and two 
others ; but is united to Stronsay. 

EDDERACHYLLIS, parish, containing 
the post office village of Scourie, on west 
coast of Sutherland. Its length is 28 
miles ; its greatest breadth, exclusive of 
islands, 17^ miles. Real property in 1880- 
81, £5075. Pop., quoad civilia, 1525; 
quoad sacra, 580. The islands are 
numerous, but only Handa is of any note. 
Kyle-Skou projects all its great length 
on the southern boundary ; Lochs Laxford 
and Inchard project so far into the interior 
as to cut it into three sections ; and Loch 
Badcall and some smaller sea-inlets form 
good natural harbours. The interior is 
the most rugged tract in Scotland ; exhibits 
crags, ravines, precipitous hills, wild glens, 
alpine peaks, winding lakes, and impetu- 
ous streams in bewildering commixture ; 
and, excepting a remarkably small aggre- 
gate of arable land, is all deer forest, 
sheep-walk, or irreclaimable waste. The 
antiquities are remains of an ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle, and two Scandinavian 
forts. The churches are 2 Established and 
2 Free. There are 3 schools for 194 
scholars, and 1 of them and an enlarge- 
ment for 82 are new. 

EDDERTOUN, parish, with church 5£ 
miles west - by - north of Tain, on north 
border of Ross. It has a post office desig- 



nated of Ross-shire, and a railway station. 
Its length is 10 miles ; its breadth 8. 
Real property in 1880-81, £4662. Pop. 789. 
The north border lies along Dornoch 
Firth, and has mostly a sandy shore. The 
interior consists of hill-ranges, with inter- 
vening hollows ; and has summits from 
about 600 to upwards of 1000 feet high, 
commanding extensive views. Two sculp- 
tured Scandinavian monuments stand near 
the old church, and numerous dilapidated 
Scandinavian dunes are on the hills. The 
churches are Established and Free ; and 
the schools are 2 with accommodation for 
150 scholars. 

EDDLESTONE, small river, village, and 
parish in Peeblesshire. The river runs 12 
miles southward to the Tweed at Peebles. 
The village stands on the river, 4 miles 
north of Peebles, dates from ancient times, 
but was reconstructed in last century, and 
has a post office designated of Peeblesshire, 
a railway station, a handsome church of 1829, 
and a public school with about 83 scholars. 
The parish is 10 miles long and 5J miles 
broad, and comprises 18,490 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £10,320. Pop. 711. 
The surface is chiefly a fine vale, flanked 
by verdant or wooded hills, and bordered 
by high uplands. The chief residences are 
Darn Hall, Portmore, and Cringletie, — the 
first a seat of Lord Elibank. 

EDDRACHILLIS. See Eddekachyllis. 

EDEN, river, running about 24 miles 
east-north-eastward to St. Andrews Bay, 
in Fife. Most of its basin is rich low 
valley ; and its terminal reach, about 2J 
miles long, is estuary, mostly bare at low 
water. 

EDEN, small river, running about 17 
miles, first southward then eastward, to 
the Tweed, at 3£ miles north-east of 
Kelso, Roxburghshire. 

EDEN, seat, and ruined ancient fortalice, 
in King Edward parish, Aberdeenshire. 

EDENDON, affluent of the Garry, near 
Dalnacardoch, in Athole, Perthshire. 

EDENHAM. See Ednam. 

EDENKILLIE, parish, with church 8f 
miles south of Forres, on west border of 
Elginshire. It contains the post office of 
Duniphail designated of Morayshire. Its 
length is 13 miles ; its greatest breadth 7 
miles. Real property in 1880-81, £5980. 
Pop. 1175. The surface lies along right 
bank of the Findhorn ; rises gradually from 
plain on the north to Knock of Moray in the 
extreme south ; is often, with reference to 
its gradual ascent, called Brae-Moray ; and 
contains a large aggregate of picturesque 
scenery. The seats are Duniphail, Relugas, 
Logie, and a shooting lodge of the Earl of 
Moray ; and the chief antiquities are the 
ruins of Duniphail and Lochindorb castles, 
and vestiges of a very ancient fort. The 
churches are Established and Free. There 
are 4 schools for 425 scholars, and 1 of 
them and an enlargement for 150 are 
new. 

EDENSHEAD, or GATESIDE, village, 



EDE 



157 



EUI 



with United Presbyterian church, in 
Strathmiglo parish, Fife. 

EDENSTON, village on south border of 
Collessie parish, Fife. 

EDENWOOD, seat in Ceres parish, Fife. 

EDERDOUN. See Eddebtoon. 

EDERHAM. See Edeom. 

EDERLEN, lake in Glassary parish, Ar- 
gyleshire. 

EDGEBUCKLIN, brae on east side of 
Inveresk parish, Edinburghshire. 

EDGERSTON, seat and quoad sacra 
parish 7^ miles south-south-east of Jed- 
burgh, Roxburghshire. The parish has 
a church with 200 sittings, and a public 
school with about 66 scholars. Pop. 358. 

EDINAMPLE, ancient castellated man- 
sion in mouth of Glenample, 1^ mile south- 
east of Lochearnhead, Perthshire. 

EDINBANE, village, with post office 
under Portree, hi Isle of Skye. Pop. 277. 

EDINBELLY, estate, with remains of 
old mansion, in Balfron parish, Stirling- 
shire. 

EDINBURGH, metropolis of Scotland. 
Its centre at General Post Office, reckoned 
as the ' crow flies,' is 2\ miles south-south- 
east of Granton harbour, 33 south-west of 
Fifeness, 6S north of head of Solway Firth, 
115 north-east of Mull of Galloway, 129 
south-east of Ardnamurchan Point, 190 
south of John o' Groat's House, and 337 
north -north-west of London. Its initial 
spot is the Castle Rock, about 5 furlongs 
west-south-west of General Post Office. 
That rock has an altitude of 445 feet 
above sea-level, measures about 700 yards 
in circumference, is an erupted rugged 
mass of greenstone, and presents to the 
north, the west, and the south a bare 
face mostly precipitous and partly mural. 
A wedge-shaped hill, wanting the upper 
edges and averagely about J mile broad, 
commences in the rock, extends about a 
mile eastward, makes a gradual descent 
from end to end, and is flanked on north 
side by a vale, on south side by a ravine. 
A belt of plain strikes eastward from the 
hill's foot, and is grandly overhung on 
south side by Salisbury Crag and Arthur's 
Seat. A diversified plateau, with very 
gentle southern slope, lies beyond the 
ravine on south side of wedge-shaped 
hill, has elevations of from 150 to 180 
feet above sea-level, and is overlooked in 
the south-west by Blackford and Braid 
Hills. A similar plateau, but more in 
the form of a broad-based ridge, lies 
beyond the vale, on north side of wedge- 
shaped hill, extends westward to winding 
ravine of Water of Leith, measures about 
a mile in length and £ mile in breadth, and 
terminates at its east end in a considerable 
eminence. Calton Hill commences im- 
mediately east of that eminence, is two- 
thirds engirt by narrow ravine, measures 
about 5 furlongs by 3, rises to a height of 
344 feet above sea-level, and subsides on 
the east into wide inclined plane extend- 
ing to the Forth. The entire site of the 



city and its immediate environs presents 
such an assemblage of heights, hollows, 
acclivities, and ravines, with manifold 
diversity of feature, as must have made it 
richly picturesque in its merely natural 
condition, and as now gives striking effect 
to the romantic, beautiful, and diversified 
arrays of the city's architecture. Views 
of the exterior, from thousands of points, 
near and far, all round, are exquisitely 
fine ; and views in the interior, especially 
from the Castle and Calton Hill, and 
even from innumerable points on the 
streets, include very grand urban display, 
.and combine it with riant rural scenery 
away to distant sea and mountain. 

The ancient Caledonians could scarcely 
fail to regard the Castle Rock as a strong 
defensive position, and they are supposed 
to have erected on it a series of rude forts. 
Edwin, king of Saxon Northumbria, in 
626, either seized the last of these or 
otherwise took possession of the site, and 
erected on it a strong castle. This he 
called Edwinsburg ; and it gave origin or 
name to the town, and for a long time 
ruled its fortunes. The town continued 
to be Saxon till about 1020, and then 
passed to the king of Scotland. Malcolm 
Canmore fortified it, David I. constituted 
it a royal burgh, and both they and a 
number of their successors made it their 
occasional residence. Both town and 
castle, especially the latter, suffered great 
mutations during the wars of the Succes- 
sion ; but they soon afterwards attained 
such prosperity as to be the largest town 
and the strongest fortress then in Scotland; 
and, notwithstanding some reverses, they 
continued, tdl the national union with 
England, to be the seat of royal admini- 
stration and the meeting-place of parlia- 
ments. Chief events which disturbed it, 
in the interval till the Union, were a 
devastation by the English in 1385, the 
recoil after the battle of Flodden, the 
contention of parties during the minority 
of James v., and the turmoil and civil 
war in the time of Queen Mary ; and the 
chief events afterwards were depression of 
trade consequent on the Union, the tumult 
called the Porteous Mob in 1736, the pre- 
sence of the rebel army in 1745, the visit 
of George IV. in 1822, and visits of Queen 
Victoria in 1842 and subsequent years. 

The nucleus of the town was a small 
village, on ground now within the espla- 
nade in front of east side of the present 
castle, on a level, ascertained in 1850 to 
be more than 20 feet below the present 
surface. The village grew sufficiently to 
be of some note about the middle of 9th 
century ; and it possessed then, or earlier, 
some defensive fortifications. The town 
extended slowly thence, down the back 
and sides of the wedge-shaped hill, about 
2>\ furlongs to Netherbow ; it afterwards, 
from about middle of 12th century till 
about middle of 16th, acquired the suburbs- 
of Canongate, Pleasance, Cowgate, Potter- 



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row, Bristo, and "Westport; it was forti- 
fied in 1450 by a wall round its main 
body, and in 1513 by a second wall round 
its southern suburbs ; it grew, within the 
first wall, by ascent into the air, or by 
substitution of loftier and still loftier 
houses for less lofty ones, till it became 
a proverb for tenements of from four or 
five to ten or twelve storeys high ; and, in 
the latter part of last century, it suddenly 
broke beyond its old limits, and began 
to undergo extensions and improvements 
which have marvellously altered it in both 
size and character. Operations were done, 
including erection of the North Bridge, 
to create a new town on the northern 
plateau ; measures were adopted to con- 
struct genteel new quarters, in the south ; 
and great clearances were made to form a 
main thoroughfare across the middle of 
the wedge-shapedhilland over the southern 
ravine, in line with the North Bridge. 
The New Town progressed, from time to 
time, till it became as large as all 
the Old Town and suburbs ; the Calton 
Hill began, in 1814, to be approached and 
terraced by elegant new thoroughfares ; 
the upper part of the southern ravine, in 
1825 and following years, was crossed by 
the new wide street of George rv. Bridge ; 
the south limb of the Castle Bock, in the 
same years, was terraced with a spacious 
approach from the western low outskirts 
to the site of the original Old Town ; and 
eventually, after about 30 years of pause, 
spirited plans were adopted, and soon 
carried into execution, for great extensions 
in the western and the southern outskirts, 
and for cutting new airy thoroughfares 
through the densest parts of the old 
town. 

The entire city now, exclusive of salient 
suburbs, measures about 2 miles from east 
to west, and about 2£ from north to south. 
A main street, of different names and 
different parts, occupies all the back of 
the wedge-shaped hill, from the Castle 
esplanade to foot of Canongate ; presents 
picturesque blendings of old and new 
architecture ; and is winged partly with 
the new, airy, cross thoroughfares, but 
mostly with densely-edificed narrow closes, 
extending down the hill's slopes. Another 
main street, commencing at North Bridge, 
and bearing different names in different 
parts, goes southward through all the Old 
Town to the open country in the south- 
east. A curious line of street, with the 
squalid but once aristocratic Cowgate in 
its middle, occupies all the southern ravine. 
The most notable of the new ventilating 
streets, Chambers Street, spacious and 
imposing, but short, runs parallel to the 
western half of Cowgate, and occasioned 
the removal of much nuisance from the 
old southern suburb. The section im- 
mediately south of that is variously old 
and modern, has undergone great improve- 
ment, and is bordered on the south by the 
IWndows, a fine public park f mile long. 



The sections farther south, south-east, 
and south-west are nearly all modern, 
extend to great length and breadth, in- 
clude the suburbs of Newington, Grange, 
Morningside, Merchiston, and two others 
progressing or contemplated in 1877, 
and abound in beauties and ameni- 
ties. The northern vale was formerly 
occupied by a lake called North Loch ; was 
crossed, near the middle, at the forming 
of the New Town, by a slowly-accumulated, 
broad, high, earthen mound, now serving 
the purposes of abridge ; and is now partly 
occupied by the North British Railway 
works, but mainly disposed in two large 
ornate public gardens. The New Town, 
though all compact, and covering the 
whole of the northern plateau, consists, as 
to date and form, of four sections. The 
southern section was erected in 1767-1800, 
extends westward from vicinity of North 
Bridge, is a regular parallelogram of about 
1300 by about 363 yards, and comprises 
Princes Street and Queen Street along its 
sides, George Street along its centre, two 
large squares at its ends, and five streets at 
right angles with Princes Street and Queen 
Street. The northern section was erected 
in 1803-22, is separated from the southern 
section by a fine large range of gardens, 
forms a parallelogram shorter and broader 
than the other parallelogram, and has 
curves in two of its streets and in the 
squares at its ends. The eastern section 
was erected partly at the same time as the 
southern one, but chiefly in years till 1827, 
extends to the eastern extremity of Calton 
Hill, and has great diversity in both the 
alignment and the structure of its 
thoroughfares. The western section was 
erected chiefly in three periods, from about 
1822, 1850, and 1866, extends to the west 
at the Water of Leith ravine, and com- 
prises a rectangle of streets, a spacious 
twelve-sided place, four double crescents, 
and a number of terraces, single crescents, 
and connecting streets. Stockbridge and 
Dean suburbs, on opposite side of Water 
of Leith, have much variety of at once 
date, site, and form, but include portions 
of similar character to that of the western 
section. 

The building material of most of the 
city is a hard, silicious, fine-grained sand- 
stone ; serves nearly as well as marble for 
carving and sculpture ; retains for a long 
time its freshness of aspect, and has, in 
consequence, given powerful effect to both 
beauty and durability of construction. The 
architecture of the older parts of the Old 
Town exhibits many styles, often in curious 
juxtaposition ; includes many specimens 
of the Scottish varieties prevalent in the 
16th, 17th, and 18th centuries ; and has 
numerous groups which, either in them- 
selves, or by contiguity with others, or by 
position on precipice or vantage-ground, 
are strikingly romantic or picturesque. 
The architecture of the new parts and 
the new suburbs of the Old Town, and of 



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the entire New Town, comprises much — 
perhaps far too much — in the simple Italian 
style, yet includes a great aggregate of all 
the varieties of the Renaissance, — includes 
also many specimens of all kinds of Gothic 
and a few of Saxon and Norman; and it is 
plainest in the parts erected before the 
close of last century, and became progres- 
sively richer in both variety and elegance 
in the progress of the city's extension. 

Holyrood challenges prime attention, but 
will be separately noticed. — The Castle, 
except for about 100 yards on the east, 
crowns the verge of the entire circuit of 
its lofty precipitous rock ; presents to the 
space on the east a palisaded barrier, 
with deep dry fosse ; comprises buildings 
of widely different periods and remarkably 
different structure ; possesses a great fund 
of historical and antiquarian associations ; 
lost much or nearly all its military value 
in result of the inventions of modern 
artillery ; and continues to be useful 
chiefly for the purpose of a large garrison ; 
but, together with the cliffs, fissures, and 
saliences of the rock which it surmounts, 
is such a picturesque acropolis as very few 
places in the world can boast. The access 
to it goes through the barrier, across a 
drawbridge, through a gateway flanked by 
batteries, up a causeway between rock 
and wall, and through a long vaulted 
archway with traces of ancient portcullises 
and gates. The further ascent passes a 
northward battery, a spacious armoury, a 
high bastion, the governor's house, and a 
westward lofty factory-like suite of bar- 
racks, and turns upward to the left, 
through a gateway, into the citadel. This 
contains the King's Bastion, with Mons 
Meg and a most magnificent view-point on 
the north-west ; St. Margaret's chapel, 
the oldest extant building in Edinburgh, 
on the north-east ; and the Half-Moon 
battery, with 14 guns and electric time- 
gun, on the east ; and is occupied by the 
Palace Yard on the south. That yard is a 
square of 100 feet each way, edificed on 
all sides ; and includes a large embellished 
barrack, the old parliament hall, the old 
royal palace with James VI. 's birth- 
chamber, and the Crown-room with the 
ancient regalia of Scotland. The espla- 
nade in front of the castle measures about 
120 by 100, was formerly engirt by strong 
military outworks, serves now as garrison 
parade-ground and public promenade, con- 
tains monuments of the Duke of York and 
of soldiers who fell in the Indian Mutiny, 
and commands extensive views of the city 
and environs. 

The Government offices and Court of 
Session halls, in Parliament Square, have 
a uniform facade of 1S0S, with arcade 
piazza, gallery, Doric portico, balustrade, 
and surmounting sphinxes. Parliament 
House, behind that facade, was erected in 
1632-40, at a cost of £11,600; was the 
meeting-place of the Scottish parliaments 
from 1639 till 1707 : and retains its great 



hall, measuring 122 feet by 49, and con- 
taining statues of seven distinguished law 
lords. The County Hall, near Parliament 
Square, was erected in 1817 at a cost of 
£15,000. The Sheriff Court Buildings, on 
George IV. Bridge, were erected in 1865-68 
at a cost of more than £44,000. The 
Municipal Buildings, misnamed the Royal 
Exchange, on north side of High Street, 
were erected in 1753-61 at a cost of 
£31,457 ; form a quadrangle with open 
court 96 feet by 86 ; and have a rear front 
100 feet high. The Police Office, opposite 
the Municipal Buildings, was erected in 
1849 and enlarged in 1875. The Register 
House, at east end of Princes Street, was 
founded in 1774 and completed in 1822 at 
a cost of £80,000, and is a rectangular 
structure of 200 feet by 120, with dome 
over central circular saloon court. Two 
supplemental buildings behind the Register 
House serve for respectively registration 
of births, deaths, and marriages, and con- 
servation of important documents ; and 
the former was erected in 1857-60 at a 
cost of nearly £27,000 ; the latter, a cir- 
cular structure 60 feet high, in 1871. The 
General Post Office, opposite the Register 
House, presents a front of 140 feet to 
Princes Street, and a flank of 180 feet to 
North Bridge, and was erected in 1861-66 
at a cost of about £120,000. The Prisons, 
eastward from the head of Waterloo Place, 
occupy a shoulder of Calton Hill on crown 
of a lofty cliff ; comprise three groups, the 
western erected in 1815-17, the middle in 
1791-96, the eastern in 1845-47; are all 
in castellated style, with imposing appear- 
ance ; and were designed in 1881 to be 
extensively reconstructed. 

The North Bridge, connecting High 
Street with east end of Princes Street, 
was erected in 1767-72 at a cost of about 
£18,000 ; has open arches in a central 
reach of 310 feet, but measures 1125 feet 
in total length ; stands 68 feet high at the 
open arches ; and was widened and other- 
wise improved after 1873. Waverley 
Bridge, spanning the vale at 270 yards 
farther west, has connection with the 
North British Railway terminus, was en- 
tirely reconstructed in 1870-73, and com- 
prises three spacious iron skew reaches of 
310, 293, and 276 feet. The Mound, cross- 
ing the vale at about 300 yards west of 
Waverley Bridge, was formed in years 
from 1781 till 1830, by free deposits of 
earth ; would have cost about £50,000 had 
the deposits been paid for ; is fully 800 
feet long, about 300 feet broad, and from 
62 to 100 feet high ; and underwent im- 
provement and ornamentation subsequent 
to the erection on it of the Art Galleries. 
Regent Bridge, forming part of Waterloo 
Place, spans the ravine at west base of 
Calton Hill ; has a single arch 50 feet 
wide and about 50 feet high, with colon- 
naded parapets ; and affords, from its 
southern parapet, a curious view of much 
of the Old Town. The South Bridge, 



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crossing the southern ravine on line with 
North Bridge, was erected in 1785-88 at 
a cost of more than £50,000 for clearances 
andahout£15,000for construction ; has only 
one open arch, but comprises 19 beneath 
street architecture ; and overlooks, from 
its parapet railings, the low squalid street- 
line of Cowgate. George rv. Bridge, 
crossing the same ravine about 3 furlongs 
to the west, was erected in 1825-36 as 
part of a city improvement, which cost 
about £400,000 ; includes three groined open 
arches over the Cowgate, seven concealed 
arches, and a series of embankments ; and 
forms a spacious street about 300 yards 
long. Dean Bridge, crossing the "Water of 
Leith ravine at about 3 furlongs from west 
end of Princes Street, was erected in 1832 ; 
is 447 feet long, 39 wide, and 106 high ; 
has four arches, each 96 feet in span ; and. 
commands a rich view along the ravine 
and away to Fife. 

The Bank of Scotland, on northward 
slope in line with George rv. Bridge, was 
erected in 1806 at a cost of £75,000, and 
enlarged and beautified in 1868-70 ; forms 
a conspicuous feature in the romantic 
north flank of the Old Town, as seen from 
Princes Street ; and has a rear front, arch- 
based, broad, and very lofty, with sur- 
mounting dome crowned by an emblematic 
statue. The Royal Bank, on east side of 
St. Andrew's Square, opposite the line of 
George Street, was originally the town 
mansion of Sir Lawrence Dundas, ancestor 
of the Earl of Zetland ; and stands at the 
head of an enclosed recess, containing an 
equestrian monument of the martial Earl 
of Hopetoun. The British Linen Com- 
pany's Bank, immediately south of that 
recess, was mainly built in 1851-52 at a 
cost of £30,000 ; and has a front with six 
fluted Corinthian columns, surmounted by 
emblematic statues. The National Bank, 
between the British Linen Company's and 
West Register Street, is plain, and was 
enlarged rearward in 1868. The Com- 
mercial Bank, in the section of George 
Street adjacent to St. Andrew's Square, 
was erected in 1847, and has a rich hexa- 
style Corinthian portico with beautiful 
group of tympanum sculpture, represented 
on the bank's notes. The Clydesdale 
Bank, at corner of George Street and 
Hanover Street, was erected in 1842 for 
the Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank, now 
extinct, and is in ornate Italian style. 
The Union Bank, in George Street to the 
east of Frederick Street, was erected 
in 1874-78, and has a rich Italian frontage 
of more than 100 feet. The Merchant 
Hall, in South Hanover Street, was built 
in 1867 for the City of Glasgow Bank, has 
a florid Italian front, and became the 
Merchant Hall in 1879. The Corn Ex- 
change, in Grassmarket, was erected in 
1849 at a cost of nearly £20,000, includes 
an arcade 152 feet long, and is occasionally 
used for public demonstrations. The 
Green Market, at corner of Princes Street 



and Waverley Bridge, was formed in 1869, 
greatly improved prior to 1877, and further 
improved at later date ; stands on a lofty 
arched basement so strong that a City Hall 
to cost about £250,000 was at one time 
proposed to be erected on it ; has a terraced 
garden roof, well-lights, and gallery ; and 
includes a spacious area, often used for 
public demonstrations, promenade concerts, 
and great shows. 

The North British Railway terminus, 
behind the Green Market and eastward 
under North Bridge, was extensively re- 
constructed and enlarged in 1869-73 ; has 
spacious platforms, north and south, 920 
and 975 feet long, with lofty glazed ridge- 
and-valley roofs ; possesses a booking hall 
97 feet long and 40 feet wide, together 
with waiting rooms, dining room, and 
buffet ; and serves for the entire North 
British system to all points of the compass. 
The Caledonian Railway station, adjacent 
to the west end of Princes Street, was 
erected in 1869 as merely a temporary 
structure ; stands on part of an extensive 
site, purchased and cleared at enormous 
cost ; and is to be superseded by a splendid 
durable structure, with adjoining great 
hotel. A South-side Suburban Railway 
was authorized on behalf of the North 
British Company in 1865, but failed to be 
formed chiefly for financial reasons ; was 
re-projected by an independent company 
near the end of 1879, to be formed on a 
share capital of £225,000 ; and is to be 
about 6J miles long, and to curve round 
from Haymarket station into junction with 
the main line near Portobello. The street 
tramway system was commenced in 1871 ; 
includes a circular route of about 5 miles 
from General Post Office by way of North 
Bridge, Newington, Grange, Morningside, 
Lothian Road, and Princes Street back to 
the starting-point ; has lines to Coltbridge, 
Leith, Newhaven, and Portobello ; and 
was proposed in 1881 to have further ex- 
tension. 

The Prince Consort's Monument, in 
centre of Charlotte Square, was produced 
slowly at a cost of about £l6,500, and in- 
augurated in 1876 by the Queen ; is a 
quasi - pyramidal structure about 32 feet 
high ; has four groups of statues on blocks 
at the corners of the basement, and em- 
blematic bas - reliefs in panels of the 
pedestal ; and is surmounted by a colossal 
equestrian statue of the Prince. The first 
Lord Melville's Monument, in centre of 
St. Andrew's Square, was erected in 1821 
at a cost of £8000, and consists of pede- 
stal, pillar, and statue, altogether 150 
feet high. The second Lord Melville's 
Monument, in centre of Melville Street, 
consists of only pedestal and statue. 
George iv.'s, Pitt's, and Chalmers' 
Monuments, at crossings in George Street, 
and Simpson's, Ramsay's, Wilson's, Black's, 
and Livingstone's Monuments, in Princes 
Street, are all pedestalled statues, most of 
them quite recently erected. Sir Walter 



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Scott's Monument, on the esplanade of East 
Princes Street Gardens, was erected in 
1840-44, at a cost of £15,650 ; is a crucial 
Gothic spire, rising from basement-arches 
to a height of 200 feet ; is adorned with 
much sculpture, and with numerous 
statuettes ; and contains a marble sitting 
statue of Sir Walter, obtained at a 
separate cost of £2000. _ The Duke of 
"Wellington's Monument, in front of the 
Register House, was erected in 1852 at a 
cost of £10,000, and consists of a syenite 
pedestal and an equestrian statue re- 
spectively 13 and 14 feet high. Nelson's 
Monument, crowning a cliff on south 
shoulder of Calton Hill, was erected in 
1815 ; comprises an octagonal house- 
basement and a circular five-storeyed tower ; 
has a total height of 102 feet ; and is sur- 
mounted by a time - ball. The National 
Monument, in north-eastern vicinity of 
Nelson's, was founded in 1822, and 
designed to be similar to the Parthenon at 
Athens, at a cost of £50,000 ; but was 
erected to only a small extent, at a cost of 
about £16,000, and presents the appear- 
ance of a picturesque ruin. Playfair's and 
Dugald Stewart's Monuments, also on 
Calton Hill, are respectively a solid Doric 
square and a canopied Corinthian cyclo- 
style. Burns' Monument, on brink of 
Regent Road Terrace, overlooking Canon- 
gate, was erected in 1830 ; comprises a 
twelve-columned Corinthian cyclostyle, 
with ornate cupola ; and contains a bust 
and many interesting relics of Burns. 

The University, with front to South 
Bridge and flanks to Chambers and South 
College Streets, was erected in successive 
portions from 1789 till 1834 ; forms a court- 
enclosed parallelogram, 358 feet long and 
255 feet broad ; has exterior elevations in 
Grseco-Italian style, and interior ones in 
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Venetian 
styles ; is pierced in its front with three 
lofty arches, and adorned there with six 
lofty Doric monoliths ; contains a rich 
library hall of 198 feet by 50 ; and has 39 
professorships, and usually above 2000 
students. The New University Buildings, 
a brief distance south-west of the Univer- 
sity, were founded in 1878, and estimated 
to cost about £174,000; are in a style 
intermediate between the Gothic and the 
Palladian ; and comprise a common hall 
and medical class-rooms. The Museum of 
Science and Art, in Chambers Street, west- 
ward from the University, was founded in 
1861, and partly inaugurated in 1866 ; ad- 
vanced by successive stages in subsequent 
years ; is in the Venetian Renaissance style, 
on a plan to measure more than 400 feet 
in length, 200 feet in width, and 90 feet in 
average height ; and contains, in great 
apartments, vast collections of everything 
instructive or curious in all departments 
of invention and research. The School of 
Arts, on opposite side of Chambers Street, 
was erected in 1872-73, and contains a 
spacious lecture-hall and large class-rooms. 



The Phrenological Museum, adjoining the 
School of Arts, was erected in 1876 at a 
cost of nearly £5000. The Surgeons' Hall, 
on east side of Nicolson Street, was erected 
in 1833 at a cost of £20,000 ; has an ele- 
gant Ionic portico ; and contains a rich 
anatomical and pathological museum. The 
Physicians' Hall, in Queen Street, was 
erected in 1845, and has an Attic Corinth- 
ian tetrastyle surmounted by three statues. 
The Free Church College, at head of the 
Mound, was erected in 1846-50 at a cost 
of more than £30,000 ; is in the English 
collegiate style ; and forms a court-enclosed 
quadrangle 177 feet long and 165 broad. 
The United Presbyterian College, on 
Castle Terrace, was originally the Edin- 
burgh Theatre, erected in 1875 ; is in 
geometric quasi-Italian style ; was pur- 
chased by the United Presbyterians in 
1877 for £26,700, and altered at a further 
cost of about £20,000 ; serves also for 
synod meetings and general church busi- 
ness ; and was opened in 1880. 

The High School, on a terraced face of 
Calton Hill, overlooking Canongate, was 
erected in 1825-27 at a cost of more than 
£30,000 ; stands behind a curved curtain- 
wall 490 feet long ; includes a main build- 
ing of centre and wings 270 feet long ; and 
exhibits there striking features of Doric 
portico and colonnaded corridors. The 
Edinburgh Academy, in Henderson Row, 
was erected in 1824 at a cost of £12,264, 
and is a low, spacious Doric edifice. The 
Ladies' College, near west end of Queen 
Street, superseded the Merchant Maiden 
Hospital in Lauriston ; was constructed in 
1871 by purchase, alteration, and exten- 
sion of previous buildings ; and provides a 
low-priced high-class education for up- 
wards of 1200 pupils. George "Watson's 
College for boys, on south side of Lauriston, 
includes the quondam Merchant Maiden 
Hospital, erected in 1816 at a cost of 
£12,250 ; includes also a large extension 
with ornamental front, erected in 1872-73 ; 
and provides a low-priced wide-ranged 
education for about 1100 pupils. George 
"Watson's College for girls, in George 
Square, was much enlarged in 1876, has 
a neat Italian front, and gives a similar 
education to that in the Ladies' College. 
Gillespie's School, at west end of Brunts- 
field Links, was originally a great alms- 
house, erected in 1801 ; is an oblong cas- 
tellated Gothic structure ; and was con- 
verted in 1870 into a primary school for 
boys and girls. Stewart's College, about 
350 yards west of Dean Bridge, was erected 
in 1849-53 at a cost of about £30,000 ; is 
a spacious edifice in mixed style of old 
Scottish and late domestic Gothic ; served 
till 1871 for maintaining and educating a 
restricted number of poor children ; and 
was then converted into a public school of 
similar character to Watson's College for 
boys. 

The Church of Scotland Normal School, 
in Johnstone Terrace, was erected in 1854 



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at a cost of about £10,000, and was 
designed in 1879 to be altered and 
enlarged. The Church of Scotland Train- 
ing College, on north side of Chambers 
Street, was erected in 1879 ; has a stair- 
case exactly over the spot where Sir 
"Walter Scott was born ; and affords all 
appliances for the instruction of advanced 
male students. The Free Church Train- 
ing College, in Canongate, includes Moray 
House, the interesting old town mansion 
of the Earls of Moray ; and has, behind 
that, an edifice erected in 1877 at a cost 
of about £5400. The Episcopalian Train- 
ing College, in Dairy suburb, includes 
Dairy House, purchased, rearranged, and 
enlarged in 1877 ; and has, behind that, a 
new three-storey brick building. Leith 
Walk Public School, a little east of middle 
of Leith Walk, was erected in 1875-76 at 
a cost of about £9000 ; is in the decorated 
collegiate style; and has accommodation 
for 845 scholars. Canonmills Public School, 
a little north-west of Bellevue Crescent,was 
erected in 1879-80 at a cost of less than 
£7000 ; is in plain quasi-Gothic style ; and 
has accommodation for about 800 scholars. 
Fountainbridge, Canongate, and Dairy 
Public Schools are of similar date and 
capacity. The Heriot Juvenile Schools, 
in eleven different localities, are all modern 
and spacious, and mostly either neat or 
ornamental. Several denominational 

schools also are of similar character. 

Fettes College, on a gentle rising ground 
near Comely Bank suburb, was erected in 
1865-70 at a cost of about £150,000; in- 
cludescollege-proper,threeboarding-houses, 
and other buildings ; is in ornate variety 
of the collegiate pointed style ; makes an 
imposing figure in an extensive landscape ; 
and serves partly for maintaining and edu- 
cating a restricted number of orphan boys, 
but more largely for educating non-founda- 
tioners on the system of the great public 
schools of England. Heriot's Hospital, 
between Lauriston and Grassmarket, was 
erected in 1628-50 at a cost of about 
£30,000 ; underwent renovation and im- 
provement in 1833 and other years ; forms 
a quadrangle of 162 feet on each side, en- 
closing a court of 94 feet each way ; is in 
unique style, allied to the Gothic and the 
Tudor ; maintains and educates 120 resident 
boys and 96 non-resident ; promotes the 
after-welfare of the boys, and supports 
the Heriot juvenile schools ; and had, in 
1879, an income of £24,006. Donaldson's 
Hospital, about 600 yards west of Hay- 
market, was erected in 1842-51 at a cost 
of about £100,000, from a bequest of 
about £200,000 ; forms a quadrangle of 
258 by 207 feet, enclosing a court of 176 
by 164 feet ; is in modified variety of 
the Tudor style, with profusion of towers ; 
figures conspicuously in views of many 
miles to the west and the south ; and 
maintains and educates between 200 
and 300 poor boys and girls. John Wat- 
eon's Hospital, in Dean suburb, was 



erected in 1825-28 ; is a large edifice with 
Doric portico ; and maintains and educates 
about 100 fatherless children of profes- 
sional men. The Orphan Hospital, also 
in Dean suburb, was erected in 1833 at a 
cost of nearly £16,000; comprises large 
centre, projecting wings, Tuscan portico, 
and two arch-cut towers ; and maintains 
and educates about 120 boys and 
girls. 

The Eoyal Institution, on north end of 
the Mound, was erected in 1823-36 at a 
cost of £40,000 ; is an oblong edifice in 
pure Doric style, with massive porticoes 
on the ends and uniform columniation 
along the sides ; has a colossal sitting- 
statue of Queen Victoria behind the apex 
of its north pediment, and large sphinxes 
on its four angles ; makes an imposing 
figure in the scenery of Princes Street ; 
and contains the School of Design, a 
Sculpture Gallery, the Antiquarian 
Museum, and the chambers of the Royal 
Society and of the Board of Trustees for 
Manufactures in Scotland. The Art 
Galleries, on the Mound immediately be- 
hind the Royal Institution, were erected 
in 1850-58 at a cost of nearly £40,000 ; 
are a cruciform edifice, with broad, high 
transept in the middle ; have Ionic porti- 
coes on their north and south ends and on 
each face of the transept ; comprise two 
ranges of octagonal apartments, for re- 
spectively the National Gallery of Art 
and the Royal Scottish Academy, all 
lighted by cupolas ; and are notable both 
for a rich, permanent collection of works 
of art accessible to the public, and for an 
annual exhibition of the works of living 
artists from February till May. The 
Albert Institute, in Shandwick Place, 
was projected in 1876, to stand on ground 
purchased for £25,000, to contain a pic- 
ture gallery and artists' studios, and to 
form a ' fine art centre where pictures 
may be exhibited all the year round.' 

The Botanic Garden, on west side of 
Inverleith Row, was formed in 1822-24, 
in lieu of a previous garden on east side 
of Leith Walk, and with safe removal 
thence of all plants ; underwent enlarge- 
ment about 1866, by inclusion of the con- 
tiguous Experimental Gardens formed in 
1824 ; has now an area of 27J acres ; was 
designed in 1880 to acquire new class- 
rooms with seats for 600 students ; and 
contains a museum, a magnetic observa- 
tory, extensive hot-houses, a magnificent 
palm-house, a Linnasan arrangement, a 
Jussieuan arrangement, a large arboretum, 
extensive terraced rockeries, an aquarium, 
a rosary, and splendid parterres. The 
Public Arboretum, contiguous to all the 
Botanic Garden's west side, lies around 
Inverleith House, and comprises about 30 
acres ; originated in an agreement in 1877 
that £18,408 should be paid for it by 
the City Corporation, and about £16,000 
by Government ; and began to be laid 
out and planted near the end of 1879. 



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East Princes Street Gardens, extending 
from Waverley Bridge to the Mound, 
were laid out in 1830, and re-formed in 
1849-50 ; have, on the level of Princes 
Street, an esplanade ahout 100 feet broad ; 
descend thence, in graduated banks, to a 
deep central belt traversed by the North 
British Railway ; and comprise a remark- 
able aggregate of promenade walks and 
floral ornamentation. West Princes Street 
Gardens, extending westward from the 
Mound, were formed in 1816-20, partly 
over fetid, marshy bed of the North Loch ; 
belonged to the public, became private 
property, and were recovered for the 
public in 1876 ; underwent much improve- 
ment in subsequent years ; and, except 
for including a verdant ascent to the 
Castle ramparts, present a general re- 
semblance to the East Princes Street 
Gardens. The Meadows, in south part 
of the Old Town, measure about 6 fur- 
longs by 1J ; were anciently covered with 
a shallow lake ; and are now a well- 
drained and considerably embellished public 
park. Queen Street Gardens, on north 
border of north New Town, measure about 
4 furlongs by half, serve as air-lungs, 
and present much beauty, but are private 
property. Dean Bridge Gardens, on north 
bank of "Water of Leith, below Dean 
Bridge, were formed in 1877-80 on ground 
purchased for about £5000, and make a 
fine display of ornate walks and terraced 
plots. The Winter Garden, near Hay- 
market, was formed in 1870-71 ; has a 
front 130 feet long, with spacious main 
entrance surmounted by a dome ; and is 
private property, but accessible to the 
public. 

The New Observatory, on crown of 
Calton Hill, was erected in 1818 ; has the 
form of a Greek cross, with a Doric por- 
tico on each of its four fronts ; and. is 
surmounted by a moveable dome 13 feet in 
diameter. The Old Observatory, adjacent 
to the new, was erected in 1776, and is a 
plain structure, now used as an anemo- 
meter. Short's Observatory, on Castle 
Hill, was erected about 1850 ; contains 
abundant appliances for popular scientific 
observation ; and has a tower commanding 
a panoramic view of the city and environs. 
The Signet Library, adjoining north-west 
side of Parliament House, was erected at 
a cost of £25,000 ; has handsome Grecian 
exterior, and richly ornate interior ; was 
used by George IV. for receptions at the 
time of a banquet given to him in Par- 
liament House ; and contains numerous 
portraits, and about 60,000 volumes. 
The Advocates' Library, behind the Signet 
Library, comprises apartments beneath 
Parliament House, and separate buildings 
toward George IV. Bridge ; underwent 
extensive interior improvement in 1870-71 ; 
and contains numerous portraits, many 
literary curiosities, about 2000 manu- 
scripts, and upwards of 200,000 volumes. 
The Antiquarian Museum, already men- 



tioned as in the Royal Institution, contains 
a very extensive collection of all sorts of 
old or ancient British and foreign objects 
interesting to the archaeologist and the 
scholar. The Highland and Agricultural 
Society's Chambers, on west side of George 
IV. Bridge, were erected in 1839 ; are an 
ornamental isolated edifice ; and formerly 
contained a valuable agricultural museum, 
now in the University. 

The Assembly Rooms, on south side cf 
George Street between Hanover and 
Frederick Streets, were erected in 1787, 
and somewhat improved in 1871 ; are in 
rdain Italian style, with Doric portico on 
piazza basement ; and contain a hall 92 
feet long, 42 wide, and 40 high. The 
Music Hall, behind the Assembly Rooms, 
and approached through their entrance, 
was erected in 1843 at a cost of more than 
£10,000 ; measures interiorly 108 feet by 91 ; 
and has a large organ and very extensive 
orchestral accommodation. The Masonic 
Hall, behind a house on the same side of 
George Street farther west, was erected in 
1858-59, and is much used for public enter- 
tainments. The Theatre Royal, at head 
of Broughton Street, succeeded two 
theatres on the same site, destroyed by 
fire in 1853 and 1865 ; was erected in 1866, 
gutted by fire in January 1875, and re- 
opened in January 1876 ; and is a spacious 
but plain structure with Italian front. 
The Royal Princess' Theatre, on east side 
of Nicolson Street, was much improved in 
1876, and has sittings for about 1800 
persons. The Gaiety Music Hall, in 
Chambers Street, was opened in 1875, and 
has 1200 sittings. Newsome's Circus, on 
west side of Nicolson Street, succeeded 
the Queen's Theatre, destroyed by fire 
in 1877. Cooke's Circus, in Grindlay 
Street, was opened in 1877 ; is a struc- 
ture partly of brick and partly of wood ; 
and has sittings for upwards of 3000 per- 
sons. The Calton Convening Rooms, on 
north side of Waterloo Place, are much 
used for public entertainments. The 
Literary Institute, in South Clerk Street, 
was erected in 1870 and improved in 1875, 
and includes a large hall for lectures and 
concerts. Queen Street Hall, in eastern 
part of Queen Street, was erected in 1847 
as the United Presbyterian Synod Hall ; 
is now used for the Philosophical Institu- 
tion's lectures, and for public meetings ; 
and contains accommodation for 1100 per- 
sons. The Royal Patent Gymnasium, on 
depressed ground at the north-east verge 
of northern New Town, was opened in 
1865 ; covers an extensive area ; and con- 
tains a great variety of appliances for re- 
creation. 

The Old Royal Infirmary, in a large area 
behind South Bridge Street immediately 
east of the University, comprised a massive 
main edifice of 1738 and several other 
extensive buildings, and was purchased by 
the town council in 1S81 to be converted 
into a fever hospital. The New Royal 



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Infirmary, on south side of Lauriston Place 
adjacent to the New University Buildings, 
was founded in 1870 and opened in 1879 ; 
cost about £380,000 ; is on the pavdion 
system, and in the old Scottish baronial 
style ; extends in long narrow ranges south- 
wards to the Meadows ; occupies an area 
of llj acres, yet covers only 3J by the 
aggregate of its buddings ; presents to 
Lauriston Place an imposing main front 
with the ends of four pavdions at the sides 
and a massive three-storey steepled eleva- 
tion in the centre ; is all so constructed as 
to secure the freest possible circulation of 
air around and within ad its parts ; com- 
prises eight pavilions and twenty-four 
wards ; and contains beds for a dady 
average of 600 patients. Chalmers' Hos- 
pital, at south side of west end of Lauriston 
Place, was erected in 1861-64; is a large 
edifice in plain Italian style ; ministers to 
the sick and hurt ; and in 1879 treated 
202 in-door and 1806 out-door patients. 
The Maternity Hospital, at corner of 
Lauriston Place and Lauriston Park, was 
erected in 1877-78 at a cost of about £10, 500 ; 
is in modified domestic Gothic style ; and 
contains eight delivery wards. The Royal 
Edinburgh Lunatic Asylum, at south end 
of Morningside, comprises a large neat 
edifice of 1810, an extensive addition of 
1850, and enlargements and improvements 
of 1866 ; includes fine enclosed garden 
grounds ; and has a daily average of about 
740 patients, and an annual income of 
about £43,500. The Asylum for Blind 
Males, on east side of Nicolson Street, 
comprises two houses originally private, 
refitted in 1806 and 1822, and subsequently 
improved. The Asylum for Blind Females, 
in "West Craigmillar suburb to the south 
of Mayfield, was erected in 1874-77 at a 
cost of about £13,000 ; is an edifice of 
centre and wings in light French style ; 
and has ornamental grounds of about 4 
acres. The Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb, to the north-west of Henderson 
Bow, sprang from an initial school of 
1810 ; was erected by subscription ; and is a 
neat, spacious, weU-arranged edifice. 

The Victoria or General Assembly Hall, 
in a sharp angle at foot of Castle Hill and 
Johnstone Terrace toward Lawnmarket, 
was erected in 1842-14 at a cost of about 
£16,000 ; is the meeting - place of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
land ; is a large oblong edifice in decorated 
Gothic style ; and has a beautiful steeple 
241 feet high, figuring conspicuously in 
most views of the city. St. Giles' Church, 
blocking part of High Street from most of 
Parliament Square, dates from 9th century, 
but retains no portion of earlier date than 
the 14th ; became a collegiate church in 
1466, and a cathedral in 1633 ; underwent 
division into assembly hall and three par- 
ochial churches ; was originally cruciform, 
but lost that shape by both additions and 
curtailments ; measures now 206 feet in 
length and from 76 to 129 feet in breadth ; 



is surmounted by a unique crown-shaped 
spire 161 feet high ; was shorn of most of 
its old exterior architectural features by a 
modernizing renovation effected in 1829-32 
at a cost of about £10,000 ; underwent 
tasteful interior renovation of its eastern 
or High Church section in 1872-73 at a 
cost of £4990 ; underwent renovation of 
the transepts in 1879 at corresponding 
cost; was designed to undergo similar 
renovation of its nave in or after 1881, at 
a cost of about £10,500 ; and figures pro- 
fusely in the history of the Scottish Re- 
formation, and of the persecuting times of 
the Stewarts. Tron Church, at corner of 
High Street and South Bridge, was erected 
in 1637-63 at a cost of about £6000 ; is in 
the Scottish Renaissance style ; and under- 
went improvements in 1828 and 1872. 
Greyfriars Churches, Old and New, at 
head of famous old cemetery near west 
end of Chambers Street, were erected 
in respectively 1612 and 1721, and have 
both been burnt and renovated. Trinity 
College Church, on south side of Jeffrey 
Street, was erected in 1871-72 in lieu of 
a celebrated church of 15th century on 
ground now covered by North British 
Railway station, and includes much re- 
production of that church in both feature 
and material. St. Cuthbert's Church, 
between West Princes Street Gardens and 
Lothian Road, succeeded a large ancient 
cruciform edifice on site of a Culdee cell ; 
was erected in 1775, without a steeple, at 
a cost of £4231 ; presented so very bald an 
appearance that a steeple was afterwards 
adjoined to it ; and is so capacious as to 
contain about 3000 sittings. St. George's 
Church, on west side of Charlotte Square, 
was erected in 1811-14 at a cost of £33,000 ; 
forms a square of 112 feet each way, with 
lofty Ionic portico on east front ; and is 
surmounted by successively a circular 
Corinthian colonnade, a massive dome, a 
lantern cupola, and a cross, the last at a 
height of 160 feet from the ground. St. 
Stephen's Church, at foot of St. Vincent 
Street, was erected in 1826-28 at a cost of 
£21,000, and is an octagonal edifice in 
mixed Roman style, with balustraded 
tower 165 feet high. St. Andrew's 
Church, on north side of easternmost 
section of George Street, was erected in 
1785 and 1789, and is a plain oval edifice 
with Corinthian portico and very fine 
steeple. St. Mary's Church, in Bellevue 
Crescent, was erected in 1824 at a cost of 
£14,000, and has a handsome Corinthian 
portico and a beautiful three-storey tower, 
successively Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, 
crowned with cupola and smad cyclostyle 
lantern. 21 other Established churches 
are within the city and suburbs. 

The Free Church Assembly Had, on 
Castle Hill, opposite Victoria Hall, was 
erected in 1858-59 at a cost of £7000 ; is 
plain but spacious ; and occupies the site 
of Mary of Guise's palace. St. John's 
Free Church, in south-eastern vicinity of 



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that hall, -was erected in 1847, crowns a 
steep acclivity in the rear, and is in a 
mixed style of early Gothic. Barclay 
Free Church, at north-west corner of 
Bruntsfield Links, was erected in 1862-63 
at a cost of more than £10,000, shows re- 
markable combinations of Gothic archi- 
tecture, has an elegant steeple 250 feet 
high, and was interiorly renovated in 
1880. Tron Free Church, on north side of 
Chambers Street, was erected in 1876-77 
at a cost of £8000, and is in free variety of 
the Byzantine style. St. George's Free 
Church, at corner of Maitland and Stafford 
Streets, was erected in 1867-69 at a cost 
of £13,600 for the site, and £17,400 for 
the building ; is in the Palladian style, 
originally without tower or steeple ; and 
acquired in 1881-82 a tower 185 
feet high in style of Italian campanile. 
Pilrig Free Church, at corner of Leith 
Walk and Pilrig Street, was erected in 
1861-62, is in the early decorated Gothic 
style, and has a double transept and a 
steeple. St. Mary's Free Church, at corner 
of firoughton and Albany Streets, was 
erected in 1859-61 at a cost of £13,000, is 
in a mixed style of decorated Gothic and 
Tudor, and has a richly - carved lofty 
steeple. 34 other Free churches are 
within the city and suburbs. — Broughton 
Place United Presbyterian Church, look- 
ing westward along Broughton Place 
thoroughfare, was erected in 1821 at a 
cost of £7095 ; underwent improvement in 
1853 and 1870 at a cost of about £4000 ; 
and has a neat neighbouring hall erected 
in 1878 at a cost of about £3000. Palmer- 
ston Place United Presbyterian Church, 
in western vicinity of St. Mary's Episcopal 
Cathedral, was erected in 1874-75 at a 
cost of about £14,000, is in classic Italian 
style, more like an old Eoman temple 
than an ordinary British church, and has 
a long high portico flanked by towers. 
Morningside United Presbyterian Church, 
in Chamberlain Boad, superseded a neigh- 
bouring church of 1863, was erected in 
1881 on plan estimated to cost upwards of 
£10,000, and is in the Norman style with 
massive tower. 23 other United Presby- 
terian churches, 5 of them erected or in 
course of erection in 1880, and several 
others quite recent, are within the city 
and suburbs. — Augustine Congregational 
Church, on George iv. Bridge, was erected 
in 1861 at a cost of about £14,000 ; has a 
deep basement on an old low transverse 
street ; and is in the Byzantine style with 
minaret steeple. 5 other Congregational 
churches, 3 Evangelical Union, 4 Original 
Secession, 5 Baptist, 2 Methodist, a Glassite, 
i Quakers', a German, a Unitarian, and a 
t'ews' synagogue, several of them erected 
tear 1881, are within the city and 
sxburbs. 

St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, on 
drect line with Melville Street, and on 
viita line with Princes Street, sprang from 
a Dequest of about £400,000 by the late 



Miss "Walker of Coates ; was erected, 
minus western towers and chapter-house, 
in 1874-79 at a cost of about £110,000 ; is 
a cruciform structure, mainly in ornate 
early pointed style ; measures 262 feet 
from east to west, and 132J along the 
transepts ; has a central tower and spire 
275 feet high, surmounted by an iron cross 
15 feet high ; and is designed to have two 
western towers and spires, each 209 feet 
high, and a north-eastern octagonal chap- 
ter-house. St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 
at corner of York Place and Broughton 
Street, was erected in 1816-18 at a cost of 
about £12,000 ; consists of nave and aisles, 
measuring 123 feet by 73 ; is mainly in 
later English style ; and has four lofty arch- 
cut turrets. St. John's Episcopal Church, 
at comer of Princes Street and Lothian 
Boad, was erected in 1818 at a cost of 
£15,000 ; consists of nave and aisles 113 
feet long ; is in florid Gothic style, with 
western pinnacled tower 120 feet high ; 
and was designed in 1880 to be enlarged 
by addition of a rectangular chancel. All 
Saints' Episcopal Church, in Brougham 
Street, was erected mostly in 1S67 and 
partly in 1876, at a cost of about £10,500 ; 
is a cruciform Gothic edifice ; and has a 
massive porch and an octagonal tower. 
Christchurch Episcopal church, in Morn- 
ingside, was erected in 1876-77 at a cost 
of about £10,500 ; is a cruciform edifice in 
early French Gothic style ; and has a 
steeple 140 feet high. Nine other Scottish 
Episcopal churches, and 2 English Epis- 
copal churches, are within the city and 
suburbs. — The Catholic Apostolic Church, 
at west end of East London Street, was 
erected to the extent of 200 by 45 feet in 
1873-76 at a cost of about £17,000 ; is in 
later Norman style, with small steeple at 
each corner ; and was designed to have a 
great western tower and other additions, 
at a probable cost of nearly £17,000. — St. 
Mary's Roman Catholic Church, at head of 
Broughton Street, was erected in 1813 at 
a cost of about £8000, and is in the third 
pointed style, with front pinnacles 70 feet 
high. Two other Roman Catholic churches 
and a convent are in the city. 

Numerous hotels, in the principal 
thoroughfares, are spacious edifices ; and 
some of them, especially in and near 
Princes Street, are highly ornate. The 
New Club, in Princes Street, between 
Hanover and Frederick Streets, was erected 
for an association of noblemen and gentle- 
men on principles similar to those of the 
London West End Clubs, and is an exten- 
sive, handsome edifice in the Italian style. 
The University Club, in Princes Street, 
between Castle and Charlotte Streets, was 
erected in 1866-67 at a cost of nearly 
£14,000, and is in Graeco-Italian style. 
The United Service Club, in Queen Street, 
was erected in 1835. The Life Association 
Building, in Princes Street, contiguous to 
the New Club, was erected in 1855-58 ; 
has three double storeys, successively Doric, 



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Ionic, and Corinthian ; and is profusely 
ornate. The Widows' Fund Life Assur- 
ance Office, on west side of St. Andrew's 
Square, was erected in 1848-49 by the 
Western Bank Company; passed to its 
present use at a price very far below its 
cost ; and is a large edifice in the Floren- 
tine style. The Scottish Provident Insti- 
tution's Office, on south side of St. Andrew 
Square, was erected in 1868, and is in florid 
Italian style. Numerous other semi-public 
buildings, especially in the older parts of 
the New Town, are large and elegant. 
The ancient City Cross, on a spot in High 
Street opposite the present Police Office, 
was an object of great interest, taken down 
in 1756, and bewailed in well-known verses 
of Sir Walter Scott ; and the pillar of it, 
after being 110 years out of view, was 
placed within the railings of St. Giles' 
Church in 1866. Some quite extinct 
ancient edifices in the Old Town, especially 
the Luckenbooths, westward from vicinity 
of the City Cross, the old Tolbooth, ' the 
Heart of Midlothian,' adjoining west end 
of the Luckenbooths, the Collegiate Church 
of St. Mary-in-the-Fields, on ground at 
south side of the University, Blackfriars 
Monastery, on ground covered by the Old 
Boy al Infirmary, and Greyfriars Monastery, 
on ground within the present Greyfriars 
Cemetery, possess abiding interest, both 
for their historical associations and for 
extant descriptions of their structure. 

The city has 64 postal receiving offices 
and letter boxes, 4 subordinate railway 
stations, 28 district or branch banking 
offices, and head office and 3 branches of 
National Security Savings Bank ; and it 
publishes 5 daily newspapers, one twice a 
week, and six weekly. Its trade does not 
include any staple manufacture, but is 
large in miscellaneous produce, brewing, 
coach-building, printing, publishing, and 
general shopping and marketing. Its 
water-works draw from springs and stream- 
lets on the Pentland and Moorfoot Hills ; 
were commenced in 1722 on a small scale, 
at comparatively small cost ; extended 
prior to 1800 at a cost of £20,000; re- 
extended in years after 1819 at a cost of 
nearly £200,000 ; extended further in sub- 
sequent years at correspondingly large 
cost ; and extended again in the few years 
till near end of 1879 at a cost of £337,837. 
The corporation revenue in 1880 was 
£110,801 in the municipal department, 
£149,163 in the police department, and 
£30,841 in the street improvement depart- 
ment. The annual value of real property 
in 1880-81 was £1,727,741. The city 
returns two members to Parliament, and its 
University unites with that of St. Andrews 
in sending one. Pop., in 1861, 168,121 ; 
in 1871, 197,581 ; in 1881, 228,357. 

EDINBURGH AND GLASGOW RAILWAY, 
railway, opened from Edinburgh to Glas- 
gow in 1842, ramified afterwards with 
several branches, and amalgamated with 
the North British in 1865. 



EDINBURGH, PERTH, AND DUNDEE 
RAILWAW, railway from Edinburgh to 
Ladybank in Fife, and thence in two forks 
to Perth and Dundee. It includes a line 
to Leith and Granton, a connecting ferry 
on the Forth, the line thence to Perth and 
Tayport, communication from the latter to 
Dundee, and a branch from Thornton to 
Dunfermline ; it was constituted by amal- 
gamation of these in 1851 ; and it became 
part of the North British system in 1862. 

EDINBURGHSHIRE, or MID-LOTHIAN, 
county between Haddingtonshire and Lin- 
lithgowshire, on south side of Firth of 
Forth. It has proximately a half-moon 
form, with middle curve on the firth, a 
long horn to the south-west, and a longer 
horn to the south-east ; and it measures 
about 12 miles along the Forth, about 20 
along the south-western boundary, about 
23 along the south-eastern boundary, about 
38 along the southern boundary, and 367 
square miles in area. Its surface, except 
in the extreme half of its south-eastern 
horn, is an inclined plain diversified by 
hills ; and, in the extreme half of its 
south-eastern horn, is chiefly the upper 
part of the basin of Gala river. The 
Pentland Hills intersect the west centre 
of its plain north - north - eastward to 
about 4 miles from Edinburgh ; the Moor- 
foot Hills extend about 10 miles south- 
eastward from the middle of the southern 
border ; the Lammermoors contribute a 
narrow flank to the east side of Gala 
river ; the hill-ridge comprising Carberry 
extends nearly 6 miles on the eastern 
border toward vicinity of Musselburgh ; 
the hill-group culminating in Arthur's 
Seat gives much character to the site and 
environs of Edinburgh ; Corstorphine Hill 
forms a fine feature 3 miles farther west ; 
and the Plat Hills and Dalmahoy Crags 
figure considerably in the south - west. 
Almost the entire county lies like a map 
beneath the eye from the highest summit 
of the Pentlands ; and, as seen thence, is 
most strikingly picturesque and richly em- 
bellished. About two-thirds of the entire 
area are arable, and comprise as finely 
cultivated lands as can be seen anywhere 
in the world. The other third is partly 
moorish, but mostly good hill pasture. The 
only streams of any note are the Almond 
on the north-western boundary, the Water 
of Leith parallel to the Almond, the Esks 
downward to the north-eastern border, all 
running to the Firth of Forth, and thf 
Gala traversing the outer half of thi 
south-eastern horn on its way to tie 
Tweed. A coal-field nearly 15 miles lorg 
and from 7 to 8 miles broad extends norti- 
eastward from Carlops to Musselburgi ; 
limestone abounds in that coal-field aid 
in tracts to the south-east of it ; and said- 
stone of prime quality abounds in placet to 
the west and south-west of Edinbujgh. 
Manufactures of paper and of gunpovder 
are notable; fisheries at Musselburgh and 
Newhaven are famous ; and commerffi at 



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Leith and Granton is great. The Cale- 
donian Ottadini and Gadeni, the Romans, 
and the Anglo-Saxons, had successive pos- 
session of the territory, and have all left 
interesting remains ; and later occupants 
have contributed the extant antiquities of 
Borthwick, Crichton, Dalhousie, Roslin, 
Ravensnook, Cousland, Catcune, Locher- 
wart, Luggate, and Craigmillar Castles, the 
last a structure of much note. The towns 
with each more than 40,000 inhabitants are 
Edinburgh and Leith ; with each more than 
5000 are Musselburgh, Dalkeith, and Por- 
tobello ; with each more than 2000 are 
"West Calder and Penicuick ; with each 
more than 1000 are Bonnyrigg, Lasswade, 
Loanhead, Jock's Lodge, Granton, and 
Addiewell ; and the villages with each more 
than 300 amount to 36. The annual value 
of real property in 1880-81, exclusive of 
Edinburgh, Leith, Musselburgh, and Porto- 
bello, was £688,167. Pop. , in 1861, 273,997 ; 
in 1871, 328,379 ; in 1881, 388,977. 

EDINCHIP, seat of Sir Malcolm Mac- 
gregor, Bart. , 1^ mile south-west of Loch- 
earnhead, Perthshire. 

EDINGIGHT, seat of Sir John Innes, 
Bart. , in Grange parish, Banffshire. 

EDINGLASSIE, a seat of Sir Charles J. 
Forbes, Bart., in Strath don parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

EDINGTON, ruined ancient fortalice, 2 
miles east of Chirnside, Berwickshire. 

EDINKENS, quondam historical bridge 
in Innerwick parish, Haddingtonshire. 

EDINKILLIE. See Edenkilme. 

EDINSHALL, quondam curious ancient 
tower on Cockburnlaw, Berwickshire. 

EDINTORE, seat in Keith parish, Banff- 
shire. 

EDINVILLE, hamlet in Dallas parish, 
Elginshire. 

EDINVILLIE, section of Aberlour parish, 
Banffshire. 

EDMONDS, dean or ravine in Cockburns- 
path parish, Berwickshire. 

EDMONSTON, seat in Biggar parish, 

EDMONSTONE, seat of Sir John Don 
Wauchope, Bart., and village, 4 miles 
south-east of Edinburgh. 

EDNAM, village and parish on north 
border of Roxburghshire. The village 
stands on Eden river, 1\ miles north-east 
of Kelso, was the birthplace of the poet 
Thomson, and has a parochial church with 
260 sittings, and a public school with about 
145 scholars. The parish measures about 
3i by 3 miles, and comprises 3849 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £9651. Pop. 
613. The land is mostly flat, but 
includes some slopes and two fine eleva- 
tions. Chief objects are Hendersyde Park 
and an obeliskal monument to the poet 
Thomson. 

EDNAM HOUSE, seat in Kelso parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

EDEACHILLIS. See Eddeeachtllis. 

EDRADOUR, burn, with beautiful cas- 
cade, in Moulin parish, Perthshire. 



EDRADYNATE, seat on the Tay, be- 
tween Weem and Logierait, Perthshire. 

EDRINGTON, seat and ruined old castle 
on the Whitadder, on southern verge of 
Berwickshire and Scotland. 

EDROM, village and parish in Merse 
district, Berwickshire. The village stands 
on the Whitadder, 3^ miles north-east of 
Dunse, is very ancient but small, and has 
a post office designated of Berwickshire, a 
railway station, a parochial church with 
600 sittings, and a public school with about 
100 scholars. — The parish contains also 
Allanton village, measures about 1\ miles 
by 4, and comprises 9545 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £22,074. Pop. 
1514. The surface is mostly well-culti- 
vated arable land. The seats are Edrom 
House, Kimmerghame, Kelloe, Broom- 
house, Blackadder House, Allanbank, Nis- 
bet, and Chirnside-Bridge House ; and the 
antiquities are sites of 5 or 6 Border peels. 
A Free church is at Allanton, and 4 public 
schools for 365 scholars are in the parish. 

EDZELL (popularly AIGLE or EAGLE), 
village in Forfarshire, and parish partly 
also in Kincardineshire. The village stands 
6 miles north-by-west of Brechin, presents 
a pleasant appearance, and has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Brechin, a banking 
office, 2 inns, Established and Free churches, 
and a public school with about 183 scholars. 
Pop. 370. — The parish measures about 12^ 
by 6 \ miles, and comprises 18,959 acres in 
Forfarshire, and 1109 in Kincardineshire. 
Real property in 1880-81, £6302 and 
£635. Pop. 823. The surface lies along 
the North Esk, and is mostly upland. 
Edzell Castle was the splendid seat of the 
Lindsays of Glenesk, ceased to be a resi- 
dence in 1714, and is now an extensive 
ruin. Two ancient Caledonian stone circles 
are on the northern border. 3 schools for 
302 scholars are in the parish, and 2 of 
them for 260 are new. 

E'EN. See Otne. 
_ EFFOCK, head stream of North Esk 
river, Forfarshire. 

EGG. See ElGG. 

EGILSHAY. See Eagleshat. 

EGLINTON, village, with ironworks, in 
Kilwinning parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 672. 

EGLINTON CASTLE, chief seat of the 
Earl of Eglinton, near Eglinton village, and 
2^ miles north of Irvine, Ayrshire. It is 
a splendid edifice of 1798, and has a park 
of 1200 acres. 

EGLISHAY. See Eagleshat. 

EGLISMONICHTY, ancient chapelry, 
now in Monifeith parish, Forfarshire. 

EIGG, Hebridean island, 8 miles west of 
Arasaig, Inverness-shire. It measures 6J 
miles in length, and from 2 to 3 miles in 
breadth ; is partly low and partly hilly ; 
includes a promontory with columnar 
cliffs, similar to those of Staffa ; includes 
also a curious, precipitous, columnarly- 
peaked hill, 1272 feet high, called Scuir of 
Eigg ; contains several Scandinavian forts 



EIL 



168 



ELG 



and a famous cavern ; and has a post office 
under Oban, and a Roman Catholic 
chapel. Pop. 291. 

EIL, sea-loch on mutual border of Argyle- 
shire and Inverness-shire. It strikes from 
head of Loch Linnhe, extends 10 miles 
north-eastward to Corpach, deflects sud- 
denly there, and extends 11 miles thence 
to the north-west ; and it has mostly a 
width of about 2 miles. 

EILDON, hamlet and hills in southern 
vicinity of Melrose, Roxburghshire. The 
hills rise from one base into three summits 
1211, 1327, and 1385 feet high; were 
known to the Romans as Mons Tremon- 
tium ; have a large ancient Caledonian 
tumulus and vestiges of a Roman camp ; 
and command extensive panoramic views. 

EILLAN. See Ellan. 

EIRE, the river Findhorn. 

EISHART, sea-loch, about 7 miles long, 
on west side of Sleat peninsula, Isle of 
Skye. 

EITSHAL, hill, 733 feet high, 8 miles 
west - south - west of Stornoway, Outer 
Hebrides. 

ELCHAIG. mountain rivulet, running 
to head of Loch Long in Ross-shire. 

ELCHIES, two estates, Easter and 
"Wester, in Knockando parish, Elginshire. 

ELCHO, decayed, strong, ancient castle 
on the Tay, 4 miles south-east of Perth. 
It gives the title of baron to the Earl of 
Wemyss. 

ELDERSLIE, town and quoad sacra par- 
ish in Renfrewshire. The town stands 2 
miles west of Paisley, was the birthplace 
of Sir William Wallace, and has a post 
office under Paisley, a church with 800 
sittings, and a public school with about 
220 scholars. Pop. of the town, 1141 ; 
of the quoad sacra parish, 2242. 

ELDERSLIE, seat on the Clyde, near 
Renfrew. 

ELDERSLIE AND FARDLEHILL, con- 
joint village in Kilmaurs parish, Ayrshire. 
Pop. 135. 

ELDRIG, summit of hill-ridge, 1215 feet 
high, on mutual border of Lanarkshire and 
Renfrewshire. 

ELDRIG, or EDRICK, village in Mochrum 
parish, Wigtonshire. 

ELF HOUSE, stalactitic cavern, a hiding- 
place of the Covenanters, in Dusk Glen, 
near Dairy, Ayrshire. 

ELGAR, or ELLA, island in Shapinshay 
parish, Orkney. 

ELGIN, town and parish in Elginshire. 
The town stands on the river Lossie, 63J 
miles by road, but 80f by railway, north- 
west of Aberdeen ; is situated partly on 
meadow land, partly along a ridge ; has 
charming environs and a pleasant interior ; 
was formerly the seat of the bishopric of 
Moray, and has been a royal burgh since 
the time of William the Lion ; ranks now 
as the capital of Elginshire, and as the 
head of six burghs sending a member to 
Parliament ; includes a chief street about 
a mile long, with a central square ; pre- 



sents an appearance of wealth ; carries on 
some manufactures ; publishes two twice- 
a-week newspapers ; and has a head post 
office with all departments, a railway 
station, 7 banking offices, 5 hotels, a 
court-house of 1840, a conspicuous monu- 
ment of the last Duke of Gordon, well- 
preserved ruins of its ancient cathedral, 
an Established church, 2 Free churches, 
2 United Presbyterian churches, Congre- 
gational, Baptist, Episcopalian, and Roman 
Catholic churches, an evangelistic hall, an 
elegant hospital of 1819, a splendid edu- 
cational institution of 1822, and 3 public 
schools. The cathedral was founded in 
1224, underwent demolitions and recon- 
structions, measured 282 feet from east 
to west and 115 feet along the transepts, 
was wrecked at the Reformation, and now 
is a more attractive ruin than any other 
ecclesiastical one in Scotland except Mel- 
rose Abbey. The Established church was 
erected in 1828, is a spacious edifice with 
Doric portico, and has a tower with cyclo- 
style lantern 112 feet high. Real property 
of the burgh in 1880-81, £29,310. Pop. 
7338. — The parish excludes part of the 
town, and includes New Elgin village. 
Its length is about 10 miles ; its breadth 
about 6 miles ; its area 19,166 acres. Real 
property of landward part in 1880-81, 
£11,354. Pop. 8717. The surface com- 
prises a gentle acclivity southward from 
the town to base of Blackhills, a steep 
hilly ridge to the west of that, and the 
vales of Pluscardine and Mossdowie on 
left of the Lossie. The 3 public schools 
within the burgh are new, and have ac- 
commodation for 400 scholars ; 10 other 
schools are within the burgh, and have 
accommodation for 1173 scholars ; and 6 
schools for 535 scholars, 3 of them new, 
for 340, are in the landward districts. 

ELGIN (NEW), village in Elgin parish, 
Elginshire. It has a public school with 
about 73 scholars. Pop. 625. 

ELGINSHIRE, maritime county, com- 
prising eastern portion of ancient province 
of Moray. It lies between Moray Firth 
and the Grampians, to the east of Nairn- 
shire and Inverness-shire ; and it under- 
went change of boundary in 1870 by 
transference to it of part of Cromdale 
parish from Inverness-shire, and trans- 
ference from it to that county of part of 
Duthil parish. Its length from north to 
south is about 40 miles ; its greatest 
breadth near the coast is about 23 miles ; 
and its area is 531 square miles. The 
coast is mostly low and sandy ; the sea- 
board, to the breadth of about 8 miles, is 
champaign ; the middle section rises gradu- 
ally in series of parallel hills and interven- 
ing vales ; and the southern border includes 
part of the valley of the Spey, and is else- 
where filled with the Grampians. The 
rocks of the sea-board are chiefly old red 
sandstone, but include small patches of 
lower oolite and lias ; and those of the 
hills are granite, gneiss, mica-slate, quartz, 



ELG 



169 



ELL 



and talcose schist. The rivers are the 
Spey in the east and south-east, the 
Lossie in the middle, and the Findhorn in 
the west. Nearly one-fourth of all the 
land is arable, and in high cultivation. 
The civil history is identical with that of 
Moray. The towns with each more than 
2000 inhabitants are Elgin, Forres, and 
Lossiemouth ; the towns with each more 
than 1000 inhabitants are Burghead, 
Grantown, Rothes, Fochabers, and Hope- 
man ; and the villages with each more 
than 300 are Garmouth, Findhorn, New 
Elgin, Kingston, and Archiestown. The 
annual value of real property in 1880-81 
was £226,625. Pop. in 1871, 43,612 ; in 
1881, 43,760. 

ELGOLL, hamlet in Strath parish, Isle 
of Skye. It has a post office under 
Broad ford. 

ELHARDHOLM, old chapelry now in 
Shapinshay, Orkney. 

ELIBANK, estate, with ancient peel- 
tower, 8 miles north-west of Selkirk. It 
gives the peerage title of baron to a branch 
of the family of Murray. 

ELIE, village and parish on south coast 
of Fife. The village stands on bay of its 
own name, 5 miles east-south-east of Largo, 
is a sea-bathing resort, and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, designated of Fife, a banking office, 
an inn, a harbour, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 108 
scholars. Pop. 625. — The parish is inter- 
sected by Kilconquhar, measures about 4 
miles by 2i, and comprises 2020 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £7198. Pop. 664. The 
shore is sandy, and the land is mostly flat. 
Elie House is a mansion of about 1675. 

ELISTONE, ancient baronial castle on 
Almond river in Kirkliston parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

ELLA. See Elgak. 

ELLAM, or ELLIM, ancient parish, now 
part of Longformacus, Berwickshire. 

ELLAN-AIGAS, abrupt wooded islet in 
Beauly river, Kiltarlity parish, Inverness- 
shire. It is crowned by a handsome 
villa. 

ELLAN-AN-RIGH, islet in Loch Laggan, 
Inverness-shire. 

ELLAN-AN-TAGGART, islet in Loch 
Awe, near influx of Avich rivulet, Argyle- 
shire. 

ELLAN-A-VROIN, rocky islet near middle 
of Loch Vennachoir, Perthshire. 

ELLAN-CHOLIUMCILLE, small island in 
Loch Portree, Isle of Skye. 

ELLAN-DHEIRRIG, rocky islet, with re- 
mains of Earl of Argyle's fort of 1685, at 
junction of Loch Biddan with Kyles of 
Bute, Argyleshire. 

ELLANDONAN, rocky islet, with ruined 
ancient castle of Earls of Seaforth, at head 
of Loch Alsh, in south-west corner of Boss. 

ELLAN-DUIRNISH, islet in Loch Etive, 
opposite Bunawe, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN-FADA, island near head of Loch 
Killisport, Knapdale, Argyleshire. 



ELLAN-FINNAN, island, with ruined 
ancient church, in Loch Shiel, on north 
boundary of Argyleshire. 

ELLAN - FREUCH, islet, with ruined 
castle, in Sound of Islay, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN - MAREE, islet, with ancient 
burying-ground, in Loch Maree, Ross- 
shire. 

ELLANMORE, islet, with ancient arched 
chapel, in south end. of Sound of Jura, 
Argyleshire. 

ELLANMORE, islet adjacent to Coll 
Island, Argyleshire. 

ELLANMUNDE, islet and ancient parish 
on north border of Argyleshire. The islet 
lies in Loch Leven, adjacent to mouth of 
Coe rivulet, and contains a cemetery and 
ruins of ancient church. The parish com- 
prehended Glencoe and part of Appin, and 
is now annexed to Lismore. 

ELLAN-NA-BEICH, islet adjacent to 
Easdale Island, Inner Hebrides. Pop. 304. 

ELLAN-NA-GAEIL, the Babbit Island, in 
Tongue parish, Sutherland. 

ELLAN-NA-GAMHNA, pastoral isle in 
South Knapdale parish, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN-NA-LEEK, isle near north-west 
coast of South Knapdale, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN-NA-MUICK, isle off west coast of 
South Knapdale, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN-NA-NAOIMH, islet, with natural 
jet d'eau about 30 feet high, and with re- 
mains of ancient chapel and burying- 
ground, on east coast of Tongue parish, 
Sutherland. 

ELLAN-NAN-CAORACH, isle off Kildalton 
coast, Islay Island, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN-NAN-CON, islet in Loch Laggan, 
Inverness-shire. 

ELLAN-NAN-GOBHAR, islet, with two 
vitrified forts, in Loch Aylort, Ardna- 
murchan parish, Argyleshire. 

ELLAN-NA-ROAN, inhabited island, about 
2 miles in circuit, in Tongue parish, 
Sutherland. It looks like two islands, is 
mostly engirt with high precipitous rocks, 
includes a low tract with very fertile soil, 
and has on its north side a natural arch, 
about 150 feet high and 70 feet wide. 
Pop. 73. 

ELLANREACH, large house, with ex- 
tensive sheep-farm, in Glenelg parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

ELLAN-RORYMORE, islet, with vestiges 
of ancient subterranean circular structure, 
in Loch Maree, Boss-shire. 

ELLAN VHOU, wooded islet, with ruined 
ancient fortalice, in upper part of Loch 
Lomond. 

ELLEMBANK, seat near Kirkcudbright. 

ELLEMFORD, place on Whitadder 
river, 6 miles north - west of Dunse, 
Berwickshire. 

ELLEN'S ISLE, craggy, wooded, roman- 
tic islet, centre of the action of Sir Walter 
Scott's Lady of the Lake, near foot of Loch 
Katrine, Perthshire. 

ELLERHOLM, green islet in mouth of 
Elwick bay, on south side of Shapinshay, 
Orkney. 



ELL 



170 



ENT 



ELLINORTON, village in Kirriemuir 
parish, Forfarshire. 

ELLIOCK, seat on burn of its own name, 
2 miles south-south-west of Sanquhar, 
Dumfriesshire. It was the birthplace of 
the Admirable Crichton. 

ELLIOT, rivulet running about 8 miles 
east-south-eastward to the sea, at 1J mile 
south-south-west of Arbroath, Forfarshire. 

ELLIOT-JUNCTION, railway station near 
mouth of Elliot rivulet, Forfarshire. 

ELLISLAND, farm on the Nith, 6J miles 
north-north-west of Dumfries. It was 
occupied by the poet Burns in 1788-91. 

ELLISTON, small square tower, ancient 
seat of the Sempills, near foot of Castle- 
Semple Loch, Renfrewshire. 

ELLON, village and parish in south of 
Buchan, Aberdeenshire. The village 
stands on Ythan river, 16 miles by road, 
but 19J by railway, north-by-east of Aber- 
deen ; was formerly the seat of jurisdiction 
of Buchan earldom ; is now a centre of 
considerable business ; and has a head 
post office with all departments, a railway 
station, 3 banking offices, a hotel, Estab- 
lished, Free, United Presbyterian, and 
Episcopalian churches, and 2 public 
schools. Pop. 964. — The parish measures 
8 miles by 4f, and comprises 22,259 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £23,776. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 3698 ; quoad sacra, 2872. 
The surface mostly presents an undulating 
appearance, but rises in several parts into 
considerable eminences. The seats are 
Ellon Castle, Esslemont, Arnage, Turner 
Hall, and Dudwick ; and the first was 
built in 1851, and is near some remains of 
a previous mansion of about 1780. Five 
schools for 718 scholars are in the parish, 
and 4 of them for 670 are new. 

ELLRIDGE, lake in Slamannan parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

ELLSNESS. See Elsness. 

ELLSRICKLE, village, 4 miles north-by- 
east of Biggar, Lanarkshire. It has a 
Free church. 

ELMBANK, seat in St. Vigeans parish, 
Forfarshire. 

ELPHIN, mountainous district north- 
north-east of Ullapool, in Ross-shire. It 
has a post office under Lairg. 

ELPHINSTONE, village, old mansion, 
and collieries in Tranent parish, Hadding- 
tonshire. The village stands nearly 2 
miles south-south-west of Tranent town. 
Pop. 597. The mansion was built in 
1600, and is attached to a massive square 
tower of about the end of 14th century. 

ELPHINSTONE, colliery in Airth parish, 
Stirlingshire. 

ELRICE, seat in New Machar parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

ELRIG, hamlet in Mochrum parish, 
"VVigton shire. It has a public school with 
about 89 scholars. 

ELSHIESHIELDS, modern seat, with old 
tower, in Lochmaben parish, Dumfriesshire. 

ELSICE, seat and burn in Fetteresso 
parish, Kincardineshire. 



ELSNESS, headland and district in south 
of Sanday Island, Orkney. 

ELSWICK, capacious harbour in south of 
Shapinshay Island, Orkney. 

ELTRIGOE, small sea-inlet in Wick 
parish, Caithness. 

ELVAN, upland rivulet, running about 
7 miles north-eastward to the Clyde, at 
Elvanfoot, Lanarkshire. 

ELVANFOOT, place, with inn and railway 
station, 4f miles south-east of Abingdon, 
Lanarkshire. 

ELVINGSTON, seat in Gladsmuir parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

EMANUEL, or MANUEL, railway station 
and ruined priory of 1156, adjacent to 
Avon river, near Linlithgow-Bridge. 

EMBO, fishing village in Dornoch parish, 
Sutherland. It has a public school with 
about 85 scholars. Pop. 396. 

ENDER, affluent of the Garry in Blair- 
Athole parish, Perthshire. 

ENDRICK, river, running about 18 miles 
westward, chiefly in Stirlingshire, to Loch 
Lomond at boundary with Dumbartonshire. 
It receives the Blane and some smaller 
affluents, and is celebrated in song as 
' Sweet Ennerdale.' 

ENGINE, three collier villages, New, Old, 
and Sheriffhall, in Newton parish, Edin- 
burghshire. 

ENGLISH-HILL, mountain in Kiltarlity 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

ENGLISH-ROW, village in Dalziel parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

ENHALLOW, small island between 
Pomona and Rousay, Orkney. 

ENNERIC, rivulet, running about 10 
miles eastward, in Glenurquhart, to Loch 
Ness, Inverness-shire. It has a picturesque 
course, and makes a beautiful cascade. 

ENNICH, lake, overhung by grand pre- 
cipices, in Rothiemurchus parish, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

ENOCH, lake on north verge of Minnigaff 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ENOCH, hill, 1865 feet high, in New 
Cumnock parish, Ayrshire. 

ENOCHDHU, place, with post office 
under Pitlochrie, Perthshire. 

ENOCH (ST.), parish, with railway station 
and with Established and Free churches, 
in Glasgow. Pop., quoad sacra, 2131. 

ENOCH (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Dundee. Pop. 2401. 

ENOCK, barony in Durrisdeer parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

ENRIG, quondam abbot's house in 
Girthon parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ENSAY, island, about 5 miles in circuit, 
2 miles south - west of Harris, Outer 
Hebrides, Pop. 6. 

ENTERKIN, burn, running from Lowther 
Mountain to the Nith, in Durrisdeer parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 

ENTERKIN, seat in Tarbolton parish, 
Ayrshire. 

ENTEREINFOOT, place at mouth of 
Enterkin burn, Dumfriesshire. 

ENTERKINS-YETT, traditional scene of 



ENZ 



171 



ERS 



sanguinary battle between natives and 
Danes, in Currie parish, Edinburghshire. 

ENZIE, quoad sacra parish, comprising 
parts of Rathven and Bellie, in north-west 
extremity of Banffshire. It has a post 
office under Fochabers, Established and 
Free churches, a new public school for 170 
scholars, and an old one for 130. Pop. 2413. 

ENZIEHOLM, farm, with vestiges of 
very ancient strong triangular fortifica- 
tion, in "Westerkirk parish, Dumfriesshire. 

EOCHAR, place, with post office under 
Lochmaddy, Outer Hebrides. 

EOLAN, small affluent of the Etive, in 
Ardchattan parish, Argyleshire. 

EOLIGARY, seat in Barra Island, Outer 
Hebrides. 

EORODALE, headland, 3 miles south- 
east of Butt-of -Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

EORSA, small island in Loch-na-Keal, 
Mull, Argyleshire. 

EOUSMIL, rocky islet frequented by 
seals, on west side of North Uist, Outer 
Hebrides. 

EOY, small island between North Uist 
and Barra, Outer Hebrides. 

EPORT, long narrow sea-loch, with safe 
harbour, 3 miles south of Lochmaddy, in 
North Uist, Outer Hebrides. 

ERCHLESS, modernized old castle, with 
fine hill-girt park, in Strathglass, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

ERCILDOUN. See Earlston. 

EREGIE, seat in Dores parish, Inverness- 
shire. 

ERIBOLL, sea-loch, 10J miles long, and 
mostly from 1 to 3 miles wide, in Durness 
parish, Sutherland. 

ERICHKIE, mountain rivulet, running 
about 10 miles eastward to the Garry, at 
4 miles west of Blair-Athole, Perthshire. 

ERICHT, lake on mutual border of 
Perthshire and Inverness-shire. It lies at 
an elevation of 1153 feet above sea-level ; 
is overhung by lofty, precipitous, desolate 
mountains ; extends from neighbourhood 
of Dalwhinnie 16 miles south-south-west- 
ward, with average breadth of about a 
mile ; and sends off a stream about 5 miles 
southward to Loch Rannoch. 

ERICHT, river in north-east of Perth- 
shire. It is formed by conflux of the 
Ardle and the Shee ; runs southward, past 
Blairgowrie, to the Isla, at 2 miles west 
of Coupar-Angus ; abounds in romantic 
scenery ; and, measured from the sources 
of its head-streams, has a total course of 
about 23 miles. 

ERIDINE, seat in Kilchrenan parish, 
Argyleshire. 

ERIGMORE, seat near Dunkeld, Perth- 
shire. 

ERINES, seat in South Knapdale parish, 
Argyleshire. 

ERISKA, island in mouth of Loch Creran, 
Argyleshire. Pop. 7. 

ERISKAY, island, about 3 miles long, 
near south end of South Uist, Outer 
Hebrides. It was Prince Charles Edward's 
landing-place in 1745. Pop. 466. 



ERISORT, sea-loch in south-east of Lewis, 
Outer Hebrides. It opens about 7 miles 
south of Stornoway, and goes about 10 
miles west-south-westward, but is com- 
paratively narrow. 

ERIVIST, burn, running about 5£ miles 
south-westward to the Gala, in Stow 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

ERNAN, stream, traversing Tarland 
parish to the Don, in Aberdeenshire. 

ERNCRAGS, small lake in Crossmichael 
parish, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

ERNE. See Earn and Findhoen. 

ERNSHEUCH, precipitous eminence with 
Caledonian camp in Coldingham parish, 
Berwickshire. 

EROCHD. SeeEElCHT. 

ERRALD, island adjacent to south- 
western extremity of Boss peninsula, 
Mull, Argyleshire. Pop. 51. 

ERROL, village and parish in Carse of 
Gowrie, Perthshire. The village stands 
about a mile from railway station of its 
own name, lOf miles east of Perth ; crowns 
a slight rising ground with extensive view ; 
gives the title of Earl to the family of 
Hay ; and has a post office with all depart- 
ments designated of Perthshire, a post office 
of Errol village under Errol, a banking office, 
a hotel, a large cruciform towered Estab- 
lished church, Free and United Presbyterian 
churches, and a public school with about 111 
scholars. Pop. 876.- — The parish contains 
also the villages of Pitrodie, Glendoick, 
Grange, Leetown, "West-town, and Mains 
of Errol. Its length is 5^ miles ; its breadth 
3iy miles; its area 9507 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £23,026. Pop. 2421. 
The surface is low, and, with exception of 
some slight rising grounds, all flat ; and the 
soil is mostly rich alluvium and all arable. 
Errol House, near Errol village, was 
formerly the seat of the Earls of Errol. 
A public school is at Glendoick. 

ERSKINE, parish on south side of the 
Clyde in Renfrewshire. It lies opposite 
Dumbarton Castle, and contains the post- 
office villages of Langbank and Bishopton, 
and the hamlets of Blackstown and Easter 
Rossland. Its length is 6| miles ; its 
greatest breadth 3J miles ; its area 7535 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £19,602. 
Pop., quoad civilia, 1655; quoad sacra, 
1073. The land adjacent to the Clyde 
is flat and fertile; the ground behind 
that makes considerable ascent ; and a 
pleasant hill-ridge occupies most of the 
western section. Erskine House, the seat 
of Lord Blantyre, is a beautiful Tudor 
edifice of 1828, and has, on an eminence 
within its grounds, a lofty obeliskal monu- 
ment of the eleventh Lord Blantyre. 
Other seats are Dargavel, Rossland, and 
Eastbank. Erskine ferry, on the Clyde, 
serves for both pedestrians and carriages. 
The churches are Established, Free, and 
United Presbyterian. Three schools for 
336 scholars are in the parish, and one 
of them and class-rooms for 167 are 
new. 



ERV 



172 



ETI 



ERVARY, hill, with fine view, in North 
Knapdale parish, Argyleshire. 

ERVIE, hamlet in Kirkcolm parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

ESHANESS, headland and skerry at 
south-western extremity of Northmaven 
parish, Shetland. 

ESK, river of Dumfriesshire. It is 
formed, at 7 miles north-west of Langholm, 
by conflux of Black Esk and "White Esk ; 
it runs thence about 20 miles south-east- 
ward and southward in Dumfriesshire, to 
influx of the Liddel at boundary with 
England ; and it proceeds about 8 miles 
curvingly through Cumberland to head of 
Solway Firth. 

ESK, river of Edinburghshire. It is 
formed in Dalkeith Park by conflux of 
North Esk and South Esk ; and it runs 3 
miles thence northward to Firth of Forth 
at Musselburgh. 

ESK, small mountain lake, emitting a 
head-stream of South Esk river, on north- 
west border of Forfarshire. 

ESKADALE, seat and hamlet with 
Roman Catholic chapel, near head of 
Strath glass, Inverness-shire. 

ESKBANK, suburb of Dalkeith, with 
junction railway station, 8 miles south- 
east of Edinburgh. 

ESK (BLACK), small river of Dumfries- 
shire. It runs about 15 miles tortuously 
south-south-eastward, all within Eslidale- 
muir and the Southern Highlands ; and 
unites with the "White Esk to form the Esk. 

ESKBRIDGE, railway station near Peni- 
cuick, Edinburghshire. 

ESKDALE, the eastern and smallest of 
the three districts of Dumfriesshire. It 
includes all the Scottish portions of the 
basin of the Esk, but is ill defined on the 
south-west over the little basins of the 
Sark and the Kirtle. 

ESKDALEMUIR, parish in north-west of 
Eskdale, Dumfriesshire. It has a post 
office of its own name under Langholm ; 
and it measures llf miles in length, 9^ 
miles in greatest breadth, and 43,282 acres 
in area. Real property in 1880-81, £11, 249. 
Pop. 543. The surface is nearly all moun- 
tainous, heathy, and moorish; and it is 
remarkable for two ancient Caledonian 
stone circles, and for vestiges or remains 
of numerous ancient camps. One of the 
stone circles is entire, and one of the 
camps occupies about 7 acres, and has been 
the subject of much antiquarian discus- 
sion. The churches are Established and 
Free. There are 2 schools for 159 scholars, 
and 1 of them for GO is new. 

ESKIN, head stream of the Findhorn, 
in Inverness-shire. 

ESK (NORTH), quoad sacra parish, with 
church in Musselburgh, Edinburghshire. 
Pop. 5389. 

ESK (NORTH), river, running about 16 
miles north-north-eastward to conflux with 
South Esk in Dalkeith Park, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

ESK (NORTH), river, running about 28 



miles south-eastward to the sea,at boundary 
between Forfarshire and Kincardineshire. 

ESK (SOUTH), river, running about 13 
miles northward to conflux with North 
Esk in Dalkeith Park, Edinburghshire. 

ESK (SOUTH), river, running about 37 
miles east-south-eastward and eastward to 
the sea at Montrose, Forfarshire. Its last 
reach first expands into large tidal lagoon 
above Montrose, and then contracts into 
deep rapid current from the lagoon to 
the sea. 

ESK VALLEY, branch railway, for min- 
eral traffic, down the valley of the Esk, 
Edinburghshire. 

ESK (WHITE), river, running curvingly 
about 15 miles southward to conflux with 
Black Esk, Dumfriesshire. 

ESLEMONT. See Esslemont. 

ESLIE, farm, with ancient Caledonian 
stone circle, in Banchory-Ternan parish, 
Kincardineshire. 

ESPEDAIR, burn in Abbey-Paisley par- 
ish, Renfrewshire. 

ESRAGAN, two streams, greater and 
lesser, separated by Benvean and running 
southward to Loch Etive, in Argyleshire. 

ESSACHOSSAN, romantic glen adjacent 
to Inverary, Argyleshire. 

ESSCUNHAN, stream, with cascade, in 
Kilmorie parish, Arran Island, Buteshire. 

ESSENSIDE, lake in Ashkirk parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

ESSET, small affluent of the Don, in 
Tullynessle parish, Aberdeenshire. 

ESSIE, ancient parish, now part of 
Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. 

ESSIE, Forfarshire. See Eassib. 

ESSIEMORE, cascade of about 100 feet, 
in Auchinchew amphitheatre, Arran Is- 
land, Buteshire. 

ESSIL, ancient parish, now part of Spey- 
mouth, Elginshire. 

ESSLEMONT, railway station and seat, 
If mile south of Ellon, Aberdeenshire. 

ESWICK, headland, 12 miles north-by- 
east of Lerwick, Shetland. 

ETHIE, burn, with cascades and precipi- 
tous banks, in Cromarty parish, Cromarty- 
shire. 

ETHIE CASTLE, seat of the Earl of 
Northesk, 4^ miles north-north-east of 
Arbroath, Forfarshire. 

ETHIEHAVEN, small fishing village. If 
mile north-east of Ethie Castle, Forfarshire. 

ETIVE, river and sea - loch in Argyle- 
shire. The river rises among alpine 
heights around head of Glencoe ; runs 
about 16 miles south-westward, along a 
deep mountain glen, to the loch's head ; 
and, in its progress, makes two ' fine 
cascades. The loch goes first about 11 
miles south-westward, then about 10 miles 
westward, to head of Firth of Lorn ; is 
flanked, in its upper part, by grand alpine 
mountains, — in its lower part, by diversity 
of hills, braes, and gentle slopes ; contracts, 
at 5 miles from its mouth, into the strait 
of Connel Ferry ; forms, between that 
strait and its mouth a spacious bay ; and, 



ETT 



173 



EYE 



as a whole, from head to foot, looks like 
a series of inland lakes. 

ETTRICK, hamlet, parish, and river in 
Selkirkshire. The hamlet lies on the 
river, 18J miles south-west of Selkirk, 
and has a parochial church of 1824, a 
Free Church station of 1880, a public 
school with about 35 scholars, and a 
burying-ground containing a monument 
to Rev. Thomas Boston, and the grave of 
the Ettrick Shepherd. — The parish mea- 
sures about 11 miles by 10, and comprises 
42,387 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£12,199. Pop. 397. The surface is a 
congeries of mountains and hills, inter- 
sected by glens, cleughs, and a narrow 
vale, and abounds in rich sheep pasture. 
The seats are Thirlstane Castle, Cacrabank, 
and Rodono ; and the antiquities are Thirl- 
stane and Tushielaw towers, and vestiges 
of Buccleuch church. — The river rises 
adjacent to boundary with Dumfriesshire, 
runs about 23 miles north-eastward to 
influx of the Yarrow, and proceeds about 
5 miles farther in same direction, past 
Selkirk, to the Tweed, at 1J mile from 
Abbotsford. 

ETTRICK, bay, nearly 2 miles long, on 
west side of Bute Island, Buteshire. 

ETTRICKBANK, seat on Ettrick river, 
1J mile north-east of Selkirk. 

ETTRICK-BRIDGE, village on Ettrick 
river, 7 miles south-west of Selkirk. It 
has a post office under Selkirk, and an inn. 

ETTRICK FOREST, popularly Selkirk- 
shire, but anciently including also tracts 
now in Peeblesshire and Edinburghshire. 
It once was literally a forest, swarming 
with deer, and used as a hunting-ground 
by the Scoto-Saxon kings ; but it lost 
much of its wood in the times of Bruce 
and Baliol, and was converted into sheep 
walks in the time of James V. 

ETTRICK PEN, mountain, 2269 feet 
high, at source of Ettrick river, on south- 
east verge of Selkirkshire. 

ETTRIDGE-BRIDGE, place on lower part 
of Truim rivulet, Inverness-shire. 

EUCHAN, rivulet, running about Si- 
miles north-eastward and eastward to the 
Nith, at Sanquhar, Dumfriesshire. 

EUCHAR, rivulet, issuing from Loch 
Scammadale, and running about 4 miles, 
partly along a romantic ravine, to the sea, 
at Kilninver, Argyleshire. 

EVAN, small river, running about 14 
miles, chiefly down a deep glen, south- 
south-eastward to the Annan, at 2 miles 
south of Moffat, Dumfriesshire. 

EV ANTON, village, 7 miles north-north- 
east of Dingwall, Ross-shire. It has a 
post office, with money order and tele- 
graph departments, designated of Ross- 
shire, an inn, and a public school with 
about 54 scholars. Pop. 436. 

EVELAW, old peel tower in Westruther 
parish, Berwickshire. 

EVELICK, ruined ancient castle and hill, 
with remains of ancient fortification, in 
Kilspindie parish, Perthshire. 



EVELIX, rivulet, running about 13 miles, 
chiefly south-eastward, to Dornoch Firth, 
near Meikle Ferry, on south-east border 
of Sutherland. 

EVIE AND RENDALL, conjoint parish 
in Orkney. It comprises the north-eastern 
part of Pomona and the island of Gairsay ; 
and it has a post office of Evie, with money 
order department, and a post office of Ken- 
dall, both designated of Orkney. Its length 
is 10 miles ; and its greatest breadth, ex- 
clusive of Gairsay, is 4^ miles. Real 
property in 1880-81, £4102. Pop. 1351. 
A group of tame hills, nowhere higher 
than about 400 feet, occupies the extreme 
north, and terminates there in the bold 
promontory of Costahead ; a range of 
lower hills extends thence to the southern 
boundary, and forms the larger portion of 
the entire land ; and a gentle declivity, 
from | to 1J mile broad, forms the sea- 
board, and is under cultivation. Chief 
residences are Burgar House and Rendall 
Hall ; and chief antiquities are nine Picts' 
houses. The churches are Established, 
Free, and Congregational ; and there are 
3 public schools with about 165 scholars. 

EVI6AN, bay on west side of Stronsay, 
Orkney. 

EVORT. See Epoet. 

EWART, island in mouth of Loch Shiel, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

EWE, river, sea-loch, and island in west 
of Ross-shire. The river runs west-north- 
westward from Loch Maree to head of the 
sea-loch at Poolewe, and is short, broad, 
and rapid. The sea-loch extends about 7 
miles north-by-westward to the Minch, 
and has an extreme width of 3J miles. 
The island lies near the middle of the sea- 
loch, measures nearly 2 miles in length, 
and is fertile and well cultivated. Pop. 43. 

EWES, rivulet and parish in extreme 
north-east of Dumfriesshire. The rivulet 
rises among mountains at boundary with 
Roxburghshire, and runs about 10 miles 
southward to the Esk at Langholm. The 
parish comprises the basin of the Ewes to 
within If mile of Langholm, and the upper 
part of the basin of the Tarras. Its 
length is 8 miles ; its greatest breadth 
6i miles; its area 24,941 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6658. Pop. 337. 
The surface consists of mountains and hills 
intersected by two vales. The church 
contains about 230 sittings, and the public 
school is new, and can accommodate 60 
scholars. 

EWES, head-stream of the Luggate, 
Edinburghshire. 

EWESDALE, basin of Ewes rivulet, in 
Dumfriesshire. 

EWIESIDE, hill, with ancient Cale- 
donian camp, in Cockburnspath parish, 
Berwickshire. 

EYE, small river, running about 11 miles 
south-eastward and 3J miles north-east- 
ward to the sea at Eyemouth, Berwickshire. 

EYE, lake and rivulet in north-east of 
Ross-shire. The lake is in Fearn parish, 



EYE 



174 



FAL 



and measures about 2 miles in length ; and 
the rivulet issues from it, forms a series of 
smaller lakes, and enters Moray Firth near 
Ballintore village. 

EYE, in Lewis. See TJlE. 

EYEBROCHY, islet in Dirleton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

EYEMOUTH, town and parish on coast 
of Berwickshire. The town stands at mouth 
of Eye river, 2J miles north-north-east of 
Ayton railway station ; was a port in the 
time of Alexander n., became notable in 
after times for smuggling, and is now the 
headquarters of a great fishery district ; 
occupies low ground in a gap between two 
headlands of a long reach of high rocky 
coast ; and has a post office with all de- 
partments under Ayton, 2 banking offices, 
3 inns, a very fine natural harbour with 
breakwater-pier, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, Evangelical Union, and 
Methodist churches, and 2 public schools 
with accommodation for 600 scholars. 
The Free church was erected in 1879 ; 
the public schools in 1877- — The par- 
ish excludes a small part of the town, 
and comprises 1004 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £8698. Pop. 2935. The coast 
is about L} mile long, and has an average 
height of about 80 feet. The headland on 
north side of the town had anciently a fort 
of historical note, and commands an ex- 
tensive view. The soil of the interior is 
arable and fertile. 

EYLT, lake in Moydart district, Inver- 
ness-shire. 

EYNORT, sea-loch, 3 miles long, on east 
side of South Uist, Outer Hebrides. 



FAD, beautiful lake, of about 400 acres, 2 
miles south-west of Rothesay, Bute Island. 

FAD, lake, 3 miles north of Portree, Isle 
of Skye. 

FADA. See Ellan Fada. 

FAIFLEY, manufacturing village near 
Duntocher, Dumbartonshire. Pop. 187. 

FAIL, burn and quondam ancient monas- 
tery in Tarbolton parish, Ayrshire. The 
burn runs about 5 miles south-south-east- 
ward to river Ayr ; and the monastery 
stood on it about a mile north-north-west 
of Tarbolton village, and is notable for 
sarcastic rhymes on its inmates, quoted in 
Sir Walter Scott's Abbot. 

FAILFORD, place at mouth of Fail burn, 
Ayrshire. 

FAIRBAIRN, estate, with ruined old 
baronial fortalice, in Urray parish, Ross- 
shire. 

FAIREMHEALL, mountain in Durness 
parish, Sutherland. 

FAIRFIELD, seat near the Clyde, be- 
tween Govan and Renfrew. 

FAIRFIELD, seat near Monkton village, 
Ayrshire. 

FAIRHOLM, seat near Larkhall, Lanark- 
shire. 

FAIR ISLE, island, nearly midway be- 



tween Orkney and Shetland. It measures 
upwards of 3 miles by nearly 2 ; is acces- 
sible at only one point ; rises into three 
lofty promontories ; and has a post office 
under Lerwick, and an Established church. 
Pop. 214. 

FAIRLEY, seat in Newhills parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

FAIRLIE, village and headland on Cun- 
ningham coast of Ayrshire. The village 
stands 3 miles south of Largs ; presents a 
pleasant appearance, with neat villas at its 
sides ; is overlooked by an old baronial 
fortalice ; and has a post office designated 
of Ayrshire, the terminal station of a 
branch railway opened in 1880, a steam- 
boat pier constructed in 1880-81, and 
Established and Free churches. Pop. 
665. The headland is 5 miles south- 
by-west of the village, and flanks north 
side of entrance of Ayr Bay. 

FAIRLIE, seat in Dundonald parish, 
Ayrshire. 

FAIRNESS, picturesque spot on Find- 
horn river, in Ardclach parish, Nairnshire. 

FAIRNEYSIDE, estate in Ayton parish, 
Berwickshire. 

FAIRNILEE, estate in Galashiels parish, 
Selkirkshire. 

FAIRNINGTON, hamlet in Roxburgh 
parish, Roxburghshire. 

FAIRYBRIDGE, place, 3 miles north of 
Dunvegan, Isle of Skye. 

FAIRY-KNOWE, eminence, with ancient 
Caledonian fort, above Bridge of Allan. 

FALA, village and parish on south-east 
verge of Edinburghshire. The village 
stands 15J miles south-east of Edinburgh ; 
has a parochial church, a United Presby- 
terian church, and a public school with 
about 57 scholars ; and is adjacent to 
Blackshiels post office village. — The parish 
contains also part of Fala-Dam village, and 
is united to the contiguous parish of Soutra 
in Haddingtonshire. The united parish 
measures about 4 miles by 3, and comprises 
3124 acres in Edinburghshire and 2940 in 
Haddingtonshire. Real property in 1880- 
81, £2698. Pop. 312. The northern 
section is level, or slightly undulating, and 
nearly all arable and fertile ; but the 
southern section, culminating in Soutra 
Hill, is a western portion of the Lam- 
mermoors, and mostly pastoral. See 
Soutra. 

FALA-DAM, village, f mile north-west 
of Fala village, Edinburghshire. 

FALA-HALL, quondam ancient baronial 
tower, about J mile north of Fala village, 
Edinburghshire. 

FALA-HILL, hamlet in Heriot parish, 
Edinburghshire. 

FALBEY, lake in Parton parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

FALDONSIDE, seat in Galashiels parish, 
Selkirkshire. 

FALDSHOPE, hill in Yarrow parish, 
Selkirkshire. 

FALFEARNIE, head-stream of the South 
Esk, in Cortachy parish, Forfarshire. 



FAL 



175 



FAR 



FALFIELD, seat in Kilconquhar parish, 
Fife. 

FALKIRK, town and parish in Stirling- 
shire. The town stands 11 miles south- 
east of Stirling ; was preceded by a mili- 
tary station of Antoninus' Wall ; took its 
name, originally Fallow -Kirk, from a 
church founded by Malcolm ni. in 1070 ; 
gives name to two famous battles, — the one, 
in 1298, on ground now partly covered by 
Grahamstown suburb — the other, in 1746, 
on ground now traversed by the Union 
Canal and the Edinburgh and Glasgow 
Railway; was never more than a mere 
village till comparatively modern times ; 
is now a parliamentary burgh, uniting 
with Linlithgow, Airdrie, Hamilton, and 
Lanark in sending a member to parlia- 
ment ; conducts much business in connec- 
tion with a weekly market, annual cattle 
' trysts,' and neighbouring mines and 
manufactories ; comprises a compact cen- 
tre on a slight rising-ground, and strag- 
gling disjointed suburbs on encompassing 
plain ; has a head post office with all 
departments, 2 railway stations, 5 banking 
offices, 5 hotels, burgh builHingB of 1877, 
a town hall of 1879, a spacious modern 
parochial church with ancient porch and 
steeple, a recent quoad sacra parochial 
church, 2 Free churches, 3 United Presby- 
terian churches, Congregational, Evangeli- 
cal Union, Baptist, Episcopalian, and Roman 
Catholic churches, an academy, and 3 
public schools ; and publishes 2 news- 
papers, one of them weekly, the other 
twice a week. Real property of the burgh 
in 1880-81, £41,783. Pop. 13,170.— The 
parish contains also Laurieston, Barley- 
side, and Glen, parts of Carron ironworks 
and Bonnybridge, and most of Grange- 
mouth. Its length is 9 miles ; its greatest 
breadth 3f miles; its area 19,551 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81 of landward 
parts, £20,916. Pop. of the whole, quoad 
civilia, 25,061; quoad sacra, 11,549. About 
a third of the land is flat rich carse ; and 
the ground south-westward thence rises 
gradually to a maximum height of about 
600 feet above sea-level, and is mostly 
arable, but includes some moor and moss. 
Coal is plentiful, and ironstone, limestone, 
and sandstone are found. Chief seats are 
Callendar, Kerse, and Bantaskine ; and 
chief antiquities are vestiges of Antoninus' 
Wall and remains of Castlecary. 21 
schools for 1889 scholars are in the parish, 
and 4 of them and an enlargement for 
1330 are new. 

FALKIRK AND KILSYTH, railway, pro- 
jected in 1882, to strike from the North 
British near Camelon, to go thence 10 
miles west-south-westward to Ejlsyth, and 
to send off a branch of f mile to the Denny 
line, in Stirlingshire. 

FALKLAND, town and parish in Cupar 
district, Fife. The town stands 2f mdes 
north-west of Falkland Road railway sta- 
tion and 8 south-west of Cupar ; is over- 
hung on the south-west by East Lomond 



Hill ; was long the capital of the stewartry 
of Fife, and a retreat of the Scottish kings 
amid a royal hunting forest ; had a castle, 
now extinct, in which Prince David, son 
of Robert III., suffered fearful cruelty, as 
narrated in Sir Walter Scott's Fair Maid 
of Perth; possesses considerable well- 
preserved remains of a royal palace ; ranks 
as a royal burgh without parliamentary 
representation ; and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
under Ladybank, a banking office, Estab- 
lished and Free churches, and a public 
school with about 201 scholars. Pop. 
972. — The parish contains also Freuchie 
town, Newton-of-Falkland and Balmbrae 
villages, and small part of Dunshalt. Its 
length is 6 miles ; its greatest breadth 4J 
miles ; its area 8265 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £15,484. Pop., quoad civilia, 
2698 ; quoad sacra, 1581. The surface in- 
cludes a portion of the valley of the Eden, 
rises southward thence into the Lomond 
Hills, descends thence to a low tract on the 
southern border, exhibits on the whole a 
beautiful diversity, and is adorned in many 
parts with wood. The chief seat is Nuthill ; 
and chief antiquities are traces of fortifica- 
tions on the Lomond Hills. Two public 
schools for 535 scholars are in the parish, 
and have recent enlargements for 169. 

FALKLAND (NEWTON OF), village about 
a mile east of Falkland, Fife. 

FALKLAND ROAD, railway station, 3 
miles north of Markinch, Fife. 

FALLEN ROCKS, steep rocky landslip, 
resembling an avalanche, on north-east 
coast of Arran Island, Buteshire. 

FALLIGOE, small sea -inlet in Wick 
parish, Caithness. 

FALLIN, small harbour on the Forth in 
St. Ninian's parish, Stirlingshire. 

FALLOCH, rivulet, running about 9 
mdes south-westward and southward to 
head of Loch Lomond. 

FALLSIDE, railway station, 1^ mile east 
of Uddingstone, Lanarkshire. 

FALSIDE, hill and ancient strong for- 
talice, 2 miles east of Inveresk, Edinburgh- 
shire. 

FALSIDE, seat, 4J miles south-west of 
Stonehaven, Kincardineshire. 

FANKERTON, village, 2 miles west of 
Denny, Stirlingshire. 

FANNA, lofty hill on south-east border 
of Hobkirk parish, Roxburghshire. 

FANNICH,alpinelake 1\ mileslong, engirt 
by mountains called Fannich Forest, aver- 
agely 18 miles west of Dingwall, Ross-shire. 

FANNYSIDE, lake and moor in Cumber- 
nauld parish, Dumbartonshire. 

FANS, village, 3 miles north-east of Earl- 
ston, Berwickshire. 

FARA, small island about a mile south- 
east of Hoy, Orkney. 

FARA, small island between South Uist 
and Barra, Outer Hebrides. 

FARAY. See Phaeat. 

FARDLEHILL, village in Kilmaurs parish, 
Ayrshire. 



FAR 



176 



FEA 



FARE, hill, about 17 miles in circuit, 
1545 feet high, averagely 18 miles west- 
by-south of Aberdeen. It was the scene 
of a battle in the Civil War of 1562. 

FARG, rivulet, running about 7 miles 
windingly to the Earn, at If mile north- 
west of Abernethy, Perthshire. 

FARIGAG, rivulet, running about 12 
miles tortuously, and traversing a deep 
defile, to south-east side of Loch Ness, at 
13 miles north-east of Fort - Augustus, 
Inverness-shire. 

FARKIN, small bay in upper part of 
west side of Loch Lomond. 

FARME, seat near Rutherglen, Lanark- 
shire. 

FARNELL, parish, containing Farnell 
Road railway station, 6J miles by railway 
south-east of Brechin, Forfarshire. It 
has a post office of its own name under 
Brechin. Its length is 5J miles ; its great- 
est breadth 3g miles ; its area 5703 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £8531. Pop. 
613. The northern section is flat land, 
adjacent to the South Esk ; and the other 
sections rise into a hill-ridge of no great 
height, and partly moorish. A chief 
object is Kinnaird Castle, the seat of the 
Earl of Southesk. The church is a hand- 
some modern edifice ; and the public 
school has about 123 scholars. 

FARNUA, ancient parish, now part of 
Kirkhill, Inverness-shire. 

FAROUTHEAD, promontory, faced with 
cliffs from 300 to 400 feet high, and pro- 
jecting 3 miles from adjacent coast to a 
point 7 miles east-by-south of Cape "Wrath, 
in Sutherland. 

FARR, hamlet and parish in north of 
Sutherland. The hamlet lies on the 
coast, 25 miles west-by-south of Thurso, 
and has a post office under Thurso, an inn, 
an ancient monolith, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
136 scholars. The parish measures 33 
miles in length, and 10 miles in greatest 
breadth. Real property in 1880-81, 
£10,198. Pop., quoad civilia, 1930; quoad 
sacra, 1140. The coast has, exclusive of 
sinuosities, a length of 11 miles ; is high, 
rocky, and cavernous ; and includes 
Strathy, Armadale, and Farr Heads, and 
Strathy and Farr Bays. The interior is 
mountainous, and rises to alpine height in 
the south, but includes all Strathnaver 
and Strathstrathy, and contains consider- 
able aggregate of low arable land in these 
straths and on the sea-board. The an- 
tiquities are standing stones, tumuli, 
dunes, and a ruined castle. Established 
and Free churches are at Strathy. Five 
schools for 355 scholars are in the parish, 
and 2 of them and enlargements for 164 
are new. 

FARR, estate, with post office under 
Inverness, mansion, and an ancient Cale- 
donian stone circle in Daviot parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

FARRAGON, mountain in Dull parish, 
Perthshire. 



FARRALARIE, lake in Golspie parish, 
Sutherland. 

FARRALINE, mountain lake in Dores 
parish, Inverness-shire. 

FARRAR, head-stream of Beauly river, 
Inverness-shire. 

FARSKANE, place, with coast cave and 
old chapel, in Rathven parish, Banffshire. 

FASBEN, or FASHVEN, mountain, 1504 
feet high, in Durness parish, Sutherland. 

FASKALLY, seat on the Tummel, near 
Pitlochrie, Perthshire. 

FASKINE, village and colliery in Old 
Monkland parish, Lanarkshire. Pop., with 
Palace Craig, 475. 

FASLANE, place, with vestiges of ancient 
castle and chapel, in Row parish, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

FASNACLOICH, estate, with post office 
under Ledaig, mansion, andlake, on Creran 
river, Lorn, Argyleshire. 

FASNAKYLE, estate, with mansion, 
Roman Catholic modern chapel, and old 
chapel and burying-ground, in Strathglass, 
Inverness-shire. 

FASNEY, affluent of the "Whitadder, on 
southern border of Haddingtonshire. 

FASQUE, seat of Sir Thomas Gladstone, 
Bart., IJ mile north of Fettercairn, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

FASSERN, seat on north side of upper 
part of Loch Eil, Inverness-shire. 

FAST CASTLE, quondam crown-fortalice, 
now a ruin, 7 miles north-west of Eye- 
mouth, Berwickshire. It stands on a 
precipitous peninsulated lofty rock, over- 
hanging the sea, made a considerable figure 
in history, commands an extensive impres- 
sive view, and may have suggested to Sir 
"Walter Scott some features of '"Wolf's 
Crag ' in his Bride of Lammermoor. 

FATLIPS, conspicuous recently -recon- 
structed old castle, on crown of Minto 
Crags, Roxburghshire. 

FATLIPS, ancient castle, now a frag- 
mentary ruin, on south-east skirt of Tinto 
Mountain, Lanarkshire. 

FAULD, burn, running to the Briech, in 
south-west corner of Linlithgowshire. 

FAULDHOUSE, town and quoad sacra 
parish on Fauld burn, 3J miles south- 
south-west of "Whitburn, Linlithgowshire. 
The town has a post office, with money order 
and telegraph departments, designated of 
Linlithgowshire, a railway station, an 
Established church, and a Roman Catholic 
chapel. Pop. of town with Crofthead, 
3000 ; of quoad sacra parish, 3933. 

FAUNGRASS, small affluent of the 
Blackadder, at 2 miles west-north-west of 
Greenlaw, Berwickshire. 

FEA, eminence, with precipitous cavern- 
ous sea-front, in Cross section of Sanday 
Island, Orkney. 

FEACHAN, or FEOCHAN, sea-loch open- 
ing from Firth of Lorn at 5J miles south- 
by-west of Oban, Argyleshire. It is flanked 
by high rocky promontories, and it strikes 
about 5 mdes, first south-eastward, next 
north-eastward, up to fine glen scenery. 



FEA 



177 



FER 



FEACHORY, upper reach of Erichkie 
river, Perthshire. 

FEA-DRUM, north end of hill-range, on 
mutual border of Sutherland and Caithness. 

FEARN, parish, -with church 7J miles 
west of Brechin, Forfarshire. It has a 
post office under Brechin. Its length is 
5f miles ; its greatest breadth nearly 3| 
miles ; its area 8792 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £5183. Pop. 316. About 
one-fourth of the surface is part of Strath- 
more, and the rest rises to a watershed of 
the Grampians. The public school has 
about 50 scholars. 

FEARN, hamlet and parish on east coast 
of Boss. The hamlet lies 3^ miles south- 
east of Tain, and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Ross-shire, a railway station, 
a parochial church, a Free church, and a 
public school with about 180 scholars. 
The parochial church is a reconstructed 
part of an ancient abbey in early pointed 
architecture, adjoined by a part in state of 
ruin. — The parish contains also Hilltown 
and Ballintore villages, and measures 2 
miles in length and nearly 2 in breadth. 
Real property in 1880-81, £10,467. Pop. 
2135. The coast is partly flat and sandy, 
partly bold and rocky ; and the interior 
includes a few eminences, but is mostly 
low and nearly flat. Interesting objects 
are an ancient sculptured pillar, Lochslin 
Castle, and vestiges of Cadboll Castle. 
There are 3 public schools, all new, for 378 
scholars. 

FECHLEY, mound, upwards of 60 feet 
high, engirt Ly wide deep fosse, and 
crowDed by vitrified remains of a tower, 
in Towie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

FEDERATE, ruined ancient fortalice in 
New Deer parish, Aberdeenshire. 

FELL, small lake in Mochrum parish, 
Wigtonshire. 

FENDER, burn, running 5 miles from 
Benygloe to lower part of the Tilt, in 
Athole, Perthshire. It makes three pic- 
turesque cascades. 

FENDER-BRIDGE, hamlet on Fender 
burn, Perthshire. It has a post office 
under Blair- Athole. 

FENDOCH, Roman camp in Monzie par- 
ish, Perthshire. 

FENELLA, isolated lofty hill-ridge in 
Fordoun parish, Kincardineshire. 

FENELLA'S. ruined ancient castle, said 
to have been the place where King Ken- 
neth in. was murdered, about a mile west 
of Fettercairn, Kincardineshire. 

FENTON, village in Dirleton parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

FENTONBARNS, estate in Dirleton par- 
ish, Haddingtonshire. 

FENWICK, village and parish in Cun- 
ningham, Ayrshire. The village stands on 
a rivulet of its own name, 4 miles north-by- 
east of Kilmarnock, and has a post office 
with money order department under Kil- 
marnock, Established, Free, and United 
Presbyterian churches, and a public 



school with about 97 scholars. The 
parish is about 9 miles long and 6 miles 
broad, and comprises 18,134 acres. Real 
property in 1879-80, £15,639. Pop. 1152. 
The surface slopes gently from boundary 
with Renfrewshire to the south-west, and 
lies averagely at considerable elevation 
above sea-level, but as seen from distant 
hill-tops appears all a plain ; and, at 
about middle of 17th century, was re- 
garded as moorland, but is now, with 
small exception, either in tillage or in 
pasture. An interesting place in it is 
Lochgoin, very famous in the history of 
the Covenanters. There are 3 schools for 
207 scholars, and 1 of them for 120 is new. 

FENZIES, lake in Lethendy parish, 
Perthshire. 

FEOCHAN. See Feaohan. 

FEOLINE, place on south coast of Jura 
Island, with ferry station to Islay, Argyle- 
shire. 

FEORLIG, farm, with large cairns, near 
head of Loch Roag, Isle of Skye. 

FERDUN, stream, running southward to 
the Luther, Kincardineshire. 

FERENEZE, hill-group from 2 to 5 miles 
south-west of Paisley, Renfrewshire. They 
include Gleniffer and Stanley Braes, have 
summits from 700 to about 900 feet high, 
and command rich, diversified, extensive 
views. 

FERGUS, small lake in Ayr parish, Ayr- 
shire. 

FERGUSHILL, village and colliery in Kil- 
winning parish, Ayrshire. The village has 
a chapel-of-ease, erected in 1879, and a pub- 
lic school with about 268 scholars. Pop. 537. 

FERGUSLIE, western suburb of Paisley, 
Renfrewshire. The estate on which it 
stands belonged to Paisley Abbey, was 
divided, and retains vestiges of an ancient 
baroniai fortalice. 

FERGUS (ST.), village and parish belong- 
ing to Banffshire, but situated about 17 
mO.es east-south-east of nearest part of 
main body of that county. The village 
stands on the coast, 5 miles north-north- 
west of Peterhead , and has a post office und er 
Peterhead, Established, Free, and Baptist 
churches, and a public school with about 
147 scholars. Pop. 241. — The parish con- 
tains also Inverugie village, and measures 
5^ miles in length, 3J miles in greatest 
breadth, and 8856 acres in area. Real 
property in 1880-81, £8771. Pop. 1527. 
The coast is low and sandy ; the sea- 
board is mainly an expanse of rich meadow 
or ' links ; ' and the interior is an alterna- 
tion of fine rising grounds and vales. A 
chief object is the ruin of Inverugie Castle. 
4 schools for 299 scholars are in the parish, 
and 3 of them for 270 are new. 

FERGUS (ST.), ancient parish, now part 
of Halkirk, in Caithness. 

FERGUSTON, place, with vestiges of 
Antoninus' "Wall, in New Kilpatrick 
parish, Dumbartonshire. 

FERINTOSH, barony in eastern vicinity 
of Dingwall, Ross-shire. It belongs to 



FER 



178 



FET 



Nairnshire, but lies 13 miles west of 
nearest part of main body of that county ; 
it comprises about 5973 acres ; it had, from 
1746 till 1786, the privilege of distilling 
whisky from grain of its own growth free 
of duty ; and it has now a post office under 
Dingwall, and a public school with about 

^FERNESS*, or FERSNESS, bay and 

promontory on west side of Eday Island, 
Orkney. 

FERNIE, estate, with ancient strong- 
fortalice, believed to have been a castle 
of Macduff, 3 miles west of Cupar, Fife. 

FERNIE-EASTER, village near Fernie 
Castle, Fife. 

FERNIEGAIR, village and colliery be- 
tween Hamilton and Larkhall, Lanark- 
shire. The village has a railway station, 
and a public school, erected in 1876 at a 
cost of nearly £4000, with accommodation 
for 250 scholars. Pop. 551. 

FERNIEHIRST, massive castellated seat 
of Marquis of Lothian's ancestors, on Jed 
river, 2 miles south of Jedburgh, Rox- 
burghshire. It was erected in 1598, and 
afterwards enlarged and altered; and it 
occupies the site of a historical castle 
erected in 1490 and destroyed in 1570. 

FERNIN, place, with post office under 
Aberfeldy. Perthshire. 

FERNMORE, headland at south side of 
entrance of Loch Torridon, Ross-shire. 

FERNTOWER, a seat of Lord Aber- 
cromby, formerly the seat of the martial 
Sir David Baird, 1J mile north-north-east 
of Crieff, Perthshire. 

FERRYBANK, seat in Cupar parish, 
Fife. 

FERRYDEN, fishing town on South 
Esk river, and on Arbroath and Montrose 
Railway, opposite Montrose harbour, For- 
farshire. It is suburban to Montrose, and 
has a post office under Montrose, and a 
public school with about 160 scholars. 
Pop. 1514. 

FERRY (EAST and WEST). See 
Broughty Ferry. 

FERRYFIELD, print-works in Vale of 
Leven, near Bonhill, Dumbartonshire. 

FERRYHILL, south-western suburb of 
Aberdeen. It stands at deflection of 
Deeside Railway from the Caledonian ; 
has a railway station, and Established and 
Free churches ; and is main part of a quoad 
sacra parish, with pop. of 4941. 

FERRYHILL, peninsula at North Queens- 
ferry, Fife. 

FERRY (LITTLE and MEIKLE), ferries 
on Dornoch Firth, 7 and 3 miles west- 
north-west of Tain, Ross-shire. 

FERRY -PORT -ON -CRAIG, town and 
parish in extreme north-east of Fife. 
The town stands on Firth of Tay, oppo- 
site Broughty Ferry ; sprang from an 
ancient ferry ; took the alternative name 
of Tayport at formation of the Edinburgh, 
Perth, and Dundee Railway ; acquired 
then extensive harbour-works and station- 
buildings for the railway's communication 



with Broughty Ferry ; became afterwards 
a sea-bathing resort ; and has a post office, 
with money order and telegraph depart- 
ments, of the name of Tayport, Fife, a 
banking office, a hotel, Established, Free, 
and United Presbyterian churches, and a 
new public school with accommodation for 
576 scholars. — The parish measures 4 miles 
in length, 1^ mile in extreme breadth, and 
2758 acres in area. Be=i] property in 
1880-81, £10,360. Pop. 2818. The coast 
extends round Tentsmoor Point to the 
German Ocean ; and the land is low 
and flat in the east, but high and rocky in 
the west. 

FESHIE, river rising among the Central 
Grampians, and running about 25 miles, 
chiefly northward, down a picturesque 
glen to the Spey, opposite Alvie church, 
Inverness-shire. 

FESHIE - BRIDGE, hamlet on Feshie 
river, Inverness-shire. It has a post 
office under Kingussie. 

FETHELAND, islet in Northmaven parish, 
Shetland. 

FETHERAY. See Fiddrie. 

FETLAR, island, 3 miles east of Yell, 
and 4 south of Unst, Shetland. It mea- 
sures about 3^ miles by 2 ; is much 
indented round its coast ; presents a 
bare, tumulated surface, nowhere higher 
than about 300 feet ; forms a quoad sacra 
parish ; and has a post office under Ler- 
wick, Established, and Free churches, and 
a public school. Pop. 431. 

FETLAR AND NORTH YELL, parish 
comprising Fetlar Island and northern 
part of Yell, in Shetland. Real property 
in 1880-81, £1878. Pop. 1252.— The Yell 
portion contains Gloup, Midbrake, and 
Greenbank seats, and some antiquities ; 
and, as to coast and surface, will be noticed 
in our account of Yell. The church in it 
is modern, and contains 327 sittings. Four 
schools for 234 scholars are in the parish, 
and 3 of them for 180 are new. 

FETTERANGUS, village, 2 miles north- 
north-west of Mintlaw, Aberdeenshire. It 
has a post office under Mintlaw. Pop. 364. 

FETTERCAIRN, village and parish on 
south-west border of Kincardineshire. 
The village stands 4J miles west-by- 
north of Laurencekirk, and has a post 
office with all departments under 
Laurencekirk, a banking office, 2 inns, 
Established and Free churches, and a 
public school with about 96 scholars. 
Pop. 398. — The parish measures 8 miles 
by 4|, and comprises 13,728 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £12,128. Pop. 1503. 
The surface includes part of the Lower 
Grampians and part of the How of Mearns ; 
and is bounded for 5 miles, on the south- 
west and south, by the North Esk. Chief 
seats are Fettercairn House, Fasque, and 
Burn ; and a chief antiquity is Fenella's 
Castle. An Episcopalian chapel is at 
Fasque. Four schools for 465 scholars 
are in the parish, and one of them for 
120 is new. 



FET 



179 



FIN 



FETTERESSO, parish, containing Skate- 
row village and part of Stonehaven town, 
on coast of Kincardineshire. Its length is 
8f miles ; its greatest breadth 5J miles ; 
its area 27,245 acres. Heal property in 
1880-81, £36,276. Pop., quoad civilia, 
5541 ; quoad sacra, 3093. Carron river 
traces the southern boundary, and Cowie 
river runs across the southern district. 
The tracts adjacent to these streams are 
low, rich, and beautiful ; but the surface 
to the north of them is irregular, diversi- 
fied with hills, and partly bleak. Chief 
seats are Fetteresso Castle, Ury, Rickar- 
ton, Muchalls, Elsick, Netherby, Cowie, 
Berryhill, and Newhall ; and chief antiqui- 
ties are Thane's Castle, a Roman camp, 
and numerous ancient Caledonian monu- 
ments. The parochial church stands near 
Stonehaven, and contains 1600 sittings ; 
quoad sacra parochial churches are at 
Cookney and Rickarton ; a United Presby- 
terian church is in Stonehaven ; and an 
Episcopalian chapel is at Muchalls. 12 
schools for 1053 scholars are in the parish, 
and 3 of them and an enlargement for 
652 are new. 

FETTERNEAR, estate, with mansion 
and Roman Catholic chapel, on the Don, 
in Chapel of Garioch parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

FEUGH, rivulet, running about 12 miles 
north-north-eastward to the Dee, at Ban- 
chory, Kincardineshire. 

FEWN, lake, 3| miles south-east of 
Inver, south-west border of Sutherland. 

FLAG, lake, glen, and burn 7 miles 
southward to Loch Shin, Sutherland. 

FIDDICK, rivulet, running about 12 
miles curvingly toward the north to the 
Spey, near Craigellachie, Banffshire. 

FIDDLER, burn and ravine in Carluke 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

FIDDRIE, or FETHERAY, rocky islet, 
with ruins of small chapel, off Dirleton 
coast, Haddingtonshire. 

FIELD-CRAIGHTON, hamlet in New 
Kilpatrick parish, Dumbartonshire. 
FIFE. See Fifeshiee. 
FIFE-KEITH, section or suburb of Keith 
town, Banffshire. 

FIFENESS, headland at eastern extrem- 
ity of Fife, flanking north side of entrance 
of Firth of Forth. 

FIFESHIRE, or FIFE, peninsular mari- 
time county, between Firth of Tay and 
Firth of Forth. It measures, exclusive of 
sinuosities, 18 miles along Firth of Tay, 
13f miles along German Ocean, 41 miles 
along Firth of Forth, and 24 miles along 
landward border, and comprises 513 square 
miles. The north coast is mostly a gentle 
slope ; the east coast partly flat sandy 
beach, partly rocky; the south coast 
mostly a series of indentation, projection, 
and curvature by small bays and headlands. 
The western border includes a skirt of the 
Ochil Hills, contains most of the Lomond 
Hills, part of Binarty Hill, and all the 
Saline Hills, and is much and pleasantly 



diversified. The middle and eastern sec- 
tions are mostly valley and undulation, 
but contain many rising - grounds, some 
considerable softly - featured hills, and 
occasional bold broken heights, and may 
be regarded as a good epitome of the best 
portions of the Scottish Lowlands. The 
chief rivers are the Eden and the Leven. 
Carboniferous rocks underlie a large por- 
tion of the area, and are rich in coal and 
limestone. About four-fifths of the land 
are arable, and in well-cultivated condi- 
tion. Linen manufacture is a prominent 
industry, and has great celebrity in its 
damask department at Dunfermline. 
Commerce is carried on at numerous 
ports, especially on the Forth, and is 
prominent at the head port of Kirkcaldy 
and the sub-port of Burntisland. Fish- 
eries also are extensive, and have head- 
quarters at Anstruther. The towns with 
each more than 5000 inhabitants are 
Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy, Cupar, and St. 
Andrews ; with each more than 2000 are 
Burntisland, Anstruther, Dysart, Buck- 
haven, Auchtermuchty, Leslie, Leven, 
Lochgelly, Newburgh, and Ferry-Port-on- 
Craig ; with each more than 1000 are 
Inverkeithing, Kinghorn, Pittenweem, 
St. Monance, West "Wemyss, Markinch, 
Freuchie, Cowdenbeath, and Crail ; and 
the villages with each more than 300 
amount to sixty -one. The territory 
belonged to the Caledonian Horestii ; was 
overrun by the Romans ; became a promi- 
nent portion of Pictavia ; passed early to 
the Scoto-Saxon kings ; became subject to 
the Thanes or Earls of Fife ; made some 
figure in the wars of the Succession, and a 
very great figure in the Reformation ; is 
now sometimes popularly called the King- 
dom of Fife; and has given, since 1759, 
the title of earl to the family of Duff. 
Monuments of all its old times are numer- 
ous and various ; and specially interesting 
ones are at Dunfermline, St. Andrews, and 
Falkland. Real property in 1880-81, 
£757,274. Pop., in 1871, 159,630; in 
1881, 171,960. 

FIGGET.bum, running northward to Firth 
of Forth at Portobello, Edinburghshire. 

FILLAN, highest head-stream of the 
Tay, running 10 miles eastward down 
Strathfillan to head of Glendochart, 
Pei'thshire. 

FILLAN'S (ST.), village on the Earn, 5J 
miles west of Comrie, Perthshire. It has 
a post office under Crieff, a hotel, a Free 
church, and a public school. St. Fillan's 
Hill, f mile east-south-east of the village, 
is verdant, conical, and about 600 feet 
high, terminates in a rock called St. 
Fillan's Chair, and commands a unique 
and very striking view. 

FINAVON. See Finhaven. 

FINCASTLE, section of Dull parish, on 
north side of the Tummel, 5J miles north- 
west of Pitlochrie, Perthshire. It has a 
post office under Pitlochrie, a mansion of 
its own name, and ruins of about 15 ancient 



FIN 



180 



FIN 



castles, and it gives the title of viscount 
to the Earl of Dunmore. 

FINDAYNATE, seat on the Tay, between 
Logierait and Weem, Perthshire. 

FINDHORN, river, rising on Monadhleadh 
Mountains in Inverness-shire, running to 
Moray Firth in Elginshire, traversing rich 
variety of picturesque scenery, forming in 
its lowest reach a lagoon 3 miles long, and 
making a total run of 57 miles measured 
in straight .line north - eastward, but of 
about 85 miles along its bed. Its Gaelic 
name is Erne, and its mountain vale is 
called Strathdern. 

FINDHORN, village on right side of 
mouth of Findhorn river, 5 miles north- 
by-east of Forres, Elginshire. It has a 
post office under Forres, a Free church, 
and a public school with about 114 scholars. 
Pop. 605. 

FINDLATER, ruined strong ancient 
castle, on peninsulated sea-cliff 4 miles 
west of Portsoy, Banffshire. It gave the 
title of earl, from 1683 till 1811, to the 
family of Ogilvie. 

FINDLAY-SEAT, hill, 1116 feet high, 4| 
miles south-east of Elgin. 

FINDOCHTY, fishing-village, 3£ miles 
west of Cullen, Banffshire. It has a well- 
sheltered harbour, and a United Presby- 
terian church. Pop. 936. 

FINDOGASK. See Gask. 

FINDON,*, estate on Cromarty Firth, 5 
miles north-north-east of Dingwall, Boss- 
shire. 

FINDON, or FINNAN, fishing-village, 6 
miles south-west of Aberdeen. It gave name 
to the famous dried haddock. Pop. 156. 

FINDRACK, seat in Lumphanan parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

FINDRASSIE, estate in New Spynie 
parish, Elginshire. 

FINE. See Ftne. 

FINGAL'S CAVE. See Staffa. 

FINGAL'S FORT, ancient circular struc- 
ture in Killean parish, Argyleshire. 

FINGAL'S FORT, or KNOCKFIN, bold 
high crag, crowned with double concentric 
ancient structure, figuring conspicuously 
in Strathglass, Inverness-shire. 

FINGAL'S SEAT. See Ait-Suidh- 
Thuin. 

FINGAL'S STEPS, acclivitous natural 
stair on shoulder of lofty mountain in 
Morvern parish, Argyleshire. 

FINGASK, a seat of Sir Patrick M. 
Thriepland, Bart., in Kilspindie parish, 
Perthshire. It is a castellated edifice, 
partly ancient, partly modern. 

FINGASK, seat in Daviot parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

FINGASK, seat in Kirkhill parish, In- 
verness-shire. 

FINGLAND, hill and cascade of about 56 
feet, in Eskdalemuir parish, Dumfriesshire. 

FINGLEN, picturesque glen, with burn 
and cascade, in Campsie parish, Stirling- 
shire. 

FINGLETON, estate in Mearns parish, 
Renfrewshire. 



FINHAVEN, hamlet, fragment of ancient 
noble castle, hill-range with vitrified fort, 
and estate, in Oathlaw parish, Forfar- 
shire. That parish itself was formerly 
called Finhaven. 

FINK (ST.), site of extinct hamlet, with 
vestiges of ancient chapel, 2| miles east- 
north-east of Blairgowrie, Perthshire. 

FINLAGAN, lake in centre of Islay 
Island, Argyleshire. It measures about 3 
miles in circuit, and has an islet with 
ruined ancient castle of the Lords of the 
Isles. 

FINLARIG, ruined ancient noble castle 
on north-west side of upper part of Loch 
Tay, Perthshire. It figures in Sir Walter 
Scott's Fair Maid of Perth. 

FINLAS, stream running to Loch Lo- 
mond, in Luss parish, Dumbartonshire. 

FINLAYS, remnant of old castle in 
Nairn parish, Nairnshire. 

FINLAYSTON, seat in Kilmalcolm 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

FINNAN. See Findon and Glen- 
finnan. 

FINNAN (ST.), small island, with ruins 
of ancient church, in Loch Shiel, on 
mutual border of Argyleshire and Inver- 
ness-shire. 

FINNART, glen, descending eastward to 
Loch Long, at Ardentinny, Argyleshire. 

FINNART, seat and mountain on east 
side of Loch Long, in Bow parish, Dum- 
bartonshire. 

FINNART, headland at mouth of Loch 
Byan, at south-west extremity of Ayrshire. 

FINNIESTON, suburb of Glasgow on the 
Clyde, to the west of Anderston. It has 
a Free church founded in 1877, estimated 
to cost £11,250, and a public school with 
about 643 scholars. 

FINNYFOLD, village in Cruden parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

FINSLAY, place, with public school, in 
Harris, Outer Hebrides. 

FINSTOWN, hamlet, 6 miles west-north- 
west of Kirkwall, Orkney. It has a post 
office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, designated of Orkney. 

FINTRAY, parish, with church, on left 
side of the Don, 8 miles west of Aberdeen. 
It has a post office under Aberdeen. Its 
length along the Don is nearly 6 miles ; 
its greatest length northward is nearly 5 
miles ; its area is 7319 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £8299. Pop. 1032. The 
surface rises gradually from the Don, 
declines again toward the north, and is 
nowhere higher than about 300 feet. 
Fintray House is a seat of Sir William 
Forbes, Bart. The church is modern, and 
has nearly 800 sittings. There are 2 
schools for 240 scholars, and 1 of them 
and an enlargement for 177 are new. 

FINTRY, village and parish in Stir- 
lingshire. The village stands on 
Endrick river, 6 miles east-south-east 
of Balfron, and has a post office under 
Glasgow, a parochial church, and a 
public school. — The parish contains also 



FIN 



181 



FLE 



Gonochan and Clachan villages, and mea- 
sures about 6 miles by 5. Acres, 13,772. 
Beal property in 1880-81, £5252. Pop. 
414. The surface consists of three 
groups of the Lennox Hills and two 
intersecting vales, and exhibits much 
picturesqueness. The Bndrick rises in 
the northern group, called distinctively 
Fintry Hills ; and it makes a detour to 
the east, acquires force and volume on 
turning to the west, and makes a leap of 
90 feet, called Loup of Fintry. An old, 
strong, historical castle stood on south 
side of Fintry Hills, gives the title of 
baron to the Duke of Montrose, and is 
now reduced to mere vestiges. Calcreuch 
House, at west extremity of Fintry Hills, 
is an interesting mansion. The parochial 
church is modern, and contains 500 
sittings. There are 3 schools for 234 
scholars, and 1 of them for 90 is new. 

FINTRY, extinct ancient strong castle 
in Mains parish, Forfarshire. 

FINTRY, place in Turriff parish, Aber- 
deenshire. It has a public school with 
about 83 scholars. 

FINYEAN, seat in Birse parish, Aber- 
deenshire. 

FIOGHAN, mountain in Balquhidder 
parish, Perthshire. 

FIONN, lake, 7 miles long, in Greinord 
district, west coast, Boss-shire. It has 
winding shores, and is engirt by grand 
mountains. 

FIONNCHAIRN, ruined ancient castle 
on Loch Awe, in Glassary parish, Argyle- 
shire. 

FIR, burn running to the Lossie in 
Dallas parish, Elginshire. 

FIRDON, rivulet running to the sea in 
Applecross parish, Boss-shire. 

FIRTTATiTi, seat in Nairn parish, Nairn- 
shire. 

FIRKIN, headland on west side of Loch 
Lomond, 3J miles south-by-east of Tarbet, 
Dumbartonshire. 

FIRMOUTH, lofty mountain in Glen- 
tanner, south border of Aberdeenshire. 

FIRTH AND STENNESS, conjoint parish 
in south-west of Orkney. It lies mainly 
in Pomona, averagely 6f miles north-east 
of Stromness, but includes the islets of 
Damsay and Holm of Grimbister ; and it 
has a post office of Stenness, designated 
of Orkney. Its length is 8^ miles ; its 
greatest breadth 3J miles. Beal property 
in 1880-81, £3246. Pop., quoad civilia, 
1362 ; quoad sacra, 713. The surface is 
mostly moorish. The only seat is Burness. 
Stenness lake and ancient monuments are 
striking features, but will be separately 
noticed. The churches are 2 Established, 2 
Free, and 1 United Presbyterian. There 
are 2 schools for 260 scholars, and 1 of 
them and an enlargement for 183 are new. 

FIRTHS, voe or bay in Delting parish, 
Shetland. 

FISHCROSS, village in Clackmannan 
parish, Clackmannanshire. Pop. 114. 

FISHERIE, place, 7i miles from Turriff, 



Aberdeenshire. It has a post office under 
Turriff. 

FISHERROW, section of Musselburgh, 
on left bank of the Esk, Edinburghshire. 
It is mainly a fishing town, but includes 
Musselburgh harbour, has a post office 
with money order department under 
Musselburgh, and contains North Esk 
Established church, a United Presbyterian 
church, and a public school with about 
183 scholars. Pop. 4356. 

FISHERTON, fishing hamlet, and quoad 
sacra parish, 6 miles south-west of Ayr. 
Pop. of the parish, 609. 

FISHERTOWN, section of Cullen town, 
Banffshire. 

FISH-HOLM, islet in Delting parish, 
Shetland. 

FISHLIN, islet, 6 miles south of Yell, 
Shetland. 

FISHWICK, ancient parish, now part of 
Hutton, Berwickshire. 

FITFUL HEAD, bold promontory, 929 
feet high, 5J miles north-west of Sum- 
burgh Head, Shetland. 

FITHIE, lake in Forfar parish , Forfarshire. 

FITHIE, rivulet, running about 9 miles 
south-eastward to lower part of the Dighty, 
Forfarshire. 

FITTICKS (ST.), ancient church or parish 
now called Nigg, Kincardineshire. 

FITTIE, lake, 3 miles north-north-east of 
Dunfermline, Fife. 

FITTY, hill in Westray island, Orkney. 

FIVE-MILE-HOUSE, place, 3 miles from 
Lochee, Forfarshire. It has a post office 
under Dundee. 

FLADDA, island between Baasay and 
Bona, 11 miles north-east of Portree, in 
Skye, Inverness-shire. Pop. 54. 

FLADDA, island between North Uist and 
Benbecula, Outer Hebrides. Pop. 87. 

FLADDA, island at mouth of Loch 
Besort, Harris, Outer Hebrides. 

FLADDA, islet in Barra parish, Outer 
Hebrides. 

FLADDA, islet, 41 miles south-east of 
Aird Point, Isle of Skye. 

FLADDA, one of the Treshinish isles, 
near Mull, Argyleshire. 

FLADDA-CHUAIN, islet, 6 miles north- 
west of Aird Point, Isle of Skye. 

FLANDERS, tract of about 10,000 acres 
extending 13 miles eastward along the 
Forth to vicinity of Stirling. It was 
formerly all moss, — became so by destruc- 
tion of great forest in time of the Bomans ; 
and has with vast labour and skill been 
extensively reclaimed. 

FLANNAN, or FLANNEL, group of seven 
isles, with vast flocks of sea-fowl and 
remains of what are called Druidical 
temples, 15 miles west-north-west of 
Gallan-Head, in Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

FLASHEDDAR, section of Duirinish 
parish, Isle of Skye. 

FLAWCRAIG, hamlet in Kinnaird parish, 
Perthshire. 

FLEET, small river running about 12 
miles southward and expanding into fine 



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bay 3J miles long, in western division of 
Kirkcudbrightshire. 

FLEET, small river running about 11 
miles south-eastward, expanding into tidal 
lagoon 4J miles long and about a mile 
wide, and going thence 1J mile eastward 
to Dornoch Firth, in south-east of Suther- 
land. A mound with public road crosses 
the lagoon ; has arches and sluices for the 
water-way; and was constructed in 1816 
at a cost of £12,500. 

FLEMINGTON, village near Strathavon, 
Lanarkshire. Pop. 691. 

FLEMINGTON, seat, lake, and two 
estates in Petty parish, Inverness-shire. 

FLEMINGTON, strong, stately, old cas- 
tellated mansion in Aberlemno parish, 
Forfarshire. 

FLEMINGTON, three conjoint places in 
Ay ton parish, Berwickshire. 

FLEMINGTON, burn running to the 
Lyne in Newlands parish, Peeblesshire. 

FLEURS. See FLOORS. 

FLINT, lofty hill in Stobo parish, Peebles- 
shire. 

FLISK, parish on Firth of Tay averagely 
3 miles east-by -north of Newburgh, on north 
border of Fife. Its post town is Cupar. 
Its length is fully 4 miles ; its greatest 
breadth about 1^ mile ; its area 2614 acres. 
Eeal property in 1880-81, £4436. Pop. 
259. The surface is nearly level adja- 
cent to the firth, and rises thence rapidly 
into part of a hill-range about 750 feet 
high. A chief object is Ballanbreich 
Castle. The churches are Established and 
Free ; and the public school has accommo- 
dation for 71 scholars. 

FLOAT, small bay in Stoneykirk parish, 
"Wigtonshire. 

FLOAT-MOSS, long reach of low fre- 
quently-overflooded meadow-land on the 
Clyde, in Pettinain, Carnwath, and Car- 
stairs parishes, Lanarkshire. 

FLODDA. See FLADDA. 

FLOORS, chief seat of the Duke of Rox- 
burghe, adjacent to the Tweed, about a 
mile west of Kelso, Roxburghshire. It 
was erected in 1718, is in the Tudor 
style, and has rich grounds and gardens. 

FLOORS, pleasant low hill-range in 
Avondale parish, Lanarkshire. 

FLORIDA, part of Prospect Hill village, 
near Queen's Park, suburban to Glasgow. 

FLOTTA, island near mouth of Long- 
hope, 10 miles south-south-east of Strom- 
ness, Orkney. It measures 3£ miles by 
3 ; is famous as the place where the old 
Scottish topographical work called Codex 
Flotticensis was written ; and has a post 
office under Stromness, a good harbour, 
and an Established church. 

FLOTTA-CALF, islet near Flotta, Orkney. 

FLOWERDALE, a seat of Sir Kenneth S. 
Mackenzie, Bart., at head of Gairloch, in 
Eoss-shire. 

FLOWERHILL, quoad sacra parish, with 
church in Airdrie, Lanarkshire. Pop. 4127. 

FLUDHA, seat near Kirkcudbright. 

FOCHABERS, town on the Spey, adjacent 



to Gordon Castle, 4 miles north-east of a 
railway station of its own name, and 9 by 
road south-east-by-east of Elgin. It has a 
head post office with all departments, 2 
banking offices, 3 good inns, Established, 
Free, Episcopalian, and Eoman Catholic 
churches, and Milne's free school erected in 
1846 from a bequest of £20, 000. Pop. 1189. 

FODDERTY, parish, containing Strath- 
peffer Spa and post office, Auchterneid and 
Keithtown villages, and most of Mary- 
burgh, in Ross-shire. Its length is 15 
miles ; its breadth 9 miles. Real property 
in 1880-81, £12,584. Pop., quoad civilia, 
2047 ; quoad sacra, 1880. The surface 
includes Strathpeffer valley, but elsewhere 
infringes on Benwyvis, and is very moun- 
tainous. A chief seat is Castle Leod ; and 
a chief antiquity is a large vitrified fort on 
Knockfarrel. The churches are 2 Estab- 
lished and 2 Free ; and there are 3 schools 
with accommodation for 332 scholars. 

FOFFARTY, estate in Kinnettles parish, 
Forfarshire. 

FOGO, parish, with hamlet of its own 
name, 3J miles south-south-west of Dunse, 
Berwickshire. Its post town is Dunse. 
Its length is 5 miles ; its greatest breadth 
scarcely 2\ miles ; its area 4652 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £7955. Pop. 
468. The surface consists of two low 
parallel ridges, separated by the Black- 
adder. The seats are Caldra and Charter- 
hall, and the only antiquity is the vestige 
of a Roman camp. The public school has 
accommodation for 123 scholars. 

FOINAVEN, massive ridgy mountain, 
3015 feet high, in Edderachyllis parish, 
Sutherland. 

FOINVEN, mountain, 6| miles east of 
Kinlochewe, Ross-shire. 

FOLDA, place, 13 miles north-by-west of 
Alyth, Perthshire. It has a post office 
under Alyth. 

FOLLART, sea-loch, more commonly 
called Dunvegan, in west of Skye island. 

FOODIE, .hill in Dairsie parish, Fife. 

FOOTDEE, suburb or section of Aberdeen. 

FOPACHY, harbour in Kirkhill parish, 
Inverness-shire. 

FORBES, old parish, now united to 
Tullynessle, Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Aberdeen, and it gives the peer- 
age title of baron to the family of Forbes, 
whose seat is Castle-Forbes, in Keig parish. 

FORD, village, 10J miles south-east of 
Edinburgh. It has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Dalkeith, and a United Presbyterian church. 

FORD, hamlet on Loch Awe, in Glassary 
parish, Argyleshire. It has a post office 
under Lochgilphead, and a public school 
with about 43 scholars. 

FORD, hamlet on south-west border of 
Forfarshire, near Coupar- Angus. 

FORDEL, village in Dalgetty parish, Fife. 
Pop. 488. Collieries, Fordel mansion, and a 
wooded glen with cascade are in its vicinity. 

FORDER, burn in Marykirk parish, 
Kincardineshire. 



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FORDOUN, village and parish in Kin- 
cardineshire. The village stands 2 miles 
north-west of a railway station of its 
own name, and 4£ north-north-east of 
Laurencekirk, and has a head post office 
with all departments, a hotel, Established 
and Free churches, and 2 public schools 
with about 172 scholars. The parish con- 
tains also Auchinblae village, measures 
about 9£ miles in length and 7 in greatest 
breadth, and comprises 26,869 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £23,221. Pop. 1992. 
The surface includes part of the How of 
Mearns, and ascends thence, in diversity 
of hills with intersecting vales, to a water- 
shed of the Lower Grampians. The chief 
seats are Fordoun House, Phesdo, Mon- 
boddo, and Drumtochty ; and the chief 
antiquities are Kincardine Castle ruins, 
part of a Roman camp, and remains of 
two ancient Caledonian stone circles. For- 
doun was the residence of the author of 
the Scoto-Chronicon, and the birthplace of 
the Protestant martyr George Wishart. 
Public schools are at Auchinblae and 
Tipperty. 

FORDYCE, village and parish on coast 
of Banffshire. The village stands on a 
burn of its own name, 3 miles south-west 
of Portsoy, and has a post office under 
Banff, Established and Free churches, and 
2 public schools with about 164 scholars. 
Pop. 331. — The parish contains also the 
town of Portsoy, and the villages of Sand- 
end and Newmills ; and it measures about 
6 miles along the coast and 8 miles inland, 
and comprises 17,198 acres. Real property 
in 1880-81, £18,977. Pop., quoad civilia, 
4289 ; quoad sacra, 1976. The coast is some- 
what bold, rocky, and cavernous, but in- 
cludes the bays of Portsoy and Sandend. 
The interior presents considerable variety 
of hill and dale, and has summits about 
700 and 1030 feet high. A chief seat is 
Glassaugh, and chief antiquities are Find- 
later Castle and remains of a Scandinavian 
camp. Established, Free, United Presby- 
terian, Episcopalian, and Roman Catholic 
churches are at Portsoy. 10 schools for 
889 scholars are in the parish, and 1 of 
them and enlargements for 288 are new. 

FOREBANK, part of Hilltown suburb 
of Dundee. 

FOREHOLM, small island in Sandsting 
parish, Shetland. 

FOREMAN, wooded lofty hill, with ex- 
tensive view, adjacent to the Deveron, on 
north-western verge of Aberdeenshire. 

FORENESS, peninsula in Sandsting par- 
ish, Shetland. 

FORESTFIELD, railway station, 6 miles 
east of Airdrie, Lanarkshire. 

FORESTMILL, hamlet, 3J miles north- 
east of Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire. 
It has a public school with about 64 
scholars. 

FORFAR, town and parish in central 
part of Forfarshire. The town stands 32J 
miles north-east of Perth ; sprang from an 
ancient royal castle, figuring in the time of 



Malcolm Canmore, and demolished in 1307 ; 
is near a lake about a mile long, with 
quondam island, now a peninsula, be- 
lieved to have been a retreat of Malcolm 
Canmore's queen ; ranks now as the capital 
of Forfarshire, and as a royal and par- 
liamentary burgh ; unites with Arbroath, 
Brechin, Montrose, and Bervie in sending 
a member to Parliament ; consists of 
irregularly-aligned streets, with many good 
modern houses ; carries on some manufac- 
ture and much general business ; publishes 
a weekly newspaper ; and has a head post 
office with all departments, a railway 
station, 6 banking offices, 5 hotels, county 
buildings founded in 1873, court-houses of 
1871, a handsome town hall, a public hall 
of 1871, a steepled parochial church, a 
quoad sacra parochial church, 2 Free 
churches (one of them an early English 
edifice of 1880), United Presbyterian, Con- 
gregational, and Baptist churches, a costly 
elegant Episcopalian church of 1881, a 
burgh academy, 4 public schools, a female 
industrial school, a free library of 1871, an 
infirmary, and waterworks projected in 
1877 and estimated to cost £37,000. Pop. 
of the burgh, 12,817. — The parish contains 
also Carseburn and Lunanhead villages, 
and measures 5 miles by 4J. Acres, 8353. 
Real propertyin 1880-81 of burgh, £34,861 ; 
of landward part, £15,793. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 14,470; quoad sacra, 10,558. The 
surface is part of Strathmore, and presents 
a level appearance, but is diversified by num- 
erous rising-grounds and two small hills. 
The only mansion is Lower, and the chief 
antiquities are ruins of Restennet Priory 
and remains of two Roman camps. 8 
schools for 2401 scholars are in the parish, 
and portions of them for 967 are new. 

FORFAR (ST. JAMES), quoad sacra par- 
ish with church in Forfar. Pop. 3882. 

FORFARSHIRE, or ANGUS, county, 
bordered by German Ocean from North 
Esk river to Firth of Tay. Its length is 
38 miles ; its greatest breadth 36 miles ; 
its coast-line 23 miles on the ocean, and 
12J on the Tay ; its circuit about 150 
miles ; its area 890 square miles. The 
coast in parts between Montrose and 
Arbroath is rocky, in other parts is 
mostly low. The interior consists of four 
parallel and very diverse districts : first, a 
rich champaign, from 3 to 9 miles broad, 
with pleasant diversity of surface on the 
east ; next, the greater portion of the Sid- 
law Hills, from 3 to 6 miles broad, with 
intersecting glens and hollows ; next, the 
central reach of Strathmore, here called 
the How of Angus, from 4 to 6 miles 
broad, diversified by gentle eminences ; 
next, the Benchinnan Mountains, from 9 
to 15 miles broad, rising tier behind tier, 
with intervening glens and ravines, to 
summits of the Grampians 3180 and 3250 
feet high. The chief rivers are the North 
Esk, the South Esk, and the Lunan, 
running to the ocean ; the Dighty, running 
to Firth of Tay ; and the Isla, rising on 



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north-west border of Benchinnan Moun- 
tains, tracing western boundary of How of 
Angus, and departing into Perthshire ; 
and all of them together are worth less to 
the county than the Firth of Tay. The 
rocks have much interest for geologists, 
but, except in pavement flag, have very 
little for economists. Agricultural im- 
provement was late and slow, but became 
vigorous and skilful. Textile manufacture, 
especially in coarse linens, is very promi- 
nent, and gives vast employment in the 
chief towns. Commerce also is flourishing, 
and has head ports at Dundee, Arbroath, 
and Montrose. The towns with each more 
than 10,000 inhabitants are Dundee, 
Arbroath, Montrose, Forfar, and Lochee ; 
with each more than 5000 are Brechin and 
Broughty Ferry ; with each more than 
2000 are Kirriemuir and Carnoustie ; with 
each more than 1000 are Ferryden and 
Friockheim ; and the villages with each 
more than 300, are Letham, Monifieth, 
Newtyle, Bdzell, Auchmithie, Glammis, 
Northmuir, Hillside, Craigo, Claverhouse, 
and Muirhead. The Caledonians, the 
Romans, the Picts, and the Anglo-Saxons 
figured in Forfarshire in a similar way as 
in other counties north of the Forth, and 
all of them have left in it some interesting 
antiquities. Real property in 1880-81, 
£639,282. Pop. in 1871, 237,567 ; in 1881, 
265,374. 

FORGAN, parish, containing Newport 
post town, and Woodhaven and Marytown 
villages, on north coast of Fife, opposite 
Dundee. Its coast length is about Si- 
miles ; its greatest length nearly 6 miles ; 
its greatest breadth fully 2 miles ; its area 
4983 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£26,027. Pop., quoad civilia, 3308 ; quoad 
sacra, 1533. The coast is mostly bold or 
rocky, with average height of about 40 
feet. The interior is mostly undulating, 
but includes several vales and two small 
hills, and presents a charming appearance. 
The seats are St. Fort, Tayfield, and numer- 
ous villas ; and the antiquities are several 
tumuli. The churches are Established, 
Free, and Congregational ; and the schools 
are 5, with accommodation for 457 scholars. 

FORGANDENNY, village in Perthshire, 
and parish partly also in Kinross-shire. 
The village stands 4 miles south-west of 
Perth, and has a post office under Bridge 
of Earn, a railway station, an Established 
church, a Free church, and a public school 
with about 86 scholars. The parish con- 
tains also Path of Condie hamlet, and 
measures about 8 miles by 3£. Acres in 
Perthshire, 7732 ; in Kinross-shire, 1214. 
Real property in 1880-81, £8263 and £621. 
Pop. 617 and 10. The northern sec- 
tion is part of the rich valley of the Earn, 
and the other sections, comprising fully 
three-fourths of the entire surface, are 
part of the Ochil Hills. The seats are 
Freeland, Rossie, and Condie ; and the 
antiquities are remains or vestiges of 
three extensive fortifications. A United 



Presbyterian church and a public school 
are at Path of Condie. 

FORGE, seat in Canonbie parish, Dum- 
friesshire. 

FORGEBRAEHEAD, village in Canonbie 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

FORGLEN, parish on north-east border 
of Banffshire, adjacent to Turriff. It has 
a post office under Turriff. Its length is 
5£ miles ; its breadth 2>\ miles ; its area 
6249 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£5451. Pop. 744. The surface slopes to 
the Deveron, and is diversified with gentle 
rising-grounds. The mansions are For- 
glen House and Carnousie, — the former a 
seat of Sir Robert J. Abercromby, Bart. ; 
and the antiquities are two barrows and 
remains of a religious house. The churches 
are Established and Free ; and the schools 
are a new one and an enlarged one with 
accommodation for 205 scholars. 

FORGUE, parish, with church hamlet 
7 miles north-east of Huntly, on north 
border of Aberdeenshire. It has a post 
office under Huntly. Its length is about 
9 miles ; its greatest breadth about 6 
miles ; its area 17,354 acres. Real pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £13,538. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 2422; quoad sacra, 1303. The 
surface includes the lofty, wooded, conical 
hill of Foreman, and is elsewhere a pleas- 
ing assemblage of knolls, vales, and mea- 
dows. The seats are Frendraught, 
Cobairdy, Haddo, Corse, Drumblair, 
Auchaber, Templeland, and Boyne's-Mill ; 
and the antiquities are remains of Fren- 
draught Castle, and vestiges of a Roman 
redoubt and ancient Caledonian stone 
circles. The churches are 2 Established, 
a Free, and an Episcopalian, — one of the 
Established at Ythan-Wells ; and the 
schools, exclusive of 2 in Ythan-Wells, are 
3, with accommodation for 276 scholars, and 
1 of them and a class-room for 130 are new. 

FORMALL, lofty wooded hill overhang- 
ing Lintrathen Loch, on west border of 
Forfarshire. 

FORMARTINE, ancient district, of 280 
square miles, between Buchan and Garioch, 
Aberdeenshire. It gives the title of vis- 
count to the Earl of Aberdeen. 

FORMARTINE AND BUCHAN RAIL- 
WAY, amalgamated part of Great North 
of Scotland railway system. 

FORNETH, seat on Loch Clunie, and 
neighbouring place with post office under 
Blairgowrie, Perthshire. 

FORNIGHTY, place in Ardclach parish, 
Nairnshire. 

FORRES, town and parish in north-west 
of Elginshire. The town stands at a great 
junction of Highland Railway, amid charm- 
ing environs, 24f miles east-north-east of 
Inverness ; is thought to occupy the site 
of the Roman Varis, and is near the famous 
ancient sculptured obelisk called Sweno's 
Stone ; was made a royal burgh by William 
the Lion, and acquired celebrity through 
Shakespeare's drama of Macbeth ; is now 
a seat of sheriff courts, a centre of con- 



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siderable business, and a resort of invalids ; 
unites with Inverness, Fortrose, and Nairn 
in sending a member to Parliament ; pub- 
lishes a weekly newspaper, and another 
twice a week ; consists of several well- 
built streets ; and has a head post office 
with all departments, a railway station, 
4 banking offices, 5 hotels, a large new 
hydropathic establishment, a very fine 
market-cross, a handsome spired town hall 
of 1839, a market hall of 1876, conspicu- 
ous monuments to Lord Nelson and Dr. 
Thompson, Established, Free, United 
Presbyterian, Congregational, Baptist, 
and Episcopalian churches, a spired free 
school, 2 public schools, a museum, and 
other institutions. Real property in 1880- 
81, £14,315. Pop. 4030.— The parish is 4 
miles long and 2\ miles broad, and com- 
prises 5440 acres. Eeal property in 
1880-81 of landward part, £7784. Pop. 
4752. Findhorn river traces the western 
boundary, and Forres burn, coming in 
from Rafford, runs through the interior 
to Findhorn estuary. The north-western 
district, comprising more than half the 
land, is rich alluvial plain ; the central 
district is diversified by small round hills 
and gentle acclivities ; and the south- 
eastern district rises to considerable ele- 
vation, and is mostly reclaimed moor or 
moss. The chief seats are Forres House, 
Sanquhar, Invererne, and Drumduan. 
Six schools for 1039 scholars are in the 
parish, and 1 of them and a class-room 
for 460 are new. 

FORSA, rivulet of Mull Island, runningto 
Sound of Mull, at Pennygown, Argyleshire. 

FORSE, harbour, inn, mansion, and 
ruined feudal fortalice, in Latheron 
parish, Caithness. 

FORSINARD, place, with railway sta- 
tion, and with post office designated of 
Sutherlandshire, 14f miles north of Kil- 
donan, on north-east border of Sutherland. 

FORSS, river, running about 16 miles 
northward to the sea, at 4J miles west of 
Thurso, Caithness. Forss House, Forss 
Hill, and Forss public school, with about 
84 scholars, are near its mouth. Forss 
post office, under Thurso, also is there. 

FORT-AUGUSTUS, village on Caledonian 
Canal, at south-western extremity of Loch 
Ness, 33J miles south-west of Inverness. 
It has a post office, with money order 
department, designated of Inverness-shire, 
Established, Free, and Roman Catholic 
churches, and a public school. A fort, in 
front of it, was erected in 1734, suffered 
capture by the rebels in 1745, became head- 
quarters of the Duke of Cumberland after 
the battle of Culloden, and was then rebuilt 
and strengthened ; had a quadrangular 
construction, bastioned at the angles, and 
protected by ditch, covered way, and 
glacis ; contained barracks with capacity 
for 300 soldiers ; came in later years to 
be used as a military sanatorium ; was 
eventually purchased by Lord Lovat, and 
given by him in 1876 to Benedictine monks ; 



and has now, within its old bastions, a 
grand suite of Roman Catholic edifices, 
comprising college, monastery, hospitium, 
and church, erected at a cost of about 
£43,000, and opened with great ceremony 
in August 1880. Pop. 470. 

FORT-CHARLOTTE, small citadel adja- 
cent to Lerwick, in Shetland. It was con- 
structed by Cromwell, reconstructed by 
Charles II., demolished in 1673, rebuilt in 
1781, and has 12 guns. 

FORTEVIOT, village and parish in south- 
east of Perthshire. The village stands on 
May rivulet, 7 miles south-west of Perth, 
has a post office under Perth, a railway 
station, a parochial church, and a public 
school, and adjoins the site of an ancient 
town of its own name, one of the capitals 
of Pictavia, with royal palace, occupied by 
Kenneth II., Duncan, Macbeth, and Mal- 
colm Canmore.- — The parish consists of 
three separate sections, considerably dis- 
tant from one another, and comprises 7785 
acres. Real property in 1880-81, £8283. 
Pop. 618. The surface includes part 
of the valley of the Earn and part of the 
Ochil Hills. Chief features are Invermay 
House and the glen and falls of the May. 
A public school has accommodation for 
105 scholars. 

FORT-GEORGE, royal fortress, \\ mile 
north-west of Fort-George station, and 11 
north-east of Inverness. It stands on a 
peninsula, at contraction between Outer 
and Inner Moray Firth ; was erected soon 
after the battle of Culloden, at a cost of 
more than £160,000 ; has a polygonal out- 
line, with 6 bastions and bomb-proof ram- 
parts ; covers about 12 acres, and contains 
accommodation for nearly 2000 men ; com- 
mands the sea-way up to Inverness, and 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, designated of 
Inverness-shire. 

FORT-GEORGE STATION, railway sta- 
tion, 9Jj miles north-east of Inverness. It 
has a head post office with money order 
and telegraph department. 

FORTH, village in Carnwath parish, 
Lanarkshire. It has a post office under 
Lanark, an Established church, a Free 
church, and a public school with about 193 
scholars. Pop. 747. 

FORTH, river and firth, from Benlomond 
eastward to the German Ocean. The river 
is formed by two head-streams in Aber- 
foyle parish ; goes thence, in many curves 
and folds, to Stirling ; proceeds, in serpen- 
tine windings, called Links of Forth, to 
Alloa ; and, measured in straight line from 
its source, has a total length of only 31 
miles, but measured along its bed has a 
length of probably not much less than 90 
miles. The firth makes slow expansion 
for 6 miles ; has a mean width of 2\ miles 
over the next 10 miles ; contracts then at 
Queensferry to about 1 mile ; expands then 
to a much greater width than before ; and 
proceeds, with varying width, over 30 
miles, to a terminal width of ll miles at 



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186 



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exit to the German Ocean between Fife 
and East Lothian. Much of the river's 
valley is carse land ; and most of the 
firth's flanks are diversified and picturesque. ] 

FORTH AND CLYDE CANAL, artificial | 
navigable water-way for sea-borne vessels 
from the Forth at Grangemouth to the 
Clyde at Bowling Bay. It measures 35 
miles in length, and has a branch of 2f 
miles to Glasgow ; it traverses a strath on 
nearly the line of the quondam Antoninus' 
"Wall j it ascends by locks to a summit- 
level of 141 feet ; it was formed in 1768-90 
at a cost of £330,000; it has undergone 
improvements at different times with great 
expense ; and, in 1867, it became the pro- 
perty of the Caledonian Railway Company. 

FORTH AND CLYDE RADLWAY, rail- 
way, 30 miles long, from junction at Stir- 
ling to junction near Balloch, in Dumbar- 
tonshire. It was opened in 1856 ; it cost 
£262,416 till 1870 ; and it yielded dividends 
of 5, 6, and 7 per cent, in 1879. 

FORTHAR, lime-works in Kettle parish, 
Fife. 

FORTH BRIDGE, projected stupendous 
railway viaduct across Firth of Forth, 
from South Queensferry to North Queens- 
ferry. It was designed in 1872, re- 
designed in 1878, slightly commenced in 
March 1880, relinquished before the close 
of that year, and re-projected at estimated 
cost of £1,388,000 in June 1881. 

FORTH BRIDGE, massive stone and iron 
structure, about one-third of mile long, 
and with central double swing, on the 
Forth at Alloa. It was founded in early 
part of 1882, and estimated to cost between 
£40,000 and £50,000. 

FORT-HILL, small detached portion of 
Dun parish, Forfarshire. 

FORT-HILL, eminence, with quondam 
fort,adjacenttoBroughtyFerry,Forfarshire. 

FORTH IRON-WORKS. See Oaklet. 

FORTHY, affluent of the Bervie, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

FORTINGAL, village and parish in north- 
west of Perthshire. The village stands in 
a sequestered mountain vale on lower part 
of Lyon river, about 10 miles west of 
Aberfeldy, and has a post office under 
Aberfeldy, an inn, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
170 scholars. The vale measures about 6 
miles by fully J mile ; is accessible only by 
narrow passes through closely engirdling 
mountains ; and contains, adjacent to the 
village, remains of a Roman camp, and 
remains of a famous large old yew tree. — 
The parish is 25 miles long and 24 miles 
broad, and comprises 196,683 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £22,033. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1690 ; quoad sacra, 616. The 
surface lies wholly among the Gram- 
pians ; consists entirely of lofty mountains, 
with intersecting glens, lakes, and streams ; 
includes the districts of Rannoch and 
Glenlyon ; and abounds with memories and 
monuments of the feudal times. Chief 
seats are Glenlyon House, Garth, Megger- 



nie, and ChesthilL Established churches 
are at Innerwick, Kinloch-Rannoch, and 
Finnart, and a Free church is in Glenlyon ; 
and public schools are at Cambusvrachen, 
Meggernie, Pubill, and Kinloch-Rannoch. 

FORT-MATILDA, small modern fortifi- 
cation on low headland, midway between 
Greenock and Gourock, Renfrewshire. 

FORTROSE, town, comprising Chanonry 
and Rosemarkie, on north-west coast of 
Moray Firth, nearly opposite Fort-George, 
and 10^ miles north-north-east of Inver- 
ness. It ranks as a seaport, a sea-bathing 
resort, and a royal burgh; unites with 
Inverness, Forres, and Nairn in sending a 
member to Parliament ; has a post office, 
with all departments, under Inverness, 
a banking office, a hotel, 2 Established 
churches, Free, Baptist, and Episcopalian 
churches, an academy, 3 public schools, 
and a mechanics' institution, and was 
designed in 1881 to acquire a greatly 
improved harbour and a handsome volun- 
teers' hall. Real property in 1880-81, 
£3408. Pop. 869. 

FORTUNE (EAST and WEST), estates in 
Athelstaneford parish, Haddingtonshire. 
See East Fortune. 

FORT- WILLIAM, town on Loch Eil, at 
foot of Ben-Nevis, 65J miles south-west of 
Inverness. It consists of two streets and a 
quondam fort ; is a seat of sheriff courts, 
and a tourists' centre ; and has a head 
post office with all departments, 3 bank- 
ing offices, several hotels, Established, 
Free, Episcopalian, and Roman Catholic 
churches, and a public school with about 
131 scholars. The fort was erected by 
General Monk, and rebuilt in the time of 
William in. ; resisted sieges by the rebels 
in 1715 and 1745; had quarters for 200 
men ; and is now private property. The 
Episcopalian church was erected in 1880-81, 
and is in early decorated Gothic style. 
Pop. of the town, 1565. 

FORVTE, ancient parish, now part of 
Slains, in Aberdeenshire. 

FOSS, quoad sacra parish, on south 
side of Tummel river, toward head of 
Tummel loch, Perthshire. It was consti- 
tuted in 1845 ; it contains a mansion of 
its own name ; and its post town is 
Pitlochrie. Pop. 226. 

FOSSAWAY, parish, chiefly in Perth- 
shire, and partly in Kinross-shire. It 
contains the villages of Blairingone, Crook- 
of -Devon, and Gartwhinean, and has a 
post office of its own name under Kinross. 
It measures about 11 miles in length, and 
10 miles in greatest breadth, and comprises 
10,429 acres in Perthshire, and 6904 in 
Kinross-shire. Real property in 1880-81, 
£8859 and £6746. Pop. 772 and 495. 
The surface is mainly a portion of the 
Ochil Hills, from watershed to foot, and 
partly a low tract thence toward Cleish 
Hills. Chief seats are Devonshaw and 
Tulliebole, and the chief antiquities are 
Aldie and Tulliebole Castles. The churches 
are 2 Established and 1 Free, one of the 



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187 



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former at Blairingone ; and the schools are 
3, with accommodation for 395 scholars. 

FOTHERINGHAM, seat in Inverarity 
parish, Forfarshire. 

FOUDLAND, bleak, moorish, lofty up- 
land tract, in Forgue, Insch, and Cul- 
salmond parishes, Aberdeenshire. Its 
summit is 1529 feet high. Excellent roof- 
ing-slate quarries are on its Insch part. 

FOULA, island, 16 miles west-south-west 
of mainland coast of "Walls parish, Shet- 
land. It measures about 3 miles byl^ ; rises 
from the sea in lofty cliffs, swarming with 
sea-fowl ; consists of 5 conical hills, with 
extreme altitude of about 1300 feet ; and 
has a post office under Lerwick, and a 
house serving as church and school-house. 
Pop. 267. 

FOULDEN, village and parish in east of 
Merse, Berwickshire. The village stands 
3J miles east of Chirnside, and has a post 
office under Berwick, a parochial church, 
and a public school with about 63 scholars. 
The parish measures about 2£ miles each 
way, and comprises 3278 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £6541. Pop. 393. 
The surface rises gently northward from 
the Whitadder, and has a hill-ridge about 
550 feet high on its northern border. The 
seats are Foulden House and Nunlands. 

FOULIS, seat of Sir Charles Munro, 
Bart. , in TTrquhart parish, Ross-shire. 

FOULSHIELS, birthplace of Mungo Park, 
on Yarrow river, 3^ miles west-by-north of 
Selkirk. 

FOUNTAINBLEAU, place, with medicinal 
spring, near Dumfries. 

FOUNTAINBRIDGE, western suburb of 
Edinburgh. 

FOUNTAINHALL, hamlet, 4 miles north- 
north-west of Stow,Edinburghshire. Ithas 
a post office under Stow, a railway station, 
and a public school with about 107 scholars. 

FOUNTAINHALL, a seat of Sir Thomas 
N. D. Lauder, Bart. , in Pencaitland parish, 
Haddingtonshire. 

FOURMERKLAND, old tower in Holy- 
wood parish, Dumfriesshire. 

FOURMILEHILL, hamlet in Corstorphine 
parish, Edinburghshire. 

FOURTOWNS, village group, comprising 
Hightae, Greenhill, Heck, and Smallholm, 
in Lochmaben parish, Dumfriesshire. 

FOVERAN, parish, containing the post 
office village of Newburgh, on east coast of 
Aberdeenshire. It measures about 7 miles 
by 3, and comprises 10,537 acres. Real 
property in 1880-81, £13,167. Pop. 2042. 
The surface looks to be level, but really 
rises gradually from the sea. The seats are 
Foveran House, Tillery, and Ythan Lodge ; 
and the antiquities are ruins of two castles 
and an old chapel. The churches are 
Established and Free. There are 3 schools 
for 392 scholars, and 1 of them and a 
class-room for 124 are new. 

FOWLA. See Foula. 

FOWLIS, village, 5 miles north-east of 
Crieff, Perthshire. It dates from ancient 
times, was the seat of the courts of the 



Earls of Strathearn, retains a curiously 
sculptured ancient cross, and has a post 
office under Crieff, a parochial church, and 
a public school. 

FOWLIS, village on east verge of Perth- 
shire, 6 miles north-west of Dundee. It has 
a fine Saxon church of 12th century, re- 
paired in 1842, and a public school with 
about 118 scholars. 

FOWLIS, railway station, 4| miles north- 
north-east of Dingwall, Ross-shire. See 
also Foulis. 

FOWLIS - EASTER, parish, containing 
Fowlis village, on east verge of Perth- 
shire. It measures 4J by 3f miles, and 
comprises 2824 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £3699. Pop. 311. The surface 
includes Blacklaw Hill, and elsewhere 
slopes gently to the south. The ministerial 
charge is a joint one with Lundie. 

FOWLIS MOWAT, estate in Leochel 
parish, Aberdeenshire. 

FOWLIS - WESTER, parish containing 
Fowlis village, 5 miles north-east of Crieff, 
and the villages or hamlets of Gilmerton, 
Balgowan, and Buchanty. It measures 6J 
by 4J miles, and comprises 22,803 acres. 
Real property in 1880-81, £15,651. Pop., 
quoad civilia, 1112 ; quoad sacra, 771. 
The surface is intersected by two mountain 
ranges, includes part of the Grampians on 
the north, and is greatly diversified by 
rugged hills on the south. A striking 
feature is part of Glenalmond. Chief 
seats are Abercairney and Cultoquhey ; 
and chief antiquities are a cromlech, a 
double concentric Caledonian stone circle, 
and the moundish site of the castle of the 
Earls of Strathearn. Parts are included 
quoad sacra in Monzie and Logiealmond. 
There are 3 schools with accommodation 
for 239 scholars. 

FOWLSHEUGH, lofty sea-cliff, swarming 
with sea-fowl, in Dunnottar parish, Kin- 
cardineshire. 

FOXHALL, seat adjacent to Kirkliston, 
Linlith go wshise . 

FOXLEY, village in Old Monkland 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

FOXTON, seat in Cupar parish, Fife. 

FOYERS, mountain rivulet, running 
about 14 miles north-north-westward to 
Loch Ness, at 19 miles south-west of 
Inverness. It traverses a wild high glen, 
and makes, in its lowmost reach, two 
grand famous leaps of 40 and 90 feet. 
Foyers House adjoins it near its mouth. 

FRANKFIELD, small lake in north- 
eastern outskirt of Glasgow. 

FRAOCH, islet, with ruined strong 
fortalice, in Loch Awe, near Kilchurn 
Castle, Argyleshire. 

FRAOCHY, lake, about 2J miles long, in 
Glenquoich, Perthshire. 

FRASERBURGH, town and parish in 
north-east extremity of Aberdeenshire. 
The town stands on small bay adjacent 
to Kinnaird Head, 47£ miles north-by-east 
of Aberdeen ; was founded in early part 
of 16th century j is a seaport, the head of 



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188 



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a fishery district, and a seat of consider- 
able provincial trade ; has an artificial 
harbour, formed in the time of war with 
France, at a cost of about £50,000, and 
designed in 1881 to be improved at a cost 
of about £30,000 ; had a harbour income 
in 1880 of £10,186 ; has a head post office 
with all departments, a terminal railway 
station, 4 banking offices, and 2 hotels ; 
consists of well-built, spacious streets, 
crossing one another at right angles, and 
drained by works commenced in 1876 ; 
and contains a fine old hexagonal cross, a 
handsome dome-capped town hall of 1855, 
a spired spacious parochial church of 1802, 
a large quoad sacra parochial church of 
1876, a Free church, erected at a cost of 
£6200 in 1880, United Presbyterian, Con- 
gregational, Evangelical Union, Baptist, 
and Episcopalian churches, an academy, 
2 public schools, 2 other schools, a public 
library, and an hospital of 1878. Pop. 
6529. — The parish contains also Broadsea 
village, includes a district detached 1J 
mile from the main body, measures from 
end to end about 8 miles by 3J, and com- 
prises 8367 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £34,692. Pop., quoad civilia, 
7596 ; quoad sacra, 3238. The surface 
includes Kinnaird Head in extreme north, 
and part of Mormond Hill in extreme 
south, but is elsewhere nearly flat, with 
only gradual ascent from the coast. The 
public schools were designed in 1877 to have 
enlargements for 200 additional scholars. 

FRASERBURGH (WEST), quoad sacra par- 
ish with church in Fraserburgh. Pop. 4304. 

FREASGAIL, caves on west side of 
Whitenhead, in Sutherland. 

FREBBAY, section of Westray Island, 
Orkney. 

FREEBURN, place, with inn and fairs, 
15J miles south-east of Inverness. 

FREEFIELD, seat in Rayne parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

FREELAND, seat in Forgandenny 
parish, Perthshire. 

FRENCHLAND, old domestic tower in 
Moffat parish, Dumfriesshire. 

FRENDRAUGHT, or FRENNET, mansion 
and remains of song-celebrated old castle, 
in Forgue parish, Aberdeenshire. 

FRESGO, small headland near north- 
west extremity of Caithness. 

FRESWTCK, bay, headland, mansion, 
and village, 3 miles south of John-o'- 
Groats, Caithness. Pop. of village, 402. 

FREUCHIE, town and quoad sacra parish 
in west of Fife. The town stands 2 miles 
east-by-south of Falkland, and has a post 
office under Ladybank, an Established 
church of 1876, a United Presbyterian 
church, and a public school with about 275 
scholars. Pop. of the town, 1059 ; of the 
quoad sacra parish, 1117. 

FREW, ford, bridge, and site of small 
ancient fortress on the Forth, 8 miles west 
of Stirling. 

FRIARDYKES, quondam monastery in 
Stenton parish, Haddingtonshire. 



FRIARKIRK, mineral spring in Ballan- 
trae parish, Ayrshire. 

FRIAR'S BRAE, site of ancient friary in 
Linlithgow. 

FRIAR'S CARSE, mansion on site of 
ancient monastery, adjacent to the 
Nith, 6J miles north-north-west of Dum- 
fries. 

FRIAR'S CROFT, site of ancient friary 
in Dunbar, Haddingtonshire. 

FRIAR'S DUBBS, site of ancient mon- 
astery in Bervie parish, Kincardineshire. 

FRIAR'S GLEN, secluded glen, with 
foundations of small ancient priory, in 
Fordoun parish, Kincardineshire. 

FRIARTON, village in East Church 
parish, Perth. 

FRIELHOUSE, islet in Morvem parish, 
Argyleshire. 

FRIOCKHEIM, town and quoad sacra 
parish in Forfarshire. The town stands 
6J miles west-north-west of Arbroath, and 
has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, designated of For- 
farshire, a railway station, Established, 
Free, and Evangelical Union churches, 
and a public school with about 140 scholars. 
Pop. of the town, 1098 ; of the quoad 
sacra parish, 1501. 

FRISKY HALL, hotel at Bowling Bay, 
Dumbartonshire. 

FRISO, lake in north-west of Mull 
Island, Argyleshire. 

FROBOST, place on south-west coast of 
South Uist, Outer Hebrides. 

FROGDEN, farm, with old trysting-place 
for Border forays, in Linton parish, Rox- 
burghshire. 

FROSTLY, small affluent of upper part 
of the Teviot, Roxburghshire. 

FROTOFT, place, with public school, in 
Rousay parish, Orkney. 

FRUID, affluent of the Tweed, in Tweeds- 
muir parish, Peeblesshire. 

FRUIN, rivulet, running about 9 miles 
to west side of Loch Lomond, at about 7J 
miles north-north-west of Dumbarton. 

FUDA, small island, 2J miles north of 
Barra, Outer Hebrides. 

FUGLOE, skerry in western vicinity 
of Papa-Stour Island, Shetland. 

FUINAFORT, place in south-west of 
Mull Island, Argyleshire. It has a post 
office under Oban. 

FUIR, lake, 4J miles east of Poolewe, 
Ross-shire. 

FUIRDSTONE, ancient parish, now called 
Careston, in Forfarshire. 

FULBAR, estate in Abbey-Paisley parish, 
Renfrewshire. 

FULLARTON, suburb of Irvine, Ayr- 
shire. It is separated by only Irvine 
river; it communicates with Irvine town 
by a handsome bridge, and forms part of 
Irvine burgh ; and it has a post office, 
with money order department, under 
Irvine, an Established church, a Free 
church, and a public school. Pop. 3990. 
Fullarton House, a seat of the Duke of 
Portland, is in the vicinity. 



FUL 



189 



GAI 



FULLARTON, suburb or section of Toll- 
cross town, Lanarkshire. 

FULTON, vestige of ancient Border 
peel, with site of quondam village, 4 
miles south-west of Jedburgh, Roxburgh- 
shire. 

FUNGARTH, rising ground, with strik- 
ing view, adjacent to Dunkeld, Perthshire. 

FUNTACK, small affluent of the Find- 
horn, in Moy parish, Inverness-shire. 

FUNZIE, bay, with fishing-station, in 
Fetlar Island, Shetland. 

FURNACE, village on Loch Long, 8 
miles south-west of Inverary, Argyleshire. 
It has a post office designated of Argyle- 
shire, and is near a gunpowder manufactory 
and a granite quarry. 

FUSHIEBRIDGE, hamlet, 13 miles south- 
east of Edinburgh. It has a railway station 
and an inn. 

FUTTIE. See Footdee. 

FYNE, stream and sea-loch in Argyle- 
shire. The stream rises among lofty 
mountains near meeting-point with Perth- 
shire and Dumbartonshire, and runs about 
7 miles south-westward to the loch's head. 
The loch first goes 24 miles south-westward, 
with maximum width of 2 miles ; then, 
while sending off Loch Gilp to the north- 
west, proceeds 16 miles south-south-east- 
ward, with width of from 3 to 5f miles ; 
and then is lost in Firth of Clyde, oppo- 
site north end of Arran. Its banks and 
flanks are very diversified, but aggregately 
picturesque ; and its waters are famous 
for prime herring. 

FYRISH, hill, 1478 feet high, crowned 
by artificial rude resemblance of an arti- 
ficial temple, adjacent to Aultgrande burn, 
in Alness parish, Ross-shire. 

FYVIE, parish, averagely 1\ miles north- 
north-west of Old Meldrum, Aberdeenshire. 
It has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, designated of Aber- 
deenshire, and a railway station. Its length 
is 13 miles ; its greatest breadth, 8 miles ; 
its area, 29,586 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £23,336. Pop., quoad civilia, 
4403 ; quoad sacra, 3235. The Ythan cuts 
the parish into two nearly equal parts. The 
land is uneven, is much diversified with 
height and vale, and includes much wood, 
heath, and moss. Fyvie Castle was visited 
by Edward I. of England, figured in the 
career of the Marquis of Montrose, and is 
a large Gothic edifice still inhabited. 
Other interesting objects are Rothie man- 
sion, Gight ruined castle, traces of an 
ancient priory, and the grave of ' Tiftie's 
Bonnie Annie.' The churches are 2 Es- 
tablished, 1 Free, and 2 Episcopalian. 
There are 8 schools for 801 scholars, and 2 
of them and enlargements for 364 are new. 



GAAF, affluent of the Garnock, in Cun- 
ningham district, Ayrshire. 

GAASKER. islet, swarming with sea- 
fowl, 12 miles north-west of Taransay, 
Outer Hebrides. 



GADGIRTH, hamlet in Coylton parish, 
Ayrshire. 

GADIE, rivulet, running 12 miles east- 
ward to the Ury, near that river's conflux 
with the Don, Aberdeenshire. It is sung 
in a famous old ballad. 

GAICK, wild, romantic, alpine tract in 
Kingussie parish, Inverness-shire. 

GAIR, place, with public school, in Kirk- 
patrick-Fleming parish, Dumfriesshire. 

GAIR-BRIDGE. See Guard-Bridge. 

GAIRDEN, or GAIRN, small river, 
running about 20 miles eastward and 
south-eastward to the Dee, at 1J mile 
above Ballater, Aberdeenshire. 

GAIRIE, rivulet, running curvingly to 
right side of the Dean, at 3 miles west 
of Forfar. 

GAIRLOCH, sea-loch, hamlet, and parish 
on west coast of Ross-shire. The loch 
penetrates 4 miles eastward, and is about 
2 miles wide. The hamlet lies at the 
loch's head, 5 miles south-south-west of 
Poole we, and has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, desig- 
nated of Ross-shire, an inn, a parochial 
church with 500 sittings, and a Free 
church, rebuilt since 1876. — The parish 
contains also Poolewe village, and Ewe 
and Horisdale islands, and measures about 
40 miles by 30. Real property in 1880-81, 
£10,700. Pop., quoad civilia, 4479 ; quoad 
sacra, 2158. The coast extends from Loch 
Greinord to Loch Torridon, is deeply cut 
by Loch Ewe, measures along its curva- 
tures about 90 miles, and, excepting on 
its lochs, is all bold and rocky. The 
interior is mountainous, includes several 
alpine ranges and summits, abounds in 
small lakes and rapid burns, embraces 
the magnificent Loch Maree, contains 5000 
acres of wood, and presents a great aggre- 
gate of picturesque scenery. A chief 
residence is Sir Kenneth Mackenzie's seat 
of Flowerdale. Established and Free 
churches are at Poolewe. There are 11 
schools for 843 scholars, and 8 of them for 
631 are new. 

GAIRLOCH, Dumbartonshire. See Gare- 
looh. 

GAIRN. See Gairden and Bridge of 
Gairn. 

GAIRNEY, affluent of the Tanner in 
Glentanner, Aberdeenshire. 

GAIRNEY, rivulet, running 9 miles east- 
ward to Loch Leven, at 2 miles south-east 
of Kinross. 

GAIRNEY-BRIDGE, hamlet on Gairney 
rivulet, 2 miles south-south-east of Kinross. 

GAIRNEY (WEST), burn, running west- 
ward to the Devon, near Crook of Devon, 
Kinross-shire. 

GAIRNSIDE, place, with Roman Catholic 
chapel, in Glenmuick parish, Aberdeenshire. 

GAIRSAY, island, about 2 miles long, in 
Evie and Rendall parish, Orkney. Pop. 37. 

GAIT, lake in Galston parish, Ayrshire. 

GAITNIP, place, with cavernous crags, 
on east side near head of Scalpa Flow, 
Orkney. 



GAL 



190 



GAL 



GALA, river, rising on Moorfoot Hills, 
in Edinburghshire, and running about 20 
miles south- south-eastward, along a wind- 
ing vale, to the Tweed, at 2 miles west of 
Melrose, in Roxburghshire. Gala House 
stands adjacent to it in southern vicinity 
of Galashiels. 

GALASHIELS, town and parish in Sel- 
kirkshire and Roxburghshire. The town 
stands on Gala river, 32 miles south-south- 
east of Edinburgh ; was developed in latter 
part of last century from an ancient village ; 
became a town, and rapidly prospered, in 
connection with skilful manufacture of 
tweeds and tartans ; is now a parliamentary 
burgh, uniting with Hawick and Selkirk 
in sending a member to Parliament ; com- 
prises compact centre and straggling ex- 
tremities ; extends between flanking hills 
to a length of about 2 miles ; publishes a 
weekly newspaper ; and has a head post 
office with all departments, a railway 
station, 5 banking offices, 2 chief hotels, 
numerous large factories, a corn exchange 
of 1860, a commodious bridge of 1878, 
waterworks of 1877 and later years at a 
cost of £40,000, a large public hall, volun- 
teer, masonic, and good templar halls, 
an Established church of 1881 at a cost 
of about £13,000, 2 other Established 
churches, 2 Free churches, 1 of them of 
1875 at a cost of about £5000, 3 United 
Presbyterian churches, 2 of them since 
1879 at much cost, Evangelical Union and 
Baptist churches, ornamental Episcopalian 
and Roman Catholic churches, 3 large 
public schools, and a free public library. 
Real property in 1880-81, £56,605. Pop. 
in 1833, 2209 ; in 1881, 12,435.— The parish 
measures 6 miles by 4, and comprises 5625 
acres in Selkirkshire and 2815 in Roxburgh- 
shire. Real property of landward parts in 
1880-81, £4815 and £3197. Pop., quoad 
civilia, 9742 ; quoad sacra, 6347. The 
Gala traces the north-eastern boundary, 
and the Tweed runs between the Selkirk- 
shire and Roxburghshire sections. The 
surface includes vales on the rivers, is 
elsewhere hilly, and culminates on Meigle 
Hill at an altitude of 1480 feet above sea- 
level. The seats are Gala House and Fal- 
donside ; and the antiquities are two camps 
and traces of a Roman road. There are 9 
schools for 1856 scholars, and 2 of them 
for 530 are new. 

GALASHIELS AND PEEBLES RAILWAY, 
branch railway from North British main 
line at LJ mile north-west of Galashiels, 
18J miles westward to Peebles. It was 
formed subsequent to 1861, and belongs 
to the North British system. 

GALASHIELS (WEST), quoad sacra parish 
with church in Galashiels. Pop. 3252. 

GALCANTRAY, place in Croy parish, 
Inverness-shire. It had anciently a chapel, 
and has now a public school. 

GALDRY, village, 3f miles south-west 
of Newport, Fife. 

GALLABERRY, eminence, with Roman 
fort, in Dryfesdale parish, Dumfriesshire. 



GALLALA, rising ground, once a place 
of capital punishment, in Oxnam parish, 
Roxburghshire. 

GALLAN, promontory between Loch 
Roag and Loch Reasort, on south-west 
coast of Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

GALLANGAD, glen, with fine cascade, 
in Kilmaronock parish, Dumbartonshire. 

GALLARY, seat in Logiepert parish, 
Forfarshire. 

GALLATOWN, northern suburb of Kirk- 
caldy, Fife. It extends northward from 
Sinclairtown, and has a Free church, and 
2 public schools with about 140 scholars. 

GALLOW, hill in Westray Island, 
Orkney. 

GALLOWAY, district, now comprehend- 
ing Wigtonshire and Kirkcudbrightshire, 
but formerly including also parts of Ayr- 
shire and Dumfriesshire. It gives the 
title of earl to a branch of the family of 
Stewart. Galloway House, the Earl's 
chief seat, stands about a mile south- 
south-east of Garlieston, and is a large 
edifice of last century. 

GALLOWAY (MULL OF), promontory at 
south-western extremity of Scotland. It 
terminates the Rhinns of Galloway ; is 1J 
mile long, 1£ mile broad, and 575 feet 
high; and. has a precipitous cavernous 
front, crowned by a lighthouse, with in- 
termittent light visible at the distance of 
23 nautical miles. 

GALLOWAY (NEW), village on Ken 
river, 4J miles north-by -west of a railway 
station of its own name, and 19 miles 
north of Kirkcudbright. It ranks as a 
royal burgh, unites with Wigton, Stran- 
raer, and Whithorn in sending a member 
to Parliament, and has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Kirkcudbrightshire, a bank- 
ing office, 2 hotels, a court-house, a five- 
arched bridge, Established, Free, and 
United Presbyterian churches, and a 
public school with about 103 scholars. 
Real property in 1880-81, £1048. Pop. 422. 

GALLOWAY (RHINNS OF), western divi- 
sion of Wigtonshire. It comprises the 
peninsula west of Loch Ryan, the peninsula 
west of Luce Bay, and the intermediate 
tract. 

GALLOWBANK, elevated bank on Annan 
river, in Annan parish, Dumfriesshire. It 
was formerly a place of capital punishment, 
and it has an excellent sandstone quarry. 

GALLOWBANK, brae on Garvock Hill, 
in Garvock parish , Kincardineshire. It was 
formerly a place of capital punishment. 

GALLOWCAIRN, artificial mound, for- 
merly a place of capital punishment, in 
Boyndie parish, Banffshire. 

GALLOWDRUM, rising ground, formerly 
a place of capital punishment, in Clunie 
parish, Perthshire. 

GALLOWFLAT, seat in Rutherglen parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

GALLOWFLAT, field, formerly a place 
of capital punishment, in Morton parish, 
Dumfriesshire. 



GAL 



191 



GAR 



GALLOWGATE, long, crooked, leading 
old street in eastern part of Glasgow. It 
underwent great change in course of re- 
cent city improvement and railway con- 
struction ; and it has a sub post office 
with money order department, and a 
railway station. 

GALLOWHILL, each of at least 30 
places, formerly scenes of capital punish- 
ment, in various parts of Scotland. 

GALLOWKNOW, each of several places, 
formerly scenes of capital punishment, in 
various parts of Scotland. 

GALLOWLANE, small head-stream of 
Doon river, Ayrshire. 

GALLOWLAW, hamlet in Panbride par- 
ish, Forfarshire. 

GALLOWSIDE, hillock, formerly a place 
of capital punishment, in Coldingham par- 
ish, Berwickshire. 

GALLOWSLOT, rising ground, formerly 
a place of capital punishment, near Castle- 
Douglas, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

GALSTON, town and parish in north- 
east corner of Kyle, Ayrshire. The town 
stands on Irvine river, 5i miles east of 
Kilmarnock ; borrows amenity from neigh- 
bourhood of ' Loudoun's bonny woods and 
braes ; ' and has a post office with all 
departments under Kilmarnock, a rail- 
way station, 2 banking offices, Established, 
Free, United Presbyterian, and Evangeli- 
cal Union churches, and 3 public schools. 
Pop. 4085. — The parish excludes a suburb 
on Loudoun side of the river, but includes 
the Greenholm part of Newmilns and 
small part of Darvel. Its length is 12J 
miles ; its greatest breadth 4£ miles ; its 
area 15,243 acres. Real property in 
1879-80, £32,598. Pop., quoad civilia, 
5961; quoad sacra, 5768. The surface 
is mostly level, but rises in the east to 
upland height, and culminates there in 
the lofty Distincthorn. About two-thirds 
are arable, and the rest is variously forest, 
moss, and hill pasture. Coal is largely 
worked, and limestone and flagstone have 
been quarried. Chief antiquities are traces 
of an extensive Roman camp, and the site 
of a Caledonian stone circle. There are 4 
schools for 852 scholars, and class-rooms 
in them for 400 are new. 

GALT, headland at north-west extremity 
of Shapinshay, in Orkney. 

GALTRIGIL, bold precipitous headland, 
fully 300 feet high, at north-west extre- 
mity of Isle of Skye. 

GALTWAY, ancient parish, now forming 
central part of Kirkcudbright parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

GALVAL, remains of ancient castle on 
fine eminence in Boharm parish, Banffshire. 

GAMESCLEUCH, vestige of ancient 
baronial tower in Ettrick parish, Selkirk- 
shire. 

GAMESHOPE, lake and burn in south of 
Tweedsmuir parish, Peeblesshire. 

GAMHAIE. See Gauie. 

GAMHUINN, lake in Rothiemurchus 
parish, Invemess-shire. 



GAMRIE, parish, containing Macduff 
town, and Gardenstown and Crovie vil- 
lages, on coast of Banffshire. It connects 
but slightly with the main body of the 
county, measures 9J miles by 3-J-, and 
comprises 17,041 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £20,334. Pop., quoad civilia; 
6747; quoad sacra, 2643. The coast 
measures 9£ miles ; is mostly precipitous 
and partly mural ; rises in some parts to 
heights of from 400 to 600 feet ; is cloven 
in several places by great chasms ; and 
includes the long impressive caverns called 
Hell's Lum and Needle's Eye. The interior 
abounds in hills, dells, cliffs, ravines, and 
romantic scenery ; and, to a great extent, 
has been laboriously reclaimed from bar- 
renness to fertility. A chief residence is 
Troup, and chief antiquities are traces of 
victories over the Scandinavians. The 
parochial church stands in the east, a 
quoad sacra parochial church and a Free 
church are at Macduff, and a chapel-of- 
ease and a United Presbyterian church 
are at Gardenstown. There are 5 schools 
for 1540 scholars, and 2 of them and en- 
largements for 1048 are new. 

GANNACHY, ancient bridge on the 
North Esk, between Edzell in Forfar- 
shire and Fettercairn in Kincardineshire. 

GANUH, lake in Kildonan parish, Suth- 
erland. 

GARAN, site of Muirkirk town, and 
originally tha^ town itself, in Ayrshire. 

GARAN, islet, crowded with sea-fowl, 
4 miles east of Cape "Wrath, in Suther- 
land. 

GARAWALT, impetuous burn, entering 
right side of the Dee, 2 miles east of Inver- 
cauld Bridge, Aberdeenshire. It makes 
several cataracts and falls, one of the 
latter very picturesque. 

GARBETHILL, village, 3 miles east of 
Cumbernauld, Dumbartonshire. 

GARBHMEAL, alpine mountain in For- 
tingal parish, Perthshire. 

GARBHREACHD, lake in Kiltarlity par- 
ish, Inverness-shire. 

GARBHREISA, islet, faced with cliffs, 
south-west of Craignish Point, Argyle- 
shire. 

GARCHONZIE, wood where a sanguinary 
clan fight occurred, between Callander and 
Loch Vennachoir, Perthshire. 

GARDEN, seat in Kippen parish, Stir- 
lingshire. 

GARDENSTOWN, fishing village, 8 miles 
east-north-east of Banff. It has a post 
office under Banff, a banking office, a 
tolerable harbour, a chapel -of -ease, a 
United Presbyterian church, and a public 
school with about 70 scholars. Pop. 
866. 

GARDERHOUSE, post office under Ler- 
wick, and seat, in Sandsting parish, Shet- 
land. 

GARDYNE, fine old baronial seat in 
Kirkden parish, Forfarshire. 

GARE, mineral field in Carluke parish, 
Lanarkshire. 



GAE 



192 



GAR 



GARELOCH, sea-loch, deflecting from 
Firth of Clyde opposite Greenock, and 
striking 7\ miles north-westward, with 
mean breadth of about a mile, between 
Roseneath and Row parishes, Dumbarton- 
shire. Its shores and flanks are diversified 
and picturesque. 

GARELOCHHEAD, viUage and quoad 
sacra parish in Dumbartonshire. The 
village stands at head of Gareloch, 7£ 
miles north-west of Helensburgh, and has a 
post office, with money order and telegraph 
departments, under Helensburgh, a hotel, 
a steamboat pier, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
98 scholars. Pop. of the village, 419 ; 
of the quoad sacra parish, 733. 

GARF, affluent of the Clyde, in Wiston 
parish, Lanarkshire. 

GARFARRAN, farm, with remains of 
Roman fort, in Drymen parish, Stirling- 
shire. 

GARGUNNOCK, village and parish in 
north of Stirlingshire. The village stands 
about a mile from railway station of its 
own name, 5§ miles west of Stirling, and 
has a post office under Stirling, Established 
and Free churches, and a public school with 
about 95 scholars. Pop. 261. — The par- 
ish measures 6 miles by 4, and comprises 
9859 acres. Real property in 1880-81, 
£9337. Pop. 698. The Forth traces 
all the northern boundary. The land ad- 
jacent to the river is carse, and the rest, 
with intersecting glens, is part of the 
Lennox Hills. The seats are Gargunnock 
House, Boquhan, Leckie, and Meiklewood ; 
a notable locality is Boquhan Glen ; and 
chief antiquities are fortifications on 
Keir Hill and the site of Gargunnock peel, 
the scene of an exploit of Sir "William 
"Wallace. 

GARHARRA, place in Dunoon parish, 
Argyleshire. 

GARIOCH, district of 150 square miles, 
between Mar and Formartine, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

GARIOCH (CHAPEL OF). See Chapel 
of Gaeioch. 

GARIOCHSFORD, place in Ythan Wells 
parish, Aberdeenshire. It has a public 
school with about 100 scholars. 

GARION. See Garrion. 
_ GARLETON, hill - ridge in northern 
vicinity of Haddington. It extends about 
4 miles east and west, rises to no consider- 
able height, but figures conspicuously in 
the Lothian plain, and is crowned by a 
lofty monument to the martial Earl of 
Hopetoun. Garleton House, at its north 
base, is a ruined splendid seat of the quon- 
dam Earls of Wilton. 

GARLETTER, hill on west side of 
southern part of Loch Long, Argyle- 
shire. 

GARLIES, ruined strong castellated 
mansion, If mile north of Minnigaff vil- 
lage, Kirkcudbrightshire. It was the seat 
of the Earl of Galloway's ancestors, and 
it gives him the title of baron. 



GARLIESTON, seaport village on bay of 
its own name, 7 miles by road, but 9£ by 
railway, south-east of Wigton. It presents 
a modern, well-built, agreeable appearance, 
and has a post office, with money order and 
telegraph departments, designated of 
Wigtonshire, a railway station, a banking 
office, a good harbour, and Free and Con- 
gregational churches. Pop. 649. 

GARLOGIE, place, with woollen factory, 
in Skene parish, Aberdeenshire. 

GARLPOOL, affluent of Evan rivulet, 
Dumfriesshire. 

GARMOND, village in Monquhitter 
parish, Aberdeenshire. Pop. 241. 

GARMOUTH, seaport village at mouth 
of the Spey, 4 miles north of Fochabers, 
Elginshire. It has a post office, with 
money order and telegraph departments, 
designated of Morayshire, a banking office, 
a naturally good harbour, a Free church, 
and a public school with about 89 scholars. 
Pop. 626. 

GARNETHILL, hill-ridge, now covered 
with well-built streets, on north side of 
Glasgow. 

GARNGAD, hill, edificed with public 
works and dwelling-houses, in north-east 
outskirt of Glasgow. 

GARNKIRK, seat of fire-clay manufac- 
ture, 6J miles north-east of Glasgow. It 
has a railway station, and a public school 
with about 96 scholars. Pop. 782. Garn- 
kirk House is f mile to the north. 

GARNOCK, small river, running about 
20 miles southward to Irvine harbour, 
Ayrshire. It makes, in its upper part, 
a fine cataract, called the Spout of 
Garnock. 

GARNQUEEN, village, with brick-works, 
on mutual border of Cadder and New 
Monkland parishes, Lanarkshire. Pop. 
73. 

GARPEL, stream, running south-east- 
ward to the Evan, a little above Beattock, 
Dumfriesshire. A cascade is on it, and 
a strong chalybeate spring called Garpel 
Spa is near. 

GARPEL, stream, running southward to 
the Ken, about a mile above New Galloway, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. Some fine cascades 
are on it, and one of them, called the 
Holy Linn, was a retreat of the persecuted 
Covenanters. 

GARPEL, head-stream of Ayr river, 
Ayrshire. 

GARR, glen on mutual border of Auch- 
tergaven and Little Dunkeld parishes, 
Perthshire. 

GARRABOST, village in Stornoway 
parish, Lewis, Outer Hebrides. It has a 
post office under Stornoway, and a Free 
church of 1881. Pop. 309. 

GARRAGHUISM, large, double-cham- 
bered, vaulted cave, on Stornoway coast, 
Lewis, Outer Hebrides. 

GARRALLAN, estate, with colliery and 
public school, in Old Cumnock parish, 
Ayrshire. The school has about 182 
scholars. 



GAR 



193 



GAR 



GARREL. See Gaevald. 

GARRION, bridge on the Clyde near 
Dalserf, ravine traversed by a burn south- 
westward to vicinity of that bridge, and 
estate on left side of that ravine, in 
Lanarkshire. 

GARRISON, a seat of the Earl of Glasgow, 
adjacent to Millport, Buteshire. 

GARROCH, seat in Kells parish, Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. 

GARROCH, headland at southern ex- 
tremity of Bute Island, Buteshire. 

GARRON, headland flanking north side 
of Stonehaven Bay, Kincardineshire. 

GARRY, lake and river in north of 
Perthshire. The lake lies among lofty 
rugged masses of the Grampians ; is about 4 
miles long and Jmile broad ; and terminates 
at 14 miles west-by-north of Blair-Athole 
The river gathers head-streams into the 
lake, runs from the lake's foot past Blair 
Athole, curves through Pass of Killie 
crankie to conflux with the Tummel 
has a total length of about 30 miles 
makes frequent cataracts and cascades, and 
in times of freshet, is dreadfully furious. 

GARRY, lake and river in north-west of 
Inverness-shire. The lake is formed by 
expansion of the river's lower reach, and 
measures 7 miles in length. The river 
issues from Loch Quoich, draws head- 
streams from points 5 or 6 miles beyond 
that lake's head, runs about 13 miles east- 
ward from Loch Quoich to Loch Oich at 
Invergarry, and traverses, over most of 
that distance, a picturesque mountain 
glen, called from it Glengarry. 

GARRY, affluent of the Ordie, in Auch- 
tergaven parish, Perthshire. 

GARRY, headland, flanking west side of 
North Berwick Bay, Haddingtonshire. 

GARRYNAHINE, place, with post office 
under Stornoway, Outer Hebrides. 

GARSCADDEN, village in New Kilpat- 
rick parish, Dumbartonshire. Pop. 649. 

GARSCUBE, village and mansion on 
Kelvin river, 5 miles north-west of Glas- 
gow. Pop. of the village, with Netherton, 
677. The mansion is the seat of Sir 
Archibald S. L. Campbell, Bart. 

GARSON, headland in Stromness parish, 
Orkney. 

GART, seat in Callander parish, Perth- 
shire. 

GARTCOSH, village, 7| miles north-east 
of Glasgow. It has a post office under 
Glasgow, and a railway station. Pop. 356. 

GARTCROW, smaU suburb of Falkirk, 
Stirlingshire. 

GARTFERRY, seat in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

GARTH, seat and ruined old fortalice 
in Fortingal parish, Perthshire. 

GARTH, ruined ancient castle in vicinity 
of Moulin village, Perthshire. 

GARTH, seat in Delting parish, Shetland. 

GARTHLAND, seat in Lochwinnoch 
parish, Renfrewshire. 

GARTHLAND, estate, with ancient 
tower, in Stoneykirk parish, Wigtonskire. 



GARTINQUEEN, lake in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

GARTLOCH, seat in Cadder parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

GARTLY, parish, averagely 4 miles 
south-by-east of Huntly, and surrounded 
by Aberdeenshire, but belonging partly to 
Banffshire. It has a post office designated 
of Aberdeenshire, and a railway station. 
Its length is about 12 miles ; its breadth 
about 4^ miles; its area about 33 square 
miles. Real property in 1880-81, .£3691 
and £2560. Pop. 890. The Aberdeen- 
shire section is called the Braes ; the 
Banffshire section is called the Barony ; 
and they are divided from each other by 
the Bogie. Extensive moors and heathy 
hills are at both ends, and a beautiful 
diversity of hill and dale is in the middle. 
Gartly Castle is a ruined old seat of the 
Gordons, and was visited by Queen Mary. 
The churches are Established and Free. 
There are 3 schools for 174 scholars, and 
1 of them for 60 is new. 

GARTMORE, village and quoad sacra 
parish on south-west verge of Perthshire. 
The village stands on peninsula between 
head-streams of the Forth, 10 miles west- 
by-north of Kippen, and has a post office 
under Stirling, Established and Free 
churches, and a public school with about 
80 scholars. Gartmore House is in its 
vicinity. Pop. of the parish, 375. 

GARTMORN, hill and large deep reser- 
voir in Alloa parish, Clackmannanshire. 

GARTNAVEL, eminence, crowned by 
lunatic asylum, about a mile west of 
Botanic Garden, Glasgow. The asylum 
was erected in 1842 at a cost of more than 
£45,000. 

GARTNESS, estate on Endrick river, 22 
miles south-west-by-west of Stirling. It 
has a railway station, a post office under 
Glasgow, remains of the residence of the 
famous mathematician Napier, and a 
curious cataract on the Endrick. 

GARTNEY. See Steathgaetney. 

GARTOCHARN, hamlet in Kilmaronock 
parish, Dumbartonshire. 

GARTSHERRIE, railway station, iron- 
works, town, and quoad sacra parish in 
north of Lanarkshire. The station is about 
a mile west of that of Coatbridge. The iron- 
works are a little east of the station, and 
comprise 16 furnaces in two rows. The 
town is part of Coatbridge, and contains 
conspicuously on a small hill the steepled 
parochial church. Pop. of the parish, 
9070. 

GARTSHORE, estate in Kirkintilloch 
parish, Dumbartonshire. 

GASITURK, quoad sacra parish in Old 
Monkland, Lanarkshire. Its post town is 
Coatbridge. The church was renovated 
in 1881. Pop. 4266. 

GARTWHINEAN, village in Fossaway 
parish, Perthshire. 

GARTY (EASTER and WESTER), places 
in Loth parish, Sutherland. 

GARVALD, village and parish in Had- 



GAR 



194 



GAT 



dingtonshire. The village stands 5£ miles 
south-east of Haddington, and has a post 
office under Prestonkrrk, Established and 
Free churches, and a public school with 
school about 133 scholars. Pop. 239.— The 
parish measures 7| miles by 4, and com- 
prises 13,442 acres. Real property in 
1880-81, £9920. Pop. 758. About one- 
fourth of the surface, forming the northern 
section, is rich arable land ; and all the 
rest is part of the Lammermoors, mostly 
covered with heath. The seats are Nun- 
raw and Hopes ; and the chief antiquities 
are a large circular camp and ruins of 
Whitecastle. 

GARVALD, ancient parish, now part of 
Kirkmiehael, Dumfriesshire. Garvald 
burn intersects it all, 5J miles southward 
to the Ae, and makes several pretty cas- 
cades and cataracts. 

GARVALD, low rocky headland between 
Port- Glasgow and Greenock, Renfrewshire. 

GARVALD, seat in Dolphinton parish, 
Lanarkshire. 

GARVALD, or GARREL, lofty hill and 
burn, descending thence about 1000 feet, in 
run of about 3 miles, to the Kelvin, in Kil- 
syth parish, Stirlingshire. 

GARVALD, or GARWAL, affluent of the 
White Esk, with foaming cataract, in Esk- 
dalemuir parish, Dumfriesshire. 

GARVALT, fine cascade in Invercauld 
forest, Crathie parish, Aberdeenshire. 

GARVARY, hill on border of Eddertoun 
parish, Eoss-shire. 

GARVE, hamlet, river, and lake in Eoss- 
shire. The hamlet lies on the river 12f 
miles west-by-north of Dingwall, and has 
a post office designated of Eoss-shire, a 
railway station, and an inn. The river 
rises on Dirrie Mountains, and runs about 
18 miles south-south-eastward to the 
Conan, at about 7 miles south-west of 
Dingwall. The lake is a small but 
pleasant expansion of the river, about 4 
miles from the Conan. 

GARVELLAN, islet, swarming with sea- 
fowl, about 3| miles east of Cape Wrath, 
Sutherland. 

GARVELLOCH, islet-group midway be- 
tween Scarba and Mull, Argyleshire. It is 
4J miles long, but very narrow ; belonged 
to the ecclesiastics of Iona, and therefore 
bears the alternative name of Holy Isles ; 
and has vestiges of a church and cemetery. 

GARVIEMORE, place, 18 miles south- 
east of Fort- Augustus, Inverness-shire. 

GARVOCK, parish, with church If mile 
east-south-east of Laurencekirk, Kincar- 
dineshire. Its post town is Laurencekirk. 
Its length is 6J miles ; its greatest breadth 
2| miles ; its area 7966 acres. Eeal pro- 
perty in 1880-81, £6665. Pop. 428. The 
surface is chiefly a hill-girt hollow. Gar- 
vock Hill, at its south-west end, has an 
altitude of 1003 feet above sea-level, com- 
mands a rich panoramic view, and is 
crowned by two cairns, the larger one sur- 
mounted by a modern tower. The public 
school accommodates 85 scholars ; and a 



school in Laurencekirk belongs partly to 
Garvock. 

GARVOCK, seat in Dunning parish, 
Perthshire. 

GASCONHALL, ruined ancient castle, 
alleged to be that which figured in the 
history of Sir William Wallace, at eastern 
extremity of Trinity-Gask parish, Perth- 
shire ; but the real Gasconhall is thought 
to have stood about 1J mile to the north- 
east of that. 

GASK, or FINDO-GASK, parish, with 
church about 8 miles south-west of Perth. 
It contains Clathy village, and has a post 
office of its own name under Auchterarder. 
Its length is 3f miles ; its breadth 2^ 
miles ; its area 5185 acres. Eeal property 
in 1880-81, £5092. Pop. 364. The sur- 
face is part of the north side of Strathearn. 
The only mansion is Gask House ; and an 
interesting antiquity is a Eoman causeway. 
The public school has accommodation for 75 
scholars. 

GASK, seat in Turriff parish, Aberdeen- 
shire. 

GASK, mound, thought to be remains of 
Eoman station, in Collessie parish, Fife. 

GASK, place, with ancient Caledonian 
stone circle, in Daviot parish, Inverness- 
shire. 

GASSTOWN, village in Dumfries parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a post office under 
Dumfries, and a public school with about 
100 scholars. 

GASWATER, village in Auchinleck 
parish, Ayrshire. Pop. 285. 

GATEHEAD, village, railway station, 
and colliery in Kilmaurs parish, Ayrshire. 

GATEHOUSE, town on Fleet river, 5£ 
miles south of Dromore railway station, 
and 8 north-west of Kirkcudbright. It 
comprises Gatehouse-proper on the left 
bank and Anwoth on the right ; was 
founded, about the middle of last century, 
around the ' gate-house ' to Cally man- 
sion ; became «, prosperous seat of manu- 
facture, but subsided into a centre of 
country business ; presents a well-built 
appearance, amid charming environs ; and 
has a post office, with all departments, 
designated of Kirkcudbrightshire, 2 bank- 
ing offices, a hotel, a handsome bridge, 2 
Established churches, Free, United Pres- 
byterian, and Episcopalian churches, and 
2 public schools with about 164 scholars. 
Pop. 1285. 

GATESHAW, hill in Morebattle parish, 
Eoxburghshire. 

GATESIDE, village in Strathmiglo parish, 
Fife. It has a post office designated of 
Fifeshire, a railway station, and a United 
Presbyterian church, but is known also as 
Edenshead. 

GATESIDE, village in Beith parish, Ayr- 
shire. Pop. 374. 

GATESIDE, village, 4 miles south-east 
of Paisley, Eenfrewshire. Pop. 465. 

GATESIDE, village in Wamphray parish, 
Dumfriesshire. It has a United Presby- 
terian church. 



GAT 



195 



GIG 



GATESIDE, place, with public school, 
in Dumfries parish, Dumfriesshire. 

GATESIDE, hamlet in Kirkgunzeon 
parish, Dumfriesshire. 

GATESIDE, seat in Newhills parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

GATTONSIDE, village on the Tweed, 
among orchards, about a mile north of 
Melrose, Eoxburghshire. It has a post 
office under Melrose, and vestiges of a 
fine ancient church. Pop. 224. 

GAUIR, river, rising about 5 miles south 
of head of Glencoe, in Argyleshire ; running 
about 9 miles north-eastward thence into 
Loch Lydoch ; and going thence about 5^ 
miles eastward to head of Loch Eannoch, 
in Perthshire. It forms all Loch Lydoch 
by expansion of its bed ; afterwards forms 
also the temporary Loch Eathach ; and is 
itself the upper part of the river Tummel. 

GAVIESIDE, village in West Calder 
parish, Edinburghshire. Pop. 456. 

GAVINTON, village, 1J mile south-west 
of Dunse, Berwickshire. It was built in 
1760 in lieu of ancient demolished vil- 
lage of Langton, presents a neat appear- 
ance, and has a post office under Dunse, a 
handsome parochial church of 1873, and a 
jDublic school with about 119 scholars. 

GAWREER, burn, running between Kil- 
maurs and Dreghorn parishes to Irvine 
river, Ayrshire. 

GAYLET-POT, deep natural shaft into 
great sea-cavern, about a mile south of 
Auchmithie, Forfarshire. 

GEANACH, mountain in Birse parish, 
Aberdeenshire. 

GEANIES,seatinTarbatparish,Eoss-shire. 

GEDD, lake, discharging stream east- 
ward to Loch Monar, Pioss-shire. 

GEDDES, seat and hill in Nairn parish, 
Nairnshire. 

GEDDESTON, village in Avoch parish, 
Boss-shire. 

GEIL, or GIVEL, affluent of the Avon, in 
Avondale parish, Lanarkshire. 

GELA, hamlet in Dunrossness parish, 
Shetland. 

GELLAN, lofty hill-summit on south 
border of Coul parish, Aberdeenshire. 

GELLY. See Lochgelly. 

GELSTON, village, seat, and ancient 
parish in Kirkcudbrightshire. The village 
stands 2J miles south-south-east of Castle- 
Douglas, and has a post office under 
Castle-Douglas, remains of ancient parish 
church, and a public school with about 70 
scholars. The seat, Gelston Castle, is 
near the village, and was built by the late 
Sir William Douglas, Bart. The parish is 
now part of Kelton. 

GELT, head-stream of Lugar rivulet, 
Ayrshire. 

GENERAL'S BRIDGE, bridge on the 
Yarrow, leading to the ducal seat of 
Bowhill, Selkirkshire. 

GENERAL'S HUT, inn near Fall of 
Foyers, Inverness-shire. 

GENOCH, seat, 4 miles west-by-south of 
Glenluce, Wigtonshire. 



GENTLEMEN'S CAVE, small cave, retreat 
of fugitive Jacobites in 1746, at Eapness, 
Westray Island, Orkney. 

GEORGE (FORT). See Fort-George. 

GEORGEMAS, railway junction, 14 miles 
west of Wick, Caithness. 

GEORGE (ST.), parish, with Established 
and Free churches, in west of New Town, 
Edinburgh. Pop. , quoad civilia, 8094 ; 
quoad sacra, 6149. 

GEORGE (ST.), parish, with Established 
and Free churches, in north-west of Glas- 
gow. Pop., quoad sacra, 22,775. 

GEORGE (ST.), quoad sacra parish in 
Aberdeen. Pop. 4452. 

GEORGE (ST.) IN THE FIELDS, quoad 
sacra parish in north-western suburbs of 
Glasgow. Pop. 18,433. 

GEORGETOWN, village in Dumfries par- 
ish, Dumfriesshire. 

GEORGETOWN, or TIGHNALINN, ham- 
let with site of church and barracks at 
head of Loch Eannoch, Perthshire. 

GERANTON, farm, with curious ancient 
moat, in Crossmichael parish, Kirkcud- 
brightshire. 

GERARDINES, quondam natural cave, 
richly adorned by art, at Lossiemouth, 
Elginshire. 

GERGASK, hamlet in Laggan parish, 
Inverness-shire. It has a public school 
with about 56 scholars. 

GERSA, hamlet in Watten parish, Caith- 
ness. It has a public school with about 
79 scholars. 

GERSTON, hamlet in Halkirk parish, 
Caithness. 

GEUSACHAN, seat and burn near head 
of Strathglass, Inverness-shire. 

GEYZEN-BRIGGS, obstructive shoal 
across Dornoch Firth, 3 miles below Tain. 

GHARAFADA, headland in Kilmuir par- 
ish, Isle of Skye. 

GIANTS' GRAVE, tumulus in Manor 
parish, Peeblesshire, 

GIANTS' LEG, coast cave, with project- 
ing arch, in Bressay Island, Shetland. 

GIFFEN, quondam conspicuous noble 
castle, 2 miles east-south-east of Beith, 
Ayrshire. It fell in 1838. 

GIFFERTON, village in Collessie parish, 
Fife. 

GIFFNOCK, place, with railway station 
and famous quarry, 1^ mile south of 
Pollockshaws, Eenfrewskire. 

GIFFORD, village and rivulet in Had- 
dingtonshire. The village stands on the 
rivulet, 4 miles south-south-east of Had- 
dington ; has a post office, with money 
order and telegraph departments, under 
Haddington, Establishedand Free churches, 
and 2 public schools with about 169 scholars ; 
and was the birthplace of the Eeformer 
John Knox and Eev. Dr. John Wither- 
spoon. Pop. 382. — The rivulet rises 
among the highest of the Lammermoors, 
and runs about 12 miles windingly north- 
ward to the Tyne, at LJ mile south-west 
of Haddington. 

GIGHA, island and parish in south of 



GIG 



196 



GLR 



ArgylesMre. The island lies 3J mile